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Geography

Geography Collection

History Archive - Geography Collection

Geography means strictly a description of the earth. As now used, it is that branch of science which treats of the features of the earth's surface, the division into countries and the plants and animals, including man, which cover it.

It may be divided into physical geography, dealing with the form and motions of the earth, the atmosphere or air-covering, the land-surface and the water-covering, the facts that make up climate, the great classes of rocks that make up the surface and the leading classes of plants and animals which cover it; and political geography, giving an account of the different states or communities into which man is divided.

The terms commercial geography, which discusses the products and commerce of the different parts of the world; medical geography, dealing with different places as liable to certain diseases; and oceanography, which investigates the ocean and its inhabitants, are also sometimes used. Thus the study of geography touches in various ways upon many other sciences, as geology, history and astronomy.

The progress of geographical knowledge has depended largely on the progress of discovery. The Phoenicians were the first people who communicated to other nations a knowledge of distant lands. Their voyages before the time of Homer, through the Euxine, the Mediterranean and even into the Atlantic form the first link of the great chain of discovery which, centuries later, was extended by Columbus to the shores of America. Travelers like the Greek historian, Herodotus, whose History gives a complete representation of what was known of the earth's surface in his age, did much for the advancement of geography, as did also the exploring and surveying expeditions of Alexander the Great.

At the same time Pytheas, the Massilian navigator, was following the path of discovery in the north, possibly as far as Iceland, and in 276 B.C. Eratosthenes first used parallels of longitude and latitude and made maps on mathematical principles. By this time the old idea of the earth as a flat, circular shield surrounded by a rim of water had given place to the belief that the earth is a sphere, revolving with the surrounding atmosphere on one and the same axis. The practical genius of the Romans led them to make a study of the resources of the countries they conquered, which did much for geography. Their greatest work was a survey of the whole empire, including a description and measurement of each province, which was made under Caesar and Augustus. In the second century of our era Ptolemy wrote a work on geography, in eight books, which for many centuries was regarded as the most perfect system of the science.

The travels of the Venetian, Marco Polo, in the i4th century opened new fields of inquiry, and the close of the next century was marked by the discovery of the American continent. Within thirty years the whole coast of America, from Greenland to Cape Horn, had been explored; the Pacific Ocean had been navigated by Magellan and the world circumnavigated by his ship; the coasts of eastern Africa, Arabia, Persia and India had been visited; and numerous islands in the Indian Ocean discovered. The attempts to find a northwest passage to India increased the knowledge of the Arctic regions. Captain Cook by his long voyages dispelled the old belief in the existence of a great Antarctic continent, and the Antarctic lands have been visited during the 19th and 20th centuries.

In the 17th century the Dutch made the Australian islands (which the Portuguese had discovered about 1500 or else in 1601) known to the world, but it was not until within a few years that the first successful voyage was made through the northeast passage around Europe and Asia and through the northwest one around America. In America the travels of Humboldt, Lewis and Clarke, Fremont and others and the work of the United States and Canadian surveys have done much to add to our scientific knowledge. Africa, Asia and Australia are pretty well-known, but are still lands of exploration, though great areas in each have been opened in recent years, Commander Peary. U. S. N., who on April 6, 1909, reached the long sought North Pole; and Nansen; and Sven Hedin in Tibet in 1906-8 are but a few of the many who have enormously extended geographical knowledge recently. The work of making geography is still going on, and is constantly becoming more complete and important. Among the most valuable efforts in this direction may be mentioned the deep-sea exploring expeditions.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pg. 745.

Available Books

Book Title Date
Geography - A System of Geography A System of Geography 1701
Geography - A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company 1711
Geography - An Historical Atlas An Historical Atlas 1830
Geography - Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the United States of America Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the United States of America 1889
Geography - Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the World Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the World 1889
Geography - Atlas de Battista Agnese Atlas de Battista Agnese 1544
Geography - Atlas Geografico das Provincias do Reino de Portugal Atlas Geografico das Provincias do Reino de Portugal 1843
Geography - Atlas Geografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos Atlas Geografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos 1897
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 1 Atlas Geographus Vol. 1 1711
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 2 Atlas Geographus Vol. 2 1711
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 3 Atlas Geographus Vol. 3 1712
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 4 Atlas Geographus Vol. 4 1714
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 5 Atlas Geographus Vol. 5 1721
Geography - Atlas Manuale Atlas Manuale 1723
Geography - Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts 1672
Geography - Atlas Minor Atlas Minor 1736
Geography - Atlas National Illustre Atlas National Illustre 1856
Geography - Atlas Novus sive Tabulae Geographicae Atlas Novus sive Tabulae Geographicae 1730
Geography - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
Geography - Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 1964
Geography - Catalan Atlas Catalan Atlas 1375
Geography - La Descripcion de Espana y de las Costas y Puertos de sus Reinos La Descripcion de Espana y de las Costas y Puertos de sus Reinos 1634
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 1 Description de l'Univers Vol. 1 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 2 Description de l'Univers Vol. 2 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 3 Description de l'Univers Vol. 3 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 4 Description de l'Univers Vol. 4 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 5 Description de l'Univers Vol. 5 1683
Geography - Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum 1721
Geography - Huntington's School Atlas Huntington's School Atlas 1836
Geography - Islario General de Todas las Islas del Mundo Islario General de Todas las Islas del Mundo 1550
Geography - Klencke Atlas Klencke Atlas 1660
Geography - Liber Insularum Cycladum Liber Insularum Cycladum 1422
Geography - Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent 1881
Geography - [Manuscript Wall Map of the World] [Manuscript Wall Map of the World] 1587
Geography - Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe 1908
Geography - Mercator's Letter to John Dee Mercator's Letter to John Dee 1577
Geography - Mitchell's New General Atlas Mitchell's New General Atlas 1861
Geography - Museum de la Jeunesse Museum de la Jeunesse 1809
Geography - Premier Voyage Autour du Monde Premier Voyage Autour du Monde 1801
Geography - Purchas His Pilgrimage Purchas His Pilgrimage 1613
Geography - The Compleat Geographer The Compleat Geographer 1723
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 1 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 1 1854
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 2 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 2 1854
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 3 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 3 1854
Geography - The Illustrated Atlas The Illustrated Atlas 1851
Geography - The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots 1801
Geography - The Natural History of Norway The Natural History of Norway 1755
Geography - The Sea-Atlas The Sea-Atlas 1705
Geography - The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain 1676
Geography - Theatrum Ichnographicum Omnium Urbium Theatrum Ichnographicum Omnium Urbium 1700
Geography - Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Theatrum Orbis Terrarum 1570
Geography - Yaggy's Geographical Portfolio Yaggy's Geographical Portfolio 1893
Geography - Yaggy's Geographical Study Yaggy's Geographical Study 1887

Images

Image Name
Back Cover
Dublin
Franciae Orientalis Monasteriensis
Glasgow
Dept. De La Siene
Isle de la Reunion
Surrey
Martin Behaim
Saxoniae
Dept. De L'Ardeche
Dept. De La Gironde
The Western Road from London to the Lands-End in Cornwal
A chart of the sea coasts of Russia, Lapland, Finmarke, Nova Zembla and Greenland
Dept. De L'Ain
The Second Book - Wales
A chart of the western ocean
Title Page
A.D. 1498. The Discovery Of America.
Isthmus of Panama
Globus des Johannes Schöner A.D Jahare 1515
Dept. De La Meuse
The Isle of Man
Dept. De La Hte. Vienne
Dept. De La Loire
Dept. Du Gard
A Map of Virginia and Maryland
Dept. De La Sarthe
Birmingham
The World
Back Cover
the South-East, South and South-West Roads from London
Ancient Palestine
A chart of Flanders between Calis and Walcheren
A Newe Mape of Poland
Chili and La Plata
The Routes of Marco Polo and the Islands of the Atlantic
Austriae
A chart of the Levant or eastermost part of the Mediterranean sea
France
Plan of New York
The House in Which Martin Behaim was Born
A Newe Mape of Y XVII Provinces of Low Germanie
County Map of Michigan and Wisconsin
Dept. Du Jura
Dept. De La Marne
Dept. De La Hte. Saone
Dept. De L'Allier
Western Hemisphere
The Kingdome of China
Dept. Des Pyrenees Orles
Dept. De L'Aube
Clifton and Bristol
Thietmarsiae
Amerique Septentrionale
Exeter
Asie
British Possessions in the Mediterranean
Caermarden
A.D. 1811. Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte.
A.D. 1. The Roman Empire in the Augustan Age.
Dept. De Lyonne
England and Wales
West India Islands
Flintshire
Back Cover
Globus des Johannes Schöner A.D Jahare 1520
Front Cover
Bohemia
The Fourth Book - Ireland
The British Isles. (with) inset map of the Shetland Islands.
Overland Route to India
Prussia
Title Page
Palatinatus Bavariae Descriptio et Wirtenbergensis Duvatus Vera Descriptio
Front Cover
Essex
Südliche Hemisphaere der Weltkarte des Orontius Finaeus A.D Jahare 1531
Dept. De La Cote D'Or
United States
County Map of Texas
Greece. (with) inset maps of Corfu and Stampalia
Galliae Narbonensis et Sabaundiae et Burgundiae
Africae
Asia
Glocestershire
Frontispiece
Leafs 1 & 2 - Text
Devonshire
Cardiganshyre
Dorsetshyre
Helvetiae Descriptio Aegidio
Part of South Australia
Portugalliae
Pedemontanae
Worcestershire
Dept. De Corsica

Maps

Map Name
The Illustrated Atlas - British America (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Cotes du Nord (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Leeds (1851)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 1811. Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte. (1830)
Atlas National Illustre - Afrique (1856)
Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe - Guinea and South Western Africa (1908)
The Illustrated Atlas - Hungary (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Newe Mape of Tartary (1676)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of Canada West in Counties (1861)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Ain (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Loire Infre (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - America Sive Novi Orbis Nova Descriptio (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Somersetshire (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Turkey in Europe (1851)
An Historical Atlas - B.C. 301. Exhibiting The Partition Of The Empire Of Alexander. (1830)
The Illustrated Atlas - Boston (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Ancient Palestine (1851)
Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent - Globus des Johannes Schöner A.D Jahare 1515 (1881)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A large description of the two chanells in the river Dwina goeing up to the citty of Archangel (1672)
The Illustrated Atlas - Germany (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Cote D'Or (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Asiae Nova Descriptio (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Merionethshire (1676)
An Historical Atlas - B.C. 146. At The End Of The Third Punic War. (1830)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Flintshire (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Kingdome of Scotland (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Tarn (1856)
Catalan Atlas - Leafs 11 & 12 (1375)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of the United States and Territories (1861)
The Illustrated Atlas - Natal and Kaffraria (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Breknoke (1676)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 1551. At The Death Of Charles V. (1830)
The Illustrated Atlas - Clifton and Bristol (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Galliae Narbonensis / Sabaundiae et Burgundiae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Salisburgensis (1570)
The Illustrated Atlas - France (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Ariege (1856)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - Novissima et accuratissima Insuale Jamaicae (1672)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Map of Virginia and Maryland (1676)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of South America Showing It's Political Divisions (1861)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Province of Ulster (1676)
Catalan Atlas - Leafs 7 & 8 (1375)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Gers (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Indiae Orientalis Insularumque Adiacientium Typus (1570)
The Illustrated Atlas - Modern Palestine (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Portugalliae (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Bohemia (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Loir et Cher (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Aveyron (1856)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Plan of New Orleans (1861)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Prussia and the German States (1861)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Des Pyrenees Orles (1856)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the Caribe islands (1672)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of Europe Showing It's Political Divisions (1861)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Haut Rhin (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Amerique Septentrionale (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Chili and La Plata (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Turcici Imperii Descriptio (1570)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A Map of New Jarsey (1672)
[Manuscript Wall Map of the World] - [Map of the World: Tavola 1-60 Composite] (1587)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - France (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Mayenne (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Natoliae / Aegypti, Recentior Descriptio / Carthaginis Celeberrim Sinus Typis (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Wilshire (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Austria (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Counti and City of Lyn (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - The British Isles. (with) inset map of the Shetland Islands. (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Charente Infre (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Buckingham (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Loire (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Australia (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Dublin (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Plymouth, Devonport and Stonehouse (1851)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of Flanders between Calis and Walcheren (1672)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Norhamtonshire (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Surrey (1676)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the coasts of Barbarie, Gualata, Arguyn & Genehoa from C. Vincent to C Verd. (1672)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Leicester (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Yorkshire (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Counti of Warwick (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Oxfordshire (1676)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regni Neapolitani (1570)
Atlas National Illustre - Colonies Francaises (en Afrique) (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Lot (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - British India (1851)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of Hindoostan, Farther India, China and Tibet (1861)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Cumberland (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - A Comparative View Of the Principal Waterfalls, Islands, Lakes, Rivers and Mountains, in the Western Hemisphere (1851)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of the World on the Mercator Projection (1861)
Atlas National Illustre - Algeria Colonie Francaise (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - York (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - West India Islands (1851)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of Florida (1861)
The Illustrated Atlas - Jamaica (1851)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 1. The Roman Empire in the Augustan Age. (1830)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Northumberland (1676)

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