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History Archive - Science Collection

Science (Lat. scientia, from scire, to learn, know) is a word which, in its broadest sense, is synonymous with learning and knowledge. Early scientific works were not limited by arbitrary scientific fields and many old accounts encompassed disparate fields such as geology, biology, ethnology, zoology and more. In this sense they truly were multidisciplinary and their works form the foundation of our modern field of science today.

The beginnings of physical science are to be sought in the slow and unconscious observation by primitive races of men of natural occurrences, such as the apparent movements of the heavenly bodies, and in the gradually acquired mastery over the rude implements by the aid of which such men strove to increase the security and comfort of their lives. Biological science similarly must have begun with observation of the plants and animals useful to man, and with empirical medicine and surgery. It was only when a considerable progress had been made with ordered knowledge that men began to ask questions about the meaning and causes of the phenomena, and to discern the connexions between them.

In the earliest stage of development it seems that an anthropomorphic or mythological explanation is always assigned to the phenomena of nature. With no clue to trace the regularity of sequence and connexion between those phenomena, an untutored mind inevitably refers the apparently capricious events which succeed each other to the direct and immediate intervention of some unseen being of a nature essentially similar to his own. The sun is the flaming chariot of the sun-god, driven day by day across the heavens; the clouds are cows from which milk descends as nourishing rain on the fruitful earth.

We may regard such myths as childlike fancies, but they were doubtless an advance on the want of all explanation which preceded them; they supplied hypotheses which, besides giving rise to themes of beauty and suggestiveness for poetry and art, played the first and chief part of a scientific hypothesis in pointing the way for further inquiry. Much useful knowledge was acquired and much skill gained in logical analysis before these primitive explanations were proved insufficient. A false theory which can be compared with facts may be more useful at a given stage of development than a true one beyond the comprehension of the time, and incapable of examination by observation or experiment by any means then known. The Newtonian theory of gravitation might be useless to a savage, to whose mind the animistic view of nature brought conviction and helpful ideas, which he could test by experience.

References:

1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 24. pg 396-404

Available Books

Book Title Date
Science - A Journey to the Earth's Interior A Journey to the Earth's Interior 1913
Science - A Journey to the Earth's Interior A Journey to the Earth's Interior 1920
Science - A Practical Treatise on Gas-Light A Practical Treatise on Gas-Light 1815
Science - A Practical Treatise on the Construction of Chimneys A Practical Treatise on the Construction of Chimneys 1826
Science - A Treatise on Navigation by Steam A Treatise on Navigation by Steam 1828
Science - A Treatise on the Art of Brewing A Treatise on the Art of Brewing 1820
Science - Amusement Microscopique Vol. 1 Amusement Microscopique Vol. 1 1764
Science - Amusement Microscopique Vol. 2 Amusement Microscopique Vol. 2 1764
Science - Amusement Microscopique Vol. 3 Amusement Microscopique Vol. 3 1764
Science - Animate Creation Vol. 1 Animate Creation Vol. 1 1885
Science - Animate Creation Vol. 2 Animate Creation Vol. 2 1885
Science - Animate Creation Vol. 3 Animate Creation Vol. 3 1885
Science - Atlas of Meteorology Atlas of Meteorology 1899
Science - Culinary Chemistry Culinary Chemistry 1821
Science - Description of the Process of Manufacturing Coal Gas Description of the Process of Manufacturing Coal Gas 1819
Science - Experiments and Observations on Electricity Experiments and Observations on Electricity 1751
Science - Magnetical Observations in the Arctic Seas Magnetical Observations in the Arctic Seas 1859
Science - Meteorological Observations in the Arctic Seas Meteorological Observations in the Arctic Seas 1859
Science - Museum de la Jeunesse Museum de la Jeunesse 1809
Science - Popular Physical Geology Popular Physical Geology 1853
Science - Porte-Feuille Geographique et Ethnographique [Text] Porte-Feuille Geographique et Ethnographique [Text] 1820
Science - Porte-Feuille Geographique et Ethnographique [Atlas] Porte-Feuille Geographique et Ethnographique [Atlas] 1820
Science - Principles of Geology Vol. 1 Principles of Geology Vol. 1 1830
Science - Principles of Geology Vol. 2 Principles of Geology Vol. 2 1830
Science - Principles of Geology Vol. 3 Principles of Geology Vol. 3 1830
Science - Rational Recreations Vol. 1 Rational Recreations Vol. 1 1787
Science - Rational Recreations Vol. 2 Rational Recreations Vol. 2 1787
Science - Rational Recreations Vol. 3 Rational Recreations Vol. 3 1787
Science - Rational Recreations Vol. 4 Rational Recreations Vol. 4 1787
Science - Remarks on a Review of Symmes' Theory Remarks on a Review of Symmes' Theory 1827
Science - Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas 1866
Science - Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 1 Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 1 1861
Science - Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 2 Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 2 1862
Science - Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 3 Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 3 1863
Science - Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 4 Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 4 1866
Science - Symmes's Theory of Concentric Spheres Symmes's Theory of Concentric Spheres 1826
Science - The Geognosy of the Island St. Helena The Geognosy of the Island St. Helena 1834
Science - The Phantom of the Poles The Phantom of the Poles 1906
Science - Tidal Observations in the Arctic Seas Tidal Observations in the Arctic Seas 1860
Science - Tychonis Brahe Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata Tychonis Brahe Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata 1598

Images

Image Name
Grotte de Fingal
[Assorted Facial Profiles - III]
Illustrations of the Meterology of India and High Asia [IV]
Hottentots
Soft Turtle
The Valley of the Yarkand River Downwards from Dera Bullu in Turkistan
Kalmouks
Woodcock
Course de Cheveaux Anglaises
Carte du Dannemarck
Group of Finches
Interior of the Buddhistic Temple of the Monastery Mangnang in Gnari Khorsum
The Jhils of Bengal at High Water
Panorama Profiles [VI]
Carte physique de la Turquie
Fort and Lines of Udelguri in the Province of Darrang Assam
Peuples du Caucase
Division astronomique de la Terre
he Bias Between Amritsar and Jalander Panjab
Leh the Capital of Ladak in Western Tibet
Carte Physique de l'Amerique Meridionale
Magnetic Survey of India and High Asia [II]
Kamtchadales
Book Display I
The Flats of the Hiron Valley from the Barer Plateau near Kattingi Central India
Book Display II
Carte Physique de l'Amerique Septentrionale
Hindous
Carte Physique de l'Allemagne
Carte Physique du Monde Connu des Anciens
Carte de la Suede de la Norwege
The Ganges near Patna Western Bengal
Illustrations of the Meterology of India and High Asia [III]
Mallard Duck
Habitans de Quito
Tiger
Isles Sandwich. Mort du Capt. Cook
Carte Politique du Monde Connu des Anciens
Russes
Panorama of the Lake and the Gardens near Srinagar Kashmir Northern Aspect
Panorama Profiles [V]
African Cobra or Haje and Gazelles
Sea Anemones
Silk Work and Moths
Titmice
[Planetary Orbits Diagram]
La fontaine de Top-Hane a Constantinople
Rhinoceros
Palm Grove and Singhalese Habitations near Galle Ceylon
Aurore Boreale
Carte physique de l'Espagne
Alluvial High Ground On the Western Border of the Sindh Sager Duab Panjab
[Assorted Facial Profiles - IV]
The Drift Sands in the Interior of the Sindh Sager Duab Panjab
Divisions de la Terre de Chanaan ou Terre Promise
Cicadae Lantern Fly etc.
Erycinids
Royaume des Pay-Bas
Porcupine
[Assorted Facial Profiles - II]
Chimpanzee
Cochinchinois
Gas Works
Carte politique de l'Asie
Carte Physique et Agricole de la France [I]
The Summit of Parisnath in Bahar
Tableau des principales Hauteurs du Globe
Book Display II
Proportion des Planetes et du Soleil
Panorama Profiles [I] the Himalaya of Bhutan Sikkim and Nepal
Egypte
Index Map of Routes
Back Cover
Combat de Taureaux en Espagne
Carte Physique de l'Afrique
Part IV Colored Wrapper
Part II Colored Wrapper
Panorama Profiles [VII]
Front Cover
Panorama Profiles [III]
Weaver Birds
Angle facial
Polonais
Front Cover
The Salt Lake Tso Mitbal in Pangkong Tibet
[Assorted Facial Profiles - V]
Carte d'Islande
[Zodiac Diagram]
[Horizon Diagram]
Chute du Niagara
Suisses
Title Page
[Assorted Facial Profiles - I]
Carte Physique et Agricole de la France [II]
Book Display I
Dipper Wagtails and Wrens

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