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Industrial Revolution

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Industrial Revolution Collection

History Archive - Industrial Revolution Collection

The Industrial Revolution, now also known as the First Industrial Revolution, was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system. The Industrial Revolution also led to an unprecedented rise in the rate of population growth.

The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested. The textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, and many of the technological innovations were of British origin.

By the mid-18th century Britain was the world's leading commercial nation, controlling a global trading empire with colonies in North America and the Caribbean, and with political influence on the Indian subcontinent, particularly Bengal Subah, through the activities of the East India Company. The development of trade and the rise of business were among the major causes of the Industrial Revolution.

Although the structural change from agriculture to industry is widely associated with the Industrial Revolution, in the United Kingdom it was already almost complete by 1760. The precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and social changes. An economic recession occurred from the late 1830s to the early 1840s when the adoption of the original innovations of the Industrial Revolution, such as mechanized spinning and weaving, slowed and their markets matured.

Innovations developed late in the period, such as the increasing adoption of locomotives, steamboats and steamships, hot blast iron smelting and new technologies, such as the electrical telegraph, widely introduced in the 1840s and 1850s, were not powerful enough to drive high rates of growth. Rapid economic growth began to occur after 1870, springing from a new group of innovations in what has been called the Second Industrial Revolution. These new innovations included new steel making processes, mass-production, assembly lines, electrical grid systems, the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and the use of increasingly advanced machinery in steam-powered factories.

Available Books

Images

Image Name
Chart, Showing the Track of the Steam-Ship Great Eastern on Her Voyage from Valentia to Newfoundland
The Cliffs, Foilhummerum Bay : Point of the Landing of the Shore End of Cable, July 22
Trinity Bay, Newfoundland : Exterior View of Telegraph House in 1857-1858
Telegraph House, Trinity Bay, Newfoundland : Interior of Mess-Room 1858
Valentia in 1857-1858 at the Time of the Laying of the Former Cable
Foilhummerum Bay, Valentia, Looking Seawards from the Point at Which the Cable Reaches the Shore
The Reels of Gutta-Percha-Covered Conducting-Wire Conveyed into Tanks at the Works at Greenwich
The Great Eastern (1865)
The Great Eastern Under Weight, July 23 : Escort and Other Ships Introduced Being the Terrible, the Sphinx, the Hawk, and the Caroline
Front Cover
The Cable Passed from the Works into the Hulk Lying in the Thames at Greenwich
Back Cover
Map Showing the Proposed Ocean Telegraphs and Overland Route Round the World
Paying-Out Machinery
Coiling the Cable in the After-Tank on Board the Great Eastern at Sheerness : Visit of H.R.H. The Prince of Wales on May 24.
Splicing the Cable (After the First Accident) on Board the Great Eastern, July 25
The Old Frigate with Her Freight of Cable Alongside the Great Eastern at Sheerness
Getting Out One of the Large Buoys for Launching, August 2
The Atlantic Telegraph [Chart] (1865)
General View of Port Magee, &c., from the Heights Below Cora Beg : The Caroline Laying the Shore End of the Cable, July 22
Title Page - Weighing Anchor off the Maplin Sands, Nore, July 15, 1865
Searching for Fault After Recovery of the Cable from the Bed of the Atlantic, July 31
Foilhummerum Bay Bay, Valentia, from Cornwall Fort : The Caro-Line and Boats Laying the Earth-Wire, Jul 21
Launching Buoy on August 8, in Lat. 51° 25' 30''; Long. 30° 56' (Marking Spot Where Cable had Been Grappled)
H.M.S. Agamemnon Laying the Atlantic Telegraph Cable in 1858 : A Whale Crosses the Line
In the Bows, August 2 : The Cable Broken and Lost : Preparing to Grapple
View (Looking Aft) from the Port Paddle-Box of Great Eastern : Showing the Trough for Cable, etc.
Coiling the Cable in the Large Tanks at the Works at Green-Wich
Forward Deck Cleared for the Final Attempt at Grappling, August 11
Interior of One of the Tanks on Board the Great Eastern : Cable Passing Out
The Forge on Deck : Night of August 9 : Preparing the Iron Plating for Capstan
The Atlantic Telegraph [Map] (1865)

Maps

Map Name
The Atlantic Telegraph - Chart, Showing the Track of the Steam-Ship Great Eastern on Her Voyage from Valentia to Newfoundland (1865)

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