History Archive Icon

History Archive


Mountaineering Collection

History Archive - Mountaineering Collection

The awakening of man's interest in mountains is chiefly due to Rousseau, though earlier writers, while approaching them as scientists, were also susceptible to their charm. This two-fold interest led Saussure to incite J. Balmat to find a way to the summit of Mont Blanc in 1786 and to accompany him thither in 1787. From that ascent alpinism is generally dated. In London in 1857 was formed the first Alpine Club to foster "the community of feeling amongst those who in the life of the High Alps have shared the same enjoyments, the same labours, and the same dangers." This idea, in a modified form, was taken up throughout Continental Europe and advocated with such enthusiasm that more than 100,000 persons of both sexes are now enrolled in the various alpine societies.

The largest of these are the German and Austrian (founded in 1862), about 55,000 members; Swiss (1863), 7000; Italian (1863), 54,000; and French (1874), 6000. In America three strong societies came into being: the Appalachian Mountain Club (q.v.) in Boston (1876), 1300 members; the Sierra Club (1892) in San Francisco, 800; and the 'Mazamas' (1894) in Portland, Ore. In these derivative societies eligibility is based upon a love of nature and of the mountain in particular rather than on alpinism proper, though most of them contain a contingent of expert climbers. The American Alpine Club (1902), with its home in Philadelphia, aims to revert to the original type, but adds to its field polar exploration and the study of glaciers.

Thus cultivated, Alpine climbing has attained almost to a science. Its principles are set forth in extended manuals, such as Dent's Mountaineering, Badminton Library (London, 1892). It has called into existence the class of professional guides—Swiss, Tyrolese, and Italian—whose skill far exceeds that of the best amateurs. Their aid, always expedient in tours above snow line, is indispensable in attacks upon giant peaks in distant lands, such as have frequently been made within recent times.

+ Read More

List of Mountains


Consult: J. Forbes, Travels Through the Alps (Edinburgh, 1843); A. W. Moore, The Alps in 1864, from MS. copy (Edinburgh, 1902); J. Ball and E. S. Kennedy, Peaks, Passes, and Glaciers (London, 1859-62); G. Studer, Ueber Eis und Schnee (Bern, 1869-71); J. Tyndall, Mountaineering in 1861 (London, 1862); id., Hours of Exercise in the Alps (ib., 1871); L. Stephen, The Playground of Europe (ib., 1871); E. Whymper, Scrambles Among the Alps (ib., 1871): id., Travels in the Great Andes of the Equator (ib., 1892); C. T. Dent, Above the Snow-line (ib., 1885); Clarence King, Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada (Boston, 1886); W. M. Conway, Climbing in the Karaoram-Himalayas (London, 1894); id., The Alps from End to End (ib., 1895); id., The Bolivian Andes (New York, 1901); A. F. Mummery, My Climbs in the Alps and Caucasus (ib., 1895); E. A. Fitzgerald, Climbs in the New Zealand Alps (ib., 1896); id., The Highest Andes (ib., 1899); F. M. B. Workman, In the Ice World of the Himalaya (New York, 1898); C. E. Mathews, The Annals of Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn (London, 1898); F. De Filippi, The Ascent of Mount Saint Elias (London, 1900); W. D. Wilcox, Camping in the Canadian Rockies (New York, 1900); J. N. Collie, Climbing in the Himalayas and Other Mountains (Edinburgh, 1902). For recent American mountaineering, consult Appalachia, vols, i.-ix. (Boston, 1876-1902), and Sierra Club Bulletin, vols. i.-iii. (San Francisco, 1893-1903).

The New International Encyclopaedia (1905)

Available Books


Image Name
Val Fex
Title Page
Vitznau and Lake of Lucerne
Piz Albana and Piz Julier in Winter
Piz della Margna from Crestalta
Looking down the Aletsch Glacier from Concordia Hut
The Matterhorn, Twilight
Title Page
A Corner of the Town of Altdorf
Ponte Brolla
In a Garden at Locarno
Glaciers of the Nus Fiord
Cascades and Circle of Gavarnie
The Wetterhorn
Chatillon, Val d'Aosta
Approach to Saint Sauveur
Mountains and Glaciers of Baines
Saas Grat and the Fletschhorn
View of the Bernese Alps from the Gurten, near Bern
Church and Village of Gavarnie
Eiger, Monch, and Jungfrau from Scherzligen, near Thun
Bernese Alps from the Oldenhorn to the Wildstrubel
Piz Kesch from the Sertig Pass
Front Cover
Weisshorn and Matterhorn from Fiescheralp
Furggen Glacier Icefall
Near Courmayeur Cloud Streamers
Lago di Cavloccio
Cascade of L'Escoubous
Pallanza - Evening
Bern from the North-West
The Opening of the Val de Tignes
Geological Map of the District of Predazzo, St. Cassian and the Seisser Alp
The Rosegg Glacier
Village of Pierre-Fitte
General View of Rosengarten Gebirge from the Sasso di Damm, Fassa Thal
The Severn Peaks of the Blumlisalp
The Aletschhorn
Boden and Gorner
Bern from the Schanzli
Piz Albana and Piz Julier from the Statzersee
Village of Cauterets
Suphelle Glacier, Fjaerland
Lago di Bitabergo
In the Val d'Aosta
The Doldenhorn from the Oeschinenalp
Moonlight in the Val Formazzafrom the Tosa Falls
The Valley of Argeles
The Castle of Zahringen-Kyburg, Thun
The Corpus Christi Procession to the Hofkirche of St. Leodegar
We encamp in a snow storm
View to the North
After the Sunset
Map Range of Mont Blanc
Title Page
Storm Clouds over the Lake of Thun
Glacier of Bondhuus
Kranzberg - Rotthalhorn - and Jungfrau : Sunset
The Gletscherhorn from the Pavilion, Hotel Cathrein, close to Concordia Hut
In the Woods of Chamonix
The Bhootia Busti Village, Darjeeling
Valley of la Berarde Dauphine
Deodunga, Mt. Everest - Sunrise
The Dent du Midi from near Champery
The Gorner Glacier
The Gorge of the Inn, known as the Charnadura Gorge
At Meiringen
Looking over Lucerne from the Drei Linden
View from the Promenade at St Sauveur
Monte Civita and Lake and Village of Alleghe
Erster Upsrung des Hinter Rheins
Cirque of the Croda Malcora, near Cortina
View from the Bridge of Sia
Back Cover
The Defile leading to Gavarnie
Mont Blanc from the Col Danterne
Francis Devouassoud
The Langkofel and Plattkogel from the Seisser Alp
The Plains of Nepal from Mt. Tongloo
The Dom and Weisshorn from the Aeggisch Horn
Title Page
The Lyskamm
A Torrent Val Tournanche
Crevasses on the Mer de Grace
Nursyng and Pundeem from Soubahgoom - Evening
The Grosser Aletsch-Firn from Concordia Hut
Title Page
Defile near the Bridge of Sia
In the Val d'Aosta
The Cascade de Roget and the Pond de Salles
The Summit of the Weisse Frau
Back Cover
In the Valley of Aosta
Our camp ascending the snow fields
Map of Norway


Map Name
Das Hochgebirge von Grindelwald - Karte des Hochgebirge von Grindelwald (1865)
The Doldenhorn and Weisse Frau - Map of the Blumlisalp and Doldenhorn Group (1863)
Norway and its Glaciers - Map of Norway (1853)
The Dolomite Mountains - Map of the South Eastern Alps Showing the Routes Followed by the Authors (1864)
The Dolomite Mountains - Geological Map of the District of Predazzo, St. Cassian and the Seisser Alp (1864)


View All Topics
Sabalico Logo
Sabali Mail Logo
Domain Search Logo
Test Speed Logo
Website On Logo
Code Editor Logo
ASCII Table Logo
HTML Symbols Logo
Emoji Symbols Logo
Encode File Logo
Generator Password Logo
QR Code Generator Logo
Barcode Generator Logo
Online Sign Logo
Dictionary Online Logo
Counter Word Logo
Text Convert Logo
Lorem Ipsum Generator Logo
Sprite Sheet Logo
Resize Image Logo
Image Compress Logo
Image Color Logo
Image Crop Logo
Combine Images Logo
Color Picker Logo
Color Convert Logo
CSS Gradient Logo
To-Do List Logo
Calendar Free Logo
Generator Meme Logo
Word Spinner Logo
Phone Country Logo
Sabalytics Logo
Senty Logo
World Map Logo
SEO Guide Logo
Keyword Tool Logo
What is my IP Logo
My Device Logo
My Browser Logo
My Location Logo
Time Zone Logo
Day Map Logo
My Weather Logo
My Galaxy Logo
The Moon Logo
Periodic Table Logo
rStatistics Logo
Unit Convert Logo
Data Convert Logo
Coordinate Converter Logo
Temperature Convert Logo
2020 Election Logo
Currency Convert Logo
Free Calculator Logo
Finance Calculator Logo
Loan Calculator Logo
Calculator Mortgage Logo
Stock Calculator Logo
Bond Calculator Logo
Tax Calculator Logo
Tip Calculator Logo
Gas Mileage Logo
History of Humanity - History Archive Logo
History of Humanity - History Mysteries Logo
History of Humanity - Ancient Mesopotamia Logo
History of Humanity - Egypt History Logo
History of Humanity - Persian Empire Logo
History of Humanity - Greek History Logo
History of Humanity - Alexander the Great Logo
History of Humanity - Roman History Logo
History of Humanity - Punic Wars Logo
History of Humanity - Golden Age of Piracy Logo
History of Humanity - Revolutionary War Logo
History of Humanity - Mafia History Logo