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History Archive - Science Collection

Science (Lat. scientia, from scire, to learn, know) is a word which, in its broadest sense, is synonymous with learning and knowledge. Early scientific works were not limited by arbitrary scientific fields and many old accounts encompassed disparate fields such as geology, biology, ethnology, zoology and more. In this sense they truly were multidisciplinary and their works form the foundation of our modern field of science today.

The beginnings of physical science are to be sought in the slow and unconscious observation by primitive races of men of natural occurrences, such as the apparent movements of the heavenly bodies, and in the gradually acquired mastery over the rude implements by the aid of which such men strove to increase the security and comfort of their lives. Biological science similarly must have begun with observation of the plants and animals useful to man, and with empirical medicine and surgery. It was only when a considerable progress had been made with ordered knowledge that men began to ask questions about the meaning and causes of the phenomena, and to discern the connexions between them.

In the earliest stage of development it seems that an anthropomorphic or mythological explanation is always assigned to the phenomena of nature. With no clue to trace the regularity of sequence and connexion between those phenomena, an untutored mind inevitably refers the apparently capricious events which succeed each other to the direct and immediate intervention of some unseen being of a nature essentially similar to his own. The sun is the flaming chariot of the sun-god, driven day by day across the heavens; the clouds are cows from which milk descends as nourishing rain on the fruitful earth.

We may regard such myths as childlike fancies, but they were doubtless an advance on the want of all explanation which preceded them; they supplied hypotheses which, besides giving rise to themes of beauty and suggestiveness for poetry and art, played the first and chief part of a scientific hypothesis in pointing the way for further inquiry. Much useful knowledge was acquired and much skill gained in logical analysis before these primitive explanations were proved insufficient. A false theory which can be compared with facts may be more useful at a given stage of development than a true one beyond the comprehension of the time, and incapable of examination by observation or experiment by any means then known. The Newtonian theory of gravitation might be useless to a savage, to whose mind the animistic view of nature brought conviction and helpful ideas, which he could test by experience.

References:

1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 24. pg 396-404

Available Books

Book Title Date
Science - A Journey to the Earth's Interior A Journey to the Earth's Interior 1913
Science - A Journey to the Earth's Interior A Journey to the Earth's Interior 1920
Science - A Practical Treatise on Gas-Light A Practical Treatise on Gas-Light 1815
Science - A Practical Treatise on the Construction of Chimneys A Practical Treatise on the Construction of Chimneys 1826
Science - A Treatise on Navigation by Steam A Treatise on Navigation by Steam 1828
Science - A Treatise on the Art of Brewing A Treatise on the Art of Brewing 1820
Science - Amusement Microscopique Vol. 1 Amusement Microscopique Vol. 1 1764
Science - Amusement Microscopique Vol. 2 Amusement Microscopique Vol. 2 1764
Science - Amusement Microscopique Vol. 3 Amusement Microscopique Vol. 3 1764
Science - Animate Creation Vol. 1 Animate Creation Vol. 1 1885
Science - Animate Creation Vol. 2 Animate Creation Vol. 2 1885
Science - Animate Creation Vol. 3 Animate Creation Vol. 3 1885
Science - Atlas of Meteorology Atlas of Meteorology 1899
Science - Culinary Chemistry Culinary Chemistry 1821
Science - Description of the Process of Manufacturing Coal Gas Description of the Process of Manufacturing Coal Gas 1819
Science - Experiments and Observations on Electricity Experiments and Observations on Electricity 1751
Science - Magnetical Observations in the Arctic Seas Magnetical Observations in the Arctic Seas 1859
Science - Meteorological Observations in the Arctic Seas Meteorological Observations in the Arctic Seas 1859
Science - Museum de la Jeunesse Museum de la Jeunesse 1809
Science - Popular Physical Geology Popular Physical Geology 1853
Science - Porte-Feuille Geographique et Ethnographique [Text] Porte-Feuille Geographique et Ethnographique [Text] 1820
Science - Porte-Feuille Geographique et Ethnographique [Atlas] Porte-Feuille Geographique et Ethnographique [Atlas] 1820
Science - Principles of Geology Vol. 1 Principles of Geology Vol. 1 1830
Science - Principles of Geology Vol. 2 Principles of Geology Vol. 2 1830
Science - Principles of Geology Vol. 3 Principles of Geology Vol. 3 1830
Science - Rational Recreations Vol. 1 Rational Recreations Vol. 1 1787
Science - Rational Recreations Vol. 2 Rational Recreations Vol. 2 1787
Science - Rational Recreations Vol. 3 Rational Recreations Vol. 3 1787
Science - Rational Recreations Vol. 4 Rational Recreations Vol. 4 1787
Science - Remarks on a Review of Symmes' Theory Remarks on a Review of Symmes' Theory 1827
Science - Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas 1866
Science - Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 1 Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 1 1861
Science - Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 2 Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 2 1862
Science - Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 3 Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 3 1863
Science - Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 4 Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Vol. 4 1866
Science - Symmes's Theory of Concentric Spheres Symmes's Theory of Concentric Spheres 1826
Science - The Geognosy of the Island St. Helena The Geognosy of the Island St. Helena 1834
Science - The Phantom of the Poles The Phantom of the Poles 1906
Science - Tidal Observations in the Arctic Seas Tidal Observations in the Arctic Seas 1860
Science - Tychonis Brahe Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata Tychonis Brahe Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata 1598

Images

Image Name
Interior of the Buddhistic Temple of the Monastery Mangnang in Gnari Khorsum
Habitans de Quito
Panorama Profiles [VII]
Carte de la Russie
Egypte
The Jhilum or Behut in the Panjab
Harvest Mouse
Combat de Taureaux en Espagne
African Cobra or Haje and Gazelles
Cane Suspension Bridge Over the Temshang River in the Khassia Hills
Title Page
Carte politique de l'Italie
Divisions de la Terre de Chanaan ou Terre Promise
he Bias Between Amritsar and Jalander Panjab
Carte Physique de l'Allemagne
Carte Physique du Monde Connu des Anciens
Panorama of the Lake and the Gardens near Srinagar Kashmir Northern Aspect
Titmice
Part II Colored Wrapper
Cicadae Lantern Fly etc.
Islandais
Crab Spider or Matoudou
Tableau des principales Hauteurs du Globe
The Chorkonda Glacier in Balti Tibet
Carte Physique de l'Amerique Septentrionale
Chillingham Cattle
Kamtchadales
Fort and Lines of Udelguri in the Province of Darrang Assam
[Assorted Facial Profiles - III]
Soft Turtle
Carte d'Islande
Proportion des Planetes et du Soleil
Front Cover
Aurore Boreale
The Kunda Range in the Nilgiris Southern India
Book Display II
Negres du Senegal
Russes
Swarm of Migratory Locusts
Index Map of Routes
Grotte de Fingal
Illustrations of the Meterology of India and High Asia [III]
Part III Colored Wrapper
Habitans de la nouvelle Zeelande
Village of Mangeldai in Assam
Habitans d'Oonalashka
Palm Grove and Singhalese Habitations near Galle Ceylon
Stag or Red Deer
Figures & Diagrams Related to Gas-Works [I]
Facsimile of a Bhutia Map
Hermit Crabs
Central Assam and the Brahmaputra Jungles from Ogri Hill near Tezpur
Carte physique de l'Italie
Kalmouks
Suisses
Sea Anemones
Oceanie
Hottentots
Magnetic Survey of India and High Asia [II]
The Summit of Kanchinjinga in the Himalaya of Sikkim
Weaver Birds
Eruption du Vesuve en 1810
Tiger
Routes in High Asia
Carte Phisique de la Suisse
Stag Beetle and Longicorn Beetle
Angle facial
Carte Physique de l'Europe
[Lunar Map of the Moon]
Habitans d'Ulieta
The Satlej Valley and the Environs of Rampur in the Western Himalaya
Carte Physique de l'Amerique Meridionale
Panorama Profiles [VI]
Back Cover
Latitude / Longitude / Les Climats / Les Zones etc
Part IV Colored Wrapper
Book Display I
Title Page
Mappe Monde
Gas-Light Apparatus
Rhinoceros
Holothurians and Sea Star
Carte du Dannemarck
Puma
Carte politique de la Turquie
Book Display II
Alluvial High Ground On the Western Border of the Sindh Sager Duab Panjab
Habitans de Nukahiwa l'une des Marquises
Carte Politique de l'Amerique Septentrionale
Carte Politique du Monde Connu des Anciens
Resplendent Trogon
Carte Politique de l'Amerique Meridionale
Course de Cheveaux Anglaises
Carte physique de la Turquie
Mallard Duck
Isles Sandwich. Mort du Capt. Cook

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