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Mountaineering

Mountaineering Collection

History Archive - Mountaineering Collection

The awakening of man's interest in mountains is chiefly due to Rousseau, though earlier writers, while approaching them as scientists, were also susceptible to their charm. This two-fold interest led Saussure to incite J. Balmat to find a way to the summit of Mont Blanc in 1786 and to accompany him thither in 1787. From that ascent alpinism is generally dated. In London in 1857 was formed the first Alpine Club to foster "the community of feeling amongst those who in the life of the High Alps have shared the same enjoyments, the same labours, and the same dangers." This idea, in a modified form, was taken up throughout Continental Europe and advocated with such enthusiasm that more than 100,000 persons of both sexes are now enrolled in the various alpine societies.

The largest of these are the German and Austrian (founded in 1862), about 55,000 members; Swiss (1863), 7000; Italian (1863), 54,000; and French (1874), 6000. In America three strong societies came into being: the Appalachian Mountain Club (q.v.) in Boston (1876), 1300 members; the Sierra Club (1892) in San Francisco, 800; and the 'Mazamas' (1894) in Portland, Ore. In these derivative societies eligibility is based upon a love of nature and of the mountain in particular rather than on alpinism proper, though most of them contain a contingent of expert climbers. The American Alpine Club (1902), with its home in Philadelphia, aims to revert to the original type, but adds to its field polar exploration and the study of glaciers.

Thus cultivated, Alpine climbing has attained almost to a science. Its principles are set forth in extended manuals, such as Dent's Mountaineering, Badminton Library (London, 1892). It has called into existence the class of professional guides—Swiss, Tyrolese, and Italian—whose skill far exceeds that of the best amateurs. Their aid, always expedient in tours above snow line, is indispensable in attacks upon giant peaks in distant lands, such as have frequently been made within recent times.

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List of Mountains

References:

Consult: J. Forbes, Travels Through the Alps (Edinburgh, 1843); A. W. Moore, The Alps in 1864, from MS. copy (Edinburgh, 1902); J. Ball and E. S. Kennedy, Peaks, Passes, and Glaciers (London, 1859-62); G. Studer, Ueber Eis und Schnee (Bern, 1869-71); J. Tyndall, Mountaineering in 1861 (London, 1862); id., Hours of Exercise in the Alps (ib., 1871); L. Stephen, The Playground of Europe (ib., 1871); E. Whymper, Scrambles Among the Alps (ib., 1871): id., Travels in the Great Andes of the Equator (ib., 1892); C. T. Dent, Above the Snow-line (ib., 1885); Clarence King, Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada (Boston, 1886); W. M. Conway, Climbing in the Karaoram-Himalayas (London, 1894); id., The Alps from End to End (ib., 1895); id., The Bolivian Andes (New York, 1901); A. F. Mummery, My Climbs in the Alps and Caucasus (ib., 1895); E. A. Fitzgerald, Climbs in the New Zealand Alps (ib., 1896); id., The Highest Andes (ib., 1899); F. M. B. Workman, In the Ice World of the Himalaya (New York, 1898); C. E. Mathews, The Annals of Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn (London, 1898); F. De Filippi, The Ascent of Mount Saint Elias (London, 1900); W. D. Wilcox, Camping in the Canadian Rockies (New York, 1900); J. N. Collie, Climbing in the Himalayas and Other Mountains (Edinburgh, 1902). For recent American mountaineering, consult Appalachia, vols, i.-ix. (Boston, 1876-1902), and Sierra Club Bulletin, vols. i.-iii. (San Francisco, 1893-1903).

The New International Encyclopaedia (1905)

Available Books

Images

Image Name
Kranzberg - Rotthalhorn - and Jungfrau : Sunset
Pallanza - Evening
Locarno from the Banks of the Lake
Near Courmayeur Cloud Streamers
Pilatus and Lake of Lucerne from the Slopes of the Rigi
Looking over Lucerne from the Drei Linden
Asconia - on Lago Maggiore
Church and Village of Gavarnie
A Torrent Val Tournanche
Storm coming up over Lake of Lucerne
Cascade of Lutour, as seen from the Bath of La Ralliere
The Corpus Christi Procession to the Hofkirche of St. Leodegar
The Jungfrau from the Kleiner Scheidegg
Illustrated Title Page
The Castle of Chillon
Nursyng and Pundeem from Soubahgoom - Evening
Title Page
The Glacier de Trient
Winter
The "Schnapsfluh"
Morgenhorn and Wilde Frau from the Bundalp
Erster Upsrung des Hinter Rheins
Weisshorn and Matterhorn from Fiescheralp
The Dent du Midi from the Valley of the Rhone
Title Page
Chatillon, Val d'Aosta
The Aiguilles Verte and Du Dru from near Chamouni
Approach to Saint Sauveur
Piz Albana and Piz Julier in Winter
Map Range of Mont Blanc
The Matterhorn
Front Cover
Monte-Rosa von der Pedriolo Alpe [II]
Monte Viso from the Col de la Croix
Front Cover
Village of Cauterets
Lucerne and Lake from the Drei Linden
Francis Devouassoud
Zmutt-Gletscher am Fuss des Matterhorns
Storm Clouds over the Lake of Thun
Rimpfischorn and Strahlhorn from the Riffelberg
Fiescherhorn and Lower Grindelwald Glacier
The Severn Peaks of the Blumlisalp
Title Page
Looking down the Aletsch Glacier from Concordia Hut
Front Cover
Thunderstorm breaking over Pallanza
Ascent of the Schwarze Glacier
Vaarstige Dovre-Field
Vitznau and Lake of Lucerne
Title Page
Distant Mountains of the Pyrenees as seen from Villeneuve de Marsan
Looking down the Val Formazza from Tosa
View of the Trift Pass from the Gornergrat
Val Fex
At Meiringen
In the Valley of Aosta
Village of Pierre-Fitte
Sils Baselgia
Back Cover
Deodunga, Mt. Everest - Sunrise
Furggen Glacier Icefall
Our camp ascending the snow fields
A Corner of the Town of Altdorf
View from the Promenade at St Sauveur
Haymakers in the Val Maggia
Bains de Loueche and Leuck Bad
Suphelle Glacier, Fjaerland
Kinchinjunga and Pundeem by Moonlight
The Grand Paradise from near Cogne
The Langkofel and Plattkogel from the Seisser Alp
View of the Bernese Alps from the Gurten, near Bern
The Palu Glacier
Map of Norway
Title Page
Mont Blanc from above Finhaut
The Trugberg
View from the Chalet de Villard
Klosters with Kanarthorn and Weisshorn
Geological Map of the District of Predazzo, St. Cassian and the Seisser Alp
The Dent du Midi from near Champery
The Aletschhorn
Das Hochgebirge von Grindelwald
Title Page
Cascade of L'Escoubous
Cascades & Village of Grip
The Opening of the Val de Tignes
The Grosser Aletsch-Firn from Concordia Hut
Lago di Cavloccio
View to the North
The Pier at Seherzligen, Lake of Thun - Evening
The Dent Blanche from the Riffelberg
Entrance to Saint Sauveur
Maloja from the Road to Isola
Title Page
[Untitled]

Maps

Map Name
The Doldenhorn and Weisse Frau - Map of the Blumlisalp and Doldenhorn Group (1863)
Das Hochgebirge von Grindelwald - Karte des Hochgebirge von Grindelwald (1865)
Norway and its Glaciers - Map of Norway (1853)
The Dolomite Mountains - Geological Map of the District of Predazzo, St. Cassian and the Seisser Alp (1864)
The Dolomite Mountains - Map of the South Eastern Alps Showing the Routes Followed by the Authors (1864)

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