History Archive Icon

History Archive

Science

Science Collection

History Archive - Science Collection

Science (Lat. scientia, from scire, to learn, know) is a word which, in its broadest sense, is synonymous with learning and knowledge. Early scientific works were not limited by arbitrary scientific fields and many old accounts encompassed disparate fields such as geology, biology, ethnology, zoology and more. In this sense they truly were multidisciplinary and their works form the foundation of our modern field of science today.

The beginnings of physical science are to be sought in the slow and unconscious observation by primitive races of men of natural occurrences, such as the apparent movements of the heavenly bodies, and in the gradually acquired mastery over the rude implements by the aid of which such men strove to increase the security and comfort of their lives. Biological science similarly must have begun with observation of the plants and animals useful to man, and with empirical medicine and surgery. It was only when a considerable progress had been made with ordered knowledge that men began to ask questions about the meaning and causes of the phenomena, and to discern the connexions between them.

In the earliest stage of development it seems that an anthropomorphic or mythological explanation is always assigned to the phenomena of nature. With no clue to trace the regularity of sequence and connexion between those phenomena, an untutored mind inevitably refers the apparently capricious events which succeed each other to the direct and immediate intervention of some unseen being of a nature essentially similar to his own. The sun is the flaming chariot of the sun-god, driven day by day across the heavens; the clouds are cows from which milk descends as nourishing rain on the fruitful earth.

We may regard such myths as childlike fancies, but they were doubtless an advance on the want of all explanation which preceded them; they supplied hypotheses which, besides giving rise to themes of beauty and suggestiveness for poetry and art, played the first and chief part of a scientific hypothesis in pointing the way for further inquiry. Much useful knowledge was acquired and much skill gained in logical analysis before these primitive explanations were proved insufficient. A false theory which can be compared with facts may be more useful at a given stage of development than a true one beyond the comprehension of the time, and incapable of examination by observation or experiment by any means then known. The Newtonian theory of gravitation might be useless to a savage, to whose mind the animistic view of nature brought conviction and helpful ideas, which he could test by experience.

References:

1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 24. pg 396-404

Available Books

Book Title Date
Science - A Journey to the Earth's Interior A Journey to the Earth's Interior 1913
Science - A Journey to the Earth's Interior A Journey to the Earth's Interior 1920
Science - A Practical Treatise on Gas-Light A Practical Treatise on Gas-Light 1815
Science - A Practical Treatise on the Construction of Chimneys A Practical Treatise on the Construction of Chimneys 1826
Science - A Treatise on Navigation by Steam A Treatise on Navigation by Steam 1828
Science - A Treatise on the Art of Brewing A Treatise on the Art of Brewing 1820
Science - Amusement Microscopique Vol. 1 Amusement Microscopique Vol. 1 1764
Science - Amusement Microscopique Vol. 2 Amusement Microscopique Vol. 2 1764
Science - Amusement Microscopique Vol. 3 Amusement Microscopique Vol. 3 1764
Science - Animate Creation Vol. 1 Animate Creation Vol. 1 1885
Science - Animate Creation Vol. 2 Animate Creation Vol. 2 1885
Science - Animate Creation Vol. 3 Animate Creation Vol. 3 1885
Science - Atlas of Meteorology Atlas of Meteorology 1899
Science - Culinary Chemistry Culinary Chemistry 1821
Science - Description of the Process of Manufacturing Coal Gas Description of the Process of Manufacturing Coal Gas 1819
Science - Experiments and Observations on Electricity Experiments and Observations on Electricity 1751
Science - Magnetical Observations in the Arctic Seas Magnetical Observations in the Arctic Seas 1859
Science - Meteorological Observations in the Arctic Seas Meteorological Observations in the Arctic Seas 1859
Science - Museum de la Jeunesse Museum de la Jeunesse 1809
Science - Popular Physical Geology Popular Physical Geology 1853
Science - Porte-Feuille Geographique et Ethnographique [Text] Porte-Feuille Geographique et Ethnographique [Text] 1820
Science - Porte-Feuille Geographique et Ethnographique [Atlas] Porte-Feuille Geographique et Ethnographique [Atlas] 1820
Science - Principles of Geology Vol. 1 Principles of Geology Vol. 1 1830
Science - Principles of Geology Vol. 2 Principles of Geology Vol. 2 1830
Science - Principles of Geology Vol. 3 Principles of Geology Vol. 3 1830
Science - Rational Recreations Vol. 1 Rational Recreations Vol. 1 1787
Science - Rational Recreations Vol. 2 Rational Recreations Vol. 2 1787
Science - Rational Recreations Vol. 3 Rational Recreations Vol. 3 1787
Science - Rational Recreations Vol. 4 Rational Recreations Vol. 4 1787
Science - Remarks on a Review of Symmes' Theory Remarks on a Review of Symmes' Theory 1827
Science - Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas 1866
Science - Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 1 Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 1 1861
Science - Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 2 Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 2 1862
Science - Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 3 Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 3 1863
Science - Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 4 Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 4 1866
Science - Symmes's Theory of Concentric Spheres Symmes's Theory of Concentric Spheres 1826
Science - The Geognosy of the Island St. Helena The Geognosy of the Island St. Helena 1834
Science - The Phantom of the Poles The Phantom of the Poles 1906
Science - Tidal Observations in the Arctic Seas Tidal Observations in the Arctic Seas 1860
Science - Tychonis Brahe Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata Tychonis Brahe Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata 1598

Images

Image Name
The Salt Lake Tsomoriri in Rupchu Western Tibet
Alluvial Deposits in the Brahmaputra Above Rakusni Hill Assam
[Lunar Map of the Moon]
The Chain of the Kuenluen from Sumgal in Turkistan
Carte Physique du Monde Connu des Anciens
Panorama Profiles [II]
Panorama Profiles [VI]
The Mahanadi River in the Rainy Season Central Bengal
Resplendent Trogon
Palm Grove and Singhalese Habitations near Galle Ceylon
Carte des principales Varietes de l'espece humaine selon le systeme de Blumenbach
Front Cover
Carte politique de l'Espagne
The Peaks and Glaciers of the Sasser Pass in Nuba Tibet [II]
Gaurisankar or Mount Everest in the Himalaya of Nepal
Carte Physique et Agricole de la France [I]
Book Display II
Puma
Negres du Senegal
Carte de la Suede de la Norwege
Illustrations of the Meterology of India and High Asia [IV]
Lammergeyer
Title Page
Front Cover
Crab Spider or Matoudou
[Planetary Orbits Diagram]
Carte d'Islande
Stag or Red Deer
La fontaine de Top-Hane a Constantinople
Titmice
The Chorkonda Glacier in Balti Tibet
Back Cover
The Drift Sands in the Interior of the Sindh Sager Duab Panjab
Title Page
Carte Physique et Agricole de la France [II]
Mappe Monde
Facsimile of a Bhutia Map
Cicadae Lantern Fly etc.
The Buddhist Monastery Himis near Leh in Ladak
The Jhils of Bengal at High Water
Egypte
Part II Colored Wrapper
The Ganges near Patna Western Bengal
Lappons
Kamtchadales
Panorama Profiles [III]
La Ville de Lichtenfels en Groenlande
Swarm of Migratory Locusts
Carte physique de l'Italie
The Salt Lake Tso Gam in Eastern Ladak Tibet
Persans
Europe en 1817
Grotte de Fingal
Proportion des Planetes et du Soleil
Fort and Lines of Udelguri in the Province of Darrang Assam
Mallard Duck
Magnetic Survey of India and High Asia [III]
[Assorted Facial Profiles - II]
Book Display I
Latitude / Longitude / Les Climats / Les Zones etc
Carte Politique de l'Amerique Meridionale
Habitans d'Oonalashka
Carte Physique de l'Amerique Septentrionale
[Zodiac Diagram]
Aurore Boreale
Rose de Vents
Porcupine
Habitans de Nukahiwa l'une des Marquises
Back Cover
Eruption du Vesuve en 1810
The Jhilum or Behut in the Panjab
Avalanche
Carte Physique de l'Afrique
Chillingham Cattle
Woodcock
Panorama of the Lake and the Gardens near Srinagar Kashmir Northern Aspect
Colored Wrapper Front Cover
Italiens
Gas-Light Apparatus
Hottentots
Chute du Niagara
Interior of the Buddhistic Temple of the Monastery Mangnang in Gnari Khorsum
[Assorted Facial Profiles - IV]
Part III Colored Wrapper
Weaver Birds
Habitans de la nouvelle Zeelande
Carte physique de l'Asie
[Spheres]
Panorama Profiles [I] the Himalaya of Bhutan Sikkim and Nepal
The Salt Lake Kiuk Kiol in the Karakash Valley Turkistan
Paradise Flycatchers
[Angle of the Sun Diagram]
Carte physique de l'Espagne
Part IV Colored Wrapper
Panorama Profiles [VII]
Illustrations of the Meterology of India and High Asia [II]

Topics

View All Topics
History of Humanity - History Archive Logo
History of Humanity - History Mysteries Logo
History of Humanity - Ancient Mesopotamia Logo
History of Humanity - Egypt History Logo
History of Humanity - Persian Empire Logo
History of Humanity - Greek History Logo
History of Humanity - Alexander the Great Logo
History of Humanity - Roman History Logo
History of Humanity - Punic Wars Logo
History of Humanity - Golden Age of Piracy Logo
History of Humanity - Revolutionary War Logo
History of Humanity - Mafia History Logo