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Great Exhibition

Great Exhibition Collection

History Archive - Great Exhibition Collection

The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations or The Great Exhibition (sometimes referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held), an international exhibition, took place in Hyde Park, London, from 1 May to 15 October 1851. It was the first in a series of World's Fairs, exhibitions of culture and industry that became popular in the 19th century.

The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations was organised by Prince Albert, Henry Cole, Francis Henry, George Wallis, Charles Dilke and other members of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce as a celebration of modern industrial technology and design. It was arguably a response to the highly effective French Industrial Exposition of 1844: indeed, its prime motive was for Britain to make "clear to the world its role as industrial leader".

Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's consort, was an enthusiastic promoter of the self-financing exhibition; the government was persuaded to form the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 to establish the viability of hosting such an exhibition. Queen Victoria and her family visited three times. Although the Great Exhibition was a platform on which countries from around the world could display their achievements, Britain sought to prove its own superiority.

The British exhibits at the Great Exhibition "held the lead in almost every field where strength, durability, utility and quality were concerned, whether in iron and steel, machinery or textiles." Britain also sought to provide the world with the hope of a better future. Europe had just struggled through "two difficult decades of political and social upheaval," and now Britain hoped to show that technology, particularly its own, was the key to a better future.

Six million people—equivalent to a third of the entire population of Britain at the time—visited the Great Exhibition. The average daily attendance was 42,831 with a peak attendance of 109,915 on 7 October. The event made a surplus of £186,000 (£18,370,000 in 2015),, which was used to found the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Science Museum and the Natural History Museum. They were all built in the area to the south of the exhibition, nicknamed Albertopolis, alongside the Imperial Institute. The remaining surplus was used to set up an educational trust to provide grants and scholarships for industrial research; it continues to do so today.

The Crystal Palace

The Crystal Palace was a well-known English resort, standing high up in grounds just outside the southern boundary of the county of London, in the neighbourhood of Sydenham. The building, chiefly of iron and glass, is flanked by two towers and is visible high over the metropolis. It measures 1608 ft. in length by 384 ft. across the transcripts, and was opened in its present site in 1854.

The materials, however, were mainly those of the hall set up in Hyde Park for the Great Exhibition of 1851. The designer was Sir Joseph Paxton. In the palace there are various permanent exhibitions, while special exhibitions are held from time to time, also concerts, winter pantomimes and other entertainments. In the extensive grounds there is accommodation for all kinds of games; the final tie of the Association Football Cup and other important football matches are played here, and there are also displays of fireworks and other attractions.

The Crystal Palace was designed by Joseph Paxton with support from structural engineer Charles Fox, the committee overseeing its construction including Isambard Kingdom Brunel, and went from its organisation to the grand opening in just nine months. The building was architecturally adventurous, drawing on Paxton's experience designing greenhouses for the sixth Duke of Devonshire.

It took the form of a massive glass house, 1848 feet long by 454 feet wide (about 563 metres by 138 metres) and was constructed from cast iron-frame components and glass made almost exclusively in Birmingham and Smethwick. From the interior, the building's large size was emphasized with trees and statues; this served, not only to add beauty to the spectacle, but also to demonstrate man's triumph over nature.

The Crystal Palace was an enormous success, considered an architectural marvel, but also an engineering triumph that showed the importance of the Exhibition itself. The building was later moved and re-erected in 1854 in enlarged form at Sydenham Hill in south London, an area that was renamed Crystal Palace. It was destroyed by fire on 30 November 1936.


1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 7

Available Books


Image Name
Moving Machinery
Scarf-end, embroidered at Dacca, on white muslin
Terra-cotta Figure of Galatea and Majolica Garden-Vases by Minton, Stoke-upon-Trent
Back Cover
General View of the Exterior of the Building
Church Furniture
India No. 1
The Hunter by Gibson, R.A.
Figured Silk by Campbell, Harrison, and Lloyd, Spitalfields (For Lewis and Allenby, London)
Title Page
Specimens of Stained Glass by Lusson, and Gerente, Paris
India No. 2
Elephant Trapping
A Group in Bronze by Vittoz, Paris
Damask Table-covers by Beveridge, Dunfermline
Sideboard and Furniture by Snell, London. Designed by the Baron Marochetti.
Exterior (Coals etc.)
India No. 3
Group of Vases, &c. by Minton, Stoke-upon-Trent
Bullion Embroidery
North Transept Waiting For the Queen
Black Lace Flounce by Greasly & Horcroft, Nottingham
India No. 6
Chinese Looking-glass in carved Wood Frame
Octagonal Room
Silk Brocades by Campbell, Harrison, and Lloyd, and Vanner and Son, Spitalfields. (For Howell, James and Co., London)
Part of the Furniture Court, from the West Nave
The Amazon by Kiss, Berlin
Details of Home Stove and Fender by Stuart and Smith, Sheffield
Turkey No. 2
The Nave and Transept
Her Majesty's Retiring Room
The Crystal Fountain by F. & C. Osler, London & Birmingham
Silversmiths' Work by Gough, Birmingham
Vase, “La Gloire” by Royal Manufactory at Sevres
Enamelling, from Arms
Bedstead in Zebra-wood by Leistler and Son, Vienna
Carpet, in the Mediaeval Style by Crace, London. Designed by Pugin.
Altar and Reredos by Myers, London, and Hardman, Birmingham. Designed by Pugin.
Portions of Stoves by Hoole, Robson, & Hoole, Sheffield. Designed by A. Stevens.
The Turkish Court
Albanian Costume Embroidery
Sideboard, carved in Oak by Jackson and Graham, London
Pendant Lamp by Matifat, Paris
Dagger and Sheath by Zoloaga, Madrid
Borders from Illuminated Manuscripts
Title Page
North Germany
Pistols (engraved and inlaid) by Zoloaga, Madrid
Group of Objects in Porcelain by Copeland, London and Stoke-upon-Trent
Marquetry Enrichments of a Pianoforte by Broadwood, London
Escrutoire in White Wood by Wettli, Berne
The First Cradle by De Bay, Paris
Group of Silversmiths' Work by Froment-Meurice, Paris
Book-cover in carved Ivory, presented to her Majesty the Queen by the Emperor of Austria
Liverpool (Cotton, Carriages, etc.)
Portion of a Shield in Silver by Vechte ; for Hunt & Roskell, Lond.
Shield in Iron by Lepage Moutier, Paris. Designed by Vechte.
Fountain in Terra-cotta by March, Thiergartenfelde, near Charlottenburg, Prussia
Jade-stones Vases, from China
Group of Plate by Garrard, Loudon
India Court (No. 1)
Embroidery, on black cloth
Group of Glass by Count Harrach, Bohemia
Block-printed Table-cover by Evans and Co. London
Group of Flowers, carved in wood by Wallis, Louth, Lincolnshire
Statuette in Ivory and Objects in Gold and Silver by Froment-Meurice, Paris
Vase by Hunt and Roskell, London
Cabinet in Ebony by Lienard, Paris
Portion of a Silver Shield. Presented by his Majesty the King of Prussia to H.R.H. The Princes of Wales, on the occasion of his Baptism
Machine-made Lace by Heyman & Alexander, and Birkin, Nottingham
Decoration of a Box of Water-Colours by Ackermann and Co., London
Back Cover
Vase in Terra-Cotta Modelled by John Thomas, London, for E. L. Betts, Esq.
A Youth at a Stream by Foley, A.R.A. Cast in bronze by Hatfield
The Pleasures of Public Gardens by Drake, Berlin
Vase, “Rimini” by Royal Manufactory at Sevres
Austria No. 1
Florentine Mosaic by Woodruff, Bakewell | Enamelled Slate by Magnus, Pimlico
Pendant Lamp in Porcelain by the Royal Manufactory, Sevres
France No. 3
The Hunter fighting with the Panter, Jerichau, Copenhagen
Objects from a Dessert Service presented by her Majesty the Queen to the Emperor of Austria by Minton, Stoke-upon-Trent
Illustrated Title Page
Group from the Royal Manufactory at Sevres
Daggers and Sheaths by Wostenholm & Son, Sheffield. Designed by A. Stevens.


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