History Archive Icon

History Archive

War of 1812

War of 1812 Collection

History Archive - War of 1812 Collection

The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States and its allies on the one hand and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and its own allies in the other. It began when the US declared war in June 1812, and ended when a peace treaty agreed earlier was ratified by the US in February 1815.

From the outbreak of war with Napoleonic France in 1803, Britain had enforced a naval blockade to choke off neutral trade to France, which the US contested as illegal under international law. To man the blockade, Britain pressed merchant sailors into the Royal Navy, including Americans. American sentiment grew increasingly hostile toward Britain due to incidents such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair, five years before the war.

The British were outraged by the Little Belt affair in 1811, in which 11 British sailors died. Britain supplied arms to Native Americans who raided European-American settlers on the American frontier, hindering the expansion of the United States and provoking resentment. On June 18, 1812, President James Madison signed into law the US declaration of war, after heavy pressure from the War Hawks in the US Congress.

With most of its army in Europe fighting Napoleon, Britain adopted a defensive strategy, with offensive operations initially limited to the border and the western frontier along with help from its Native American allies. Opposition to the War of 1812 in the United States affected its prosecution, especially in New England, where it was referred to as "Mr. Madison's War".

US defeats at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Queenston Heights thwarted attempts to seize Upper Canada, improving British morale. US attempts to invade Lower Canada and capture Montreal also failed. In 1813, the US won the Battle of Lake Erie, gaining control of the lake, and they defeated Tecumseh's Confederacy at the Battle of the Thames, defeating Britain's largest Native American ally, a primary war goal.

The US made a final attempt to invade Canada but fought to a draw at the Battle of Lundy's Lane during the summer of 1814. At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded American ports, cutting off trade and allowing the British to raid the coast at will. In 1814, the British burned Washington, but the US later repulsed British attempts to invade New York and Maryland, ending invasions from Canada into the northern and mid-Atlantic states.

In early 1815, after a peace treaty had been signed, but before this news had reached the Americas, the US defeated the British Army near New Orleans, Louisiana. Fighting also took place in Spanish Florida; a two-day battle for the city of Pensacola ended in Spanish surrender. In Britain, there was mounting opposition to wartime taxation, and merchants lobbied for the resumption of trade with the US. With the abdication of Napoleon, Britain's war with France ended and Britain stopped impressment generally. This made moot the issue of American sailor impressment, and removed one of the original causes of the war. The British then increased the strength of their blockade of the United States coast. Attempts to smother American maritime trade failed, however, and soon both sides began to desire peace.

Peace negotiations began in August 1814, and the Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24, 1814. News of the peace finally reached America in February 1815 about the same time as news of the victory at New Orleans. The Americans triumphantly celebrated the restoration of their national honor, leading to the collapse of anti-war sentiment and the beginning of the Era of Good Feelings, a period of national unity. The treaty was unanimously ratified by the US Senate on February 17, 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes.

Available Books


Image Name
The "Niagara" Breaks the English Line
Medal Presented by Congress to Captain Charles Stewart
The Surrender of the "Guerriere"
The "Wasp's" Fight With the "Avon"
The "Constitution" Taking the "Cyane"
The "Penguin" Strikes to the "Hornet"
The "General Armstrong" Repels the English Boats
Medal Presented by Congress to Captain Oliver Hazard Perry
The "Enterprise" Hulling the "Boxer"
The "Constitution" Towing and Kedging
Memorial Medal in Honor of Captain William Burrows
The "Cornwallis" Gaining on the "Hornet"
The "Macedonian" Crossing the Bows of the "United States"
Medal Presented by Congress to Captain Isaac Hull
The "Constitution" Beginning the Action
The "Comet" Passing the English Vessels
The "Peacock" Captures the "Epervier"
The "President" Endeavoring to Escape
The "Peacock" and "Hornet" at Close Quarters
Title Page
Medal Presented by Congress to Captain Thomas Macdonough
Medal Presented by Congress to Captain Stephen Decatur
Medal Presented by Congress to Captain James Lawrence
The "Wasp" Taking the "Reindeer"
Medal Presented by Congress to Lieutenant Edward R. Mccall
The Plight of the English Flagship
The "Chesapeake" Leaving the Harbor
Medal Presented by Congress to Captain William Bainbridge
The "Essex" Being Cut to Pieces
Medal Presented by Congress to Captain Lewis Warrington
Medal Presented by Congress to Captain Johnston Blakeley
The "Macedonian" Raked by the "United States"
Medal Presented by Congress to Captain James Biddle
The "Wasp" Raking the "Frolic"


View All Topics
Sabalico Logo
Sabali Mail Logo
Domain Search Logo
Test Speed Logo
Website On Logo
Code Editor Logo
ASCII Table Logo
HTML Symbols Logo
Emoji Symbols Logo
Encode File Logo
Generator Password Logo
QR Code Generator Logo
Barcode Generator Logo
Online Sign Logo
Dictionary Online Logo
Counter Word Logo
Text Convert Logo
Lorem Ipsum Generator Logo
Sprite Sheet Logo
Resize Image Logo
Image Compress Logo
Image Color Logo
Image Crop Logo
Combine Images Logo
Color Picker Logo
Color Convert Logo
CSS Gradient Logo
To-Do List Logo
Calendar Free Logo
Generator Meme Logo
Word Spinner Logo
Phone Country Logo
Sabalytics Logo
Senty Logo
World Map Logo
SEO Guide Logo
Keyword Tool Logo
What is my IP Logo
My Device Logo
My Browser Logo
My Location Logo
Time Zone Logo
Day Map Logo
My Weather Logo
My Galaxy Logo
The Moon Logo
Periodic Table Logo
rStatistics Logo
Unit Convert Logo
Data Convert Logo
Coordinate Converter Logo
Temperature Convert Logo
2020 Election Logo
Currency Convert Logo
Free Calculator Logo
Finance Calculator Logo
Loan Calculator Logo
Calculator Mortgage Logo
Stock Calculator Logo
Bond Calculator Logo
Tax Calculator Logo
Tip Calculator Logo
Gas Mileage Logo
History of Humanity - History Archive Logo
History of Humanity - History Mysteries Logo
History of Humanity - Ancient Mesopotamia Logo
History of Humanity - Egypt History Logo
History of Humanity - Persian Empire Logo
History of Humanity - Greek History Logo
History of Humanity - Alexander the Great Logo
History of Humanity - Roman History Logo
History of Humanity - Punic Wars Logo
History of Humanity - Golden Age of Piracy Logo
History of Humanity - Revolutionary War Logo
History of Humanity - Mafia History Logo