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Great Exhibition

Great Exhibition Collection

History Archive - Great Exhibition Collection

The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations or The Great Exhibition (sometimes referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held), an international exhibition, took place in Hyde Park, London, from 1 May to 15 October 1851. It was the first in a series of World's Fairs, exhibitions of culture and industry that became popular in the 19th century.

The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations was organised by Prince Albert, Henry Cole, Francis Henry, George Wallis, Charles Dilke and other members of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce as a celebration of modern industrial technology and design. It was arguably a response to the highly effective French Industrial Exposition of 1844: indeed, its prime motive was for Britain to make "clear to the world its role as industrial leader".

Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's consort, was an enthusiastic promoter of the self-financing exhibition; the government was persuaded to form the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 to establish the viability of hosting such an exhibition. Queen Victoria and her family visited three times. Although the Great Exhibition was a platform on which countries from around the world could display their achievements, Britain sought to prove its own superiority.

The British exhibits at the Great Exhibition "held the lead in almost every field where strength, durability, utility and quality were concerned, whether in iron and steel, machinery or textiles." Britain also sought to provide the world with the hope of a better future. Europe had just struggled through "two difficult decades of political and social upheaval," and now Britain hoped to show that technology, particularly its own, was the key to a better future.

Six million people—equivalent to a third of the entire population of Britain at the time—visited the Great Exhibition. The average daily attendance was 42,831 with a peak attendance of 109,915 on 7 October. The event made a surplus of £186,000 (£18,370,000 in 2015),, which was used to found the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Science Museum and the Natural History Museum. They were all built in the area to the south of the exhibition, nicknamed Albertopolis, alongside the Imperial Institute. The remaining surplus was used to set up an educational trust to provide grants and scholarships for industrial research; it continues to do so today.

The Crystal Palace

The Crystal Palace was a well-known English resort, standing high up in grounds just outside the southern boundary of the county of London, in the neighbourhood of Sydenham. The building, chiefly of iron and glass, is flanked by two towers and is visible high over the metropolis. It measures 1608 ft. in length by 384 ft. across the transcripts, and was opened in its present site in 1854.

The materials, however, were mainly those of the hall set up in Hyde Park for the Great Exhibition of 1851. The designer was Sir Joseph Paxton. In the palace there are various permanent exhibitions, while special exhibitions are held from time to time, also concerts, winter pantomimes and other entertainments. In the extensive grounds there is accommodation for all kinds of games; the final tie of the Association Football Cup and other important football matches are played here, and there are also displays of fireworks and other attractions.

The Crystal Palace was designed by Joseph Paxton with support from structural engineer Charles Fox, the committee overseeing its construction including Isambard Kingdom Brunel, and went from its organisation to the grand opening in just nine months. The building was architecturally adventurous, drawing on Paxton's experience designing greenhouses for the sixth Duke of Devonshire.

It took the form of a massive glass house, 1848 feet long by 454 feet wide (about 563 metres by 138 metres) and was constructed from cast iron-frame components and glass made almost exclusively in Birmingham and Smethwick. From the interior, the building's large size was emphasized with trees and statues; this served, not only to add beauty to the spectacle, but also to demonstrate man's triumph over nature.

The Crystal Palace was an enormous success, considered an architectural marvel, but also an engineering triumph that showed the importance of the Exhibition itself. The building was later moved and re-erected in 1854 in enlarged form at Sydenham Hill in south London, an area that was renamed Crystal Palace. It was destroyed by fire on 30 November 1936.

References:

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 7

Available Books

Images

Image Name
Bedstead by Winfield, Birmingham
In the East Nave - United States
“The Coventry Ribbon.” and Specimens of Ribbons from St. Etienne
The Turkish Court
India No. 5
Turkey No. 1
Lacquer-work
Flower-stand by Minton, Stoke-upon-Trent. Modelled by the Baron Marochetti.
Machine-made Lace by Heyman & Alexander, and Birkin, Nottingham
Fountain in Terra-cotta by March, Thiergartenfelde, near Charlottenburg, Prussia
Group of Objects by Falloise, Liege
Part of the Furniture Court, from the West Nave
Specimens of Turkish Embroidery
In the Agricultural Court
Front Cover
Tunis No. 3
The Amazon by Kiss, Berlin
Bedroom Furniture, in marquetry by Trollope, London
Exterior (Coals etc.)
Machinery
Details of Home Stove and Fender by Stuart and Smith, Sheffield
France No. 4
Austria No. 2 (Austrian Sculpture)
Italy
France No. 2
Bookbinding by J. and J. Lieghton, London. Designed by W. Lieghton.
Liverpool (Cotton, Carriages, etc.)
Dagger and Sheath by Zoloaga, Madrid
Albanian Costume Embroidery
India No. 6
Decoration of Metal-work, from Arms
The British Nave
Fountain in Iron by Andre, Paris
Black Lace Flounce by Greasly & Horcroft, Nottingham
Cupid and Panther by Rietschel, Dresden
Back Cover
Panel, ornamented with Buhl by Fourdinois, Paris
The China Court
Her Majesty's Retiring Room
Casette, or Jewel-case, carved in Ivory by Matifat, Paris
Paper-Hanging by Woollams, London
Chintz Pattern by Japuis and Son, Paris
Back Cover
Title Page
Godfrey of Bouillon, (East Nave)
Belgium
Vase and Dish by Morel ; for Webb, London
India No. 7
Embroidered Book-cover by French, Bolton, Lancashire
Portions of Stoves by Hoole, Robson, & Hoole, Sheffield. Designed by A. Stevens.
Terra-cotta Figure of Galatea and Majolica Garden-Vases by Minton, Stoke-upon-Trent
Candelabrum and Arabesque by Trentanove, Rome
Cashmere Scarf-end
Statuette in Ivory and Objects in Gold and Silver by Froment-Meurice, Paris
Painted Arabesque by Crace ; with Decoration in Composition, by Jackson & Sons, London
In the West Nave
Octagonal Room
Cradle, carved in boxwood by Rogers, London, for her Majesty the Queen
Group of Objects in Porcelain by Copeland, London and Stoke-upon-Trent
Stove in White Porcelain by Hoffman, Berlin
Embroidered Bags from Greece
Tunis No. 1
Portion of Shawls by Roxburgh and Co. Paisley
Group from the Royal Manufactory at Sevres
General View of the Exterior of the Building
The Pleasures of Public Gardens by Drake, Berlin
The First Cradle by De Bay, Paris
Foreign Nave
Bedstead in Zebra-wood by Leistler and Son, Vienna
Illustrated Title Page
Open-work Panel by Bailey and Co., London
Victory by Rauch, Berlin
Borders from Illuminated Manuscripts
Minerals
Tunis No. 2
Vase in Silver by Hunt and Roskell, London
Vase, “Rimini” by Royal Manufactory at Sevres
Pistols (engraved and inlaid) by Zoloaga, Madrid
Pilaster in Carton-pierre by Cruchet, Paris
Group of Objects in Glass by Bacchus, Birmingham ; Green, and Apsley Pellatt, London
Fountain and Ornamental Gates by Coalbrookdale Company
Front Cover
Group of Objects by Morel, London
India Court (No. 1)
Marquetry Enrichments of a Pianoforte by Broadwood, London
Richard Coeur de Lion by The Baron Marochetti
Mediaeval Court
Group of Church Plate by Skidmore, Coventry
Florentine Mosaic by Woodruff, Bakewell | Enamelled Slate by Magnus, Pimlico
Kincob Pattern, woven at Ahmedabad
Group of Flowers, carved in wood by Wallis, Louth, Lincolnshire
Damask Table-covers by Beveridge, Dunfermline
Sheffield Hardware
Illustrated Title Page
Zollverein
Gold Vase, enriched with Jewels and Enamels by Watherston & Brogden, London

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