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Mountaineering Collection

History Archive - Mountaineering Collection

The awakening of man's interest in mountains is chiefly due to Rousseau, though earlier writers, while approaching them as scientists, were also susceptible to their charm. This two-fold interest led Saussure to incite J. Balmat to find a way to the summit of Mont Blanc in 1786 and to accompany him thither in 1787. From that ascent alpinism is generally dated. In London in 1857 was formed the first Alpine Club to foster "the community of feeling amongst those who in the life of the High Alps have shared the same enjoyments, the same labours, and the same dangers." This idea, in a modified form, was taken up throughout Continental Europe and advocated with such enthusiasm that more than 100,000 persons of both sexes are now enrolled in the various alpine societies.

The largest of these are the German and Austrian (founded in 1862), about 55,000 members; Swiss (1863), 7000; Italian (1863), 54,000; and French (1874), 6000. In America three strong societies came into being: the Appalachian Mountain Club (q.v.) in Boston (1876), 1300 members; the Sierra Club (1892) in San Francisco, 800; and the 'Mazamas' (1894) in Portland, Ore. In these derivative societies eligibility is based upon a love of nature and of the mountain in particular rather than on alpinism proper, though most of them contain a contingent of expert climbers. The American Alpine Club (1902), with its home in Philadelphia, aims to revert to the original type, but adds to its field polar exploration and the study of glaciers.

Thus cultivated, Alpine climbing has attained almost to a science. Its principles are set forth in extended manuals, such as Dent's Mountaineering, Badminton Library (London, 1892). It has called into existence the class of professional guides—Swiss, Tyrolese, and Italian—whose skill far exceeds that of the best amateurs. Their aid, always expedient in tours above snow line, is indispensable in attacks upon giant peaks in distant lands, such as have frequently been made within recent times.

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List of Mountains


Consult: J. Forbes, Travels Through the Alps (Edinburgh, 1843); A. W. Moore, The Alps in 1864, from MS. copy (Edinburgh, 1902); J. Ball and E. S. Kennedy, Peaks, Passes, and Glaciers (London, 1859-62); G. Studer, Ueber Eis und Schnee (Bern, 1869-71); J. Tyndall, Mountaineering in 1861 (London, 1862); id., Hours of Exercise in the Alps (ib., 1871); L. Stephen, The Playground of Europe (ib., 1871); E. Whymper, Scrambles Among the Alps (ib., 1871): id., Travels in the Great Andes of the Equator (ib., 1892); C. T. Dent, Above the Snow-line (ib., 1885); Clarence King, Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada (Boston, 1886); W. M. Conway, Climbing in the Karaoram-Himalayas (London, 1894); id., The Alps from End to End (ib., 1895); id., The Bolivian Andes (New York, 1901); A. F. Mummery, My Climbs in the Alps and Caucasus (ib., 1895); E. A. Fitzgerald, Climbs in the New Zealand Alps (ib., 1896); id., The Highest Andes (ib., 1899); F. M. B. Workman, In the Ice World of the Himalaya (New York, 1898); C. E. Mathews, The Annals of Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn (London, 1898); F. De Filippi, The Ascent of Mount Saint Elias (London, 1900); W. D. Wilcox, Camping in the Canadian Rockies (New York, 1900); J. N. Collie, Climbing in the Himalayas and Other Mountains (Edinburgh, 1902). For recent American mountaineering, consult Appalachia, vols, i.-ix. (Boston, 1876-1902), and Sierra Club Bulletin, vols. i.-iii. (San Francisco, 1893-1903).

The New International Encyclopaedia (1905)

Available Books


Image Name
Furggen Glacier Icefall
Sasso di Pelmo from Monte Zucco
The Trugberg
Approach to Saint Sauveur
At Bignasco
After the Sunset
Lago di Cavloccio
View of the Trift Pass from the Gornergrat
Rafte Sund Lofodden
The Chateau of Henri Quatre at Pau
Junnoo from below Soubaboom
The Severn Peaks of the Blumlisalp
Cascade of Lutour, as seen from the Bath of La Ralliere
The Dent du Midi from the Valley of the Rhone
Entrance to Saint Sauveur
Lucerne and Lake from the Drei Linden
The Bridge over the Gave at Betharem
The Jungfrau from Interlaken
Locarno from the Banks of the Lake
Title Page
The Glacier de Trient
The Desolate Heights of Singaleelah
Back Cover
The Corpus Christi Procession to the Hofkirche of St. Leodegar
The Aiguilles Verte and Du Dru from near Chamouni
The Opening of the Val de Tignes
Bern from the North-West
Village of St Marie in the Valley of Campan
Title Page
Looking down the Val Formazza from Tosa
Locarno at Sunset, and North End of Lago Maggiore
Pallanza - Sunset
Our camp ascending the snow fields
Asconia - on Lago Maggiore
Eiger, Monch, and Jungfrau from Scherzligen, near Thun
Muottas Muraigl
Fluelen at end of Lake of Uri, South Arm of Lake of Lucerne
The Lyskamm
Title Page
In the Val Bavona
Das Hochgebirge von Grindelwald
Lago di Bitabergo
Monte-Rosa von der Pedriolo Alpe [II]
Boden and Gorner
Title Page
Title Page
The Wetterhorn
The Chalet on the Bundalp
View from the Chalet de Villard
Bernese Alps from the Oldenhorn to the Wildstrubel
The "Schnapsfluh"
Back Cover
Storm coming up over Lake of Lucerne
The Jungfrau from the Kleiner Scheidegg
Evening in Zermatt
Marjelen See and Great Aletsch Glacier
A Torrent Val Tournanche
The Velan from near Aosta
Bern from the Schanzli
Castello Pietra, Primiero
Map of the Glaciers of the Ymesfield in Lat. 60', 40'
Vaarstige Dovre-Field
Crevasses on the Mer de Grace
Map of the South Eastern Alps Showing the Routes Followed by the Authors
The Aletschhorn
Storm Clouds over the Lake of Thun
Title Page
Maloja from the Road to Isola
Piz della Margna from Crestalta
Village of Cauterets
Sunrise on Cresta, Celerina, and Samaden
Cloud-burst over Lucerne
Mont Blanc and Glacier du Géant from the Jardin
The Pier at Seherzligen, Lake of Thun - Evening
Rimpfischorn and Strahlhorn from the Riffelberg
The Matterhorn
Ascent of the Schwarze Glacier
Title Page
In the Valley of Aosta
Monte Civita and Lake and Village of Alleghe
Back Cover
Piz Bernina and the Morteratsch Glacier
The Madonna del Sasso, Locarno
The Road from Vitznau to Gersau
Bains de Loueche and Leuck Bad
Morgenhorn and Wilde Frau from the Bundalp
Erster Upsrung des Hinter Rheins
Klosters with Kanarthorn and Weisshorn
Map of the Range of Monte Rosa
Weisshorn and Matterhorn from Fiescheralp
Monte Viso from the South
Bridge of Sia
Thunderstorm breaking over Pallanza
Piz Albana and Piz Julier from the Statzersee
Pallanza - Evening


Map Name
Das Hochgebirge von Grindelwald - Karte des Hochgebirge von Grindelwald (1865)
The Doldenhorn and Weisse Frau - Map of the Blumlisalp and Doldenhorn Group (1863)
The Dolomite Mountains - Geological Map of the District of Predazzo, St. Cassian and the Seisser Alp (1864)
The Dolomite Mountains - Map of the South Eastern Alps Showing the Routes Followed by the Authors (1864)
Norway and its Glaciers - Map of Norway (1853)


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