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Geography Collection

History Archive - Geography Collection

Geography means strictly a description of the earth. As now used, it is that branch of science which treats of the features of the earth's surface, the division into countries and the plants and animals, including man, which cover it.

It may be divided into physical geography, dealing with the form and motions of the earth, the atmosphere or air-covering, the land-surface and the water-covering, the facts that make up climate, the great classes of rocks that make up the surface and the leading classes of plants and animals which cover it; and political geography, giving an account of the different states or communities into which man is divided.

The terms commercial geography, which discusses the products and commerce of the different parts of the world; medical geography, dealing with different places as liable to certain diseases; and oceanography, which investigates the ocean and its inhabitants, are also sometimes used. Thus the study of geography touches in various ways upon many other sciences, as geology, history and astronomy.

The progress of geographical knowledge has depended largely on the progress of discovery. The Phoenicians were the first people who communicated to other nations a knowledge of distant lands. Their voyages before the time of Homer, through the Euxine, the Mediterranean and even into the Atlantic form the first link of the great chain of discovery which, centuries later, was extended by Columbus to the shores of America. Travelers like the Greek historian, Herodotus, whose History gives a complete representation of what was known of the earth's surface in his age, did much for the advancement of geography, as did also the exploring and surveying expeditions of Alexander the Great.

At the same time Pytheas, the Massilian navigator, was following the path of discovery in the north, possibly as far as Iceland, and in 276 B.C. Eratosthenes first used parallels of longitude and latitude and made maps on mathematical principles. By this time the old idea of the earth as a flat, circular shield surrounded by a rim of water had given place to the belief that the earth is a sphere, revolving with the surrounding atmosphere on one and the same axis. The practical genius of the Romans led them to make a study of the resources of the countries they conquered, which did much for geography. Their greatest work was a survey of the whole empire, including a description and measurement of each province, which was made under Caesar and Augustus. In the second century of our era Ptolemy wrote a work on geography, in eight books, which for many centuries was regarded as the most perfect system of the science.

The travels of the Venetian, Marco Polo, in the i4th century opened new fields of inquiry, and the close of the next century was marked by the discovery of the American continent. Within thirty years the whole coast of America, from Greenland to Cape Horn, had been explored; the Pacific Ocean had been navigated by Magellan and the world circumnavigated by his ship; the coasts of eastern Africa, Arabia, Persia and India had been visited; and numerous islands in the Indian Ocean discovered. The attempts to find a northwest passage to India increased the knowledge of the Arctic regions. Captain Cook by his long voyages dispelled the old belief in the existence of a great Antarctic continent, and the Antarctic lands have been visited during the 19th and 20th centuries.

In the 17th century the Dutch made the Australian islands (which the Portuguese had discovered about 1500 or else in 1601) known to the world, but it was not until within a few years that the first successful voyage was made through the northeast passage around Europe and Asia and through the northwest one around America. In America the travels of Humboldt, Lewis and Clarke, Fremont and others and the work of the United States and Canadian surveys have done much to add to our scientific knowledge. Africa, Asia and Australia are pretty well-known, but are still lands of exploration, though great areas in each have been opened in recent years, Commander Peary. U. S. N., who on April 6, 1909, reached the long sought North Pole; and Nansen; and Sven Hedin in Tibet in 1906-8 are but a few of the many who have enormously extended geographical knowledge recently. The work of making geography is still going on, and is constantly becoming more complete and important. Among the most valuable efforts in this direction may be mentioned the deep-sea exploring expeditions.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pg. 745.

Available Books

Book Title Date
Geography - A System of Geography A System of Geography 1701
Geography - A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company 1711
Geography - An Historical Atlas An Historical Atlas 1830
Geography - Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the United States of America Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the United States of America 1889
Geography - Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the World Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the World 1889
Geography - Atlas de Battista Agnese Atlas de Battista Agnese 1544
Geography - Atlas Geografico das Provincias do Reino de Portugal Atlas Geografico das Provincias do Reino de Portugal 1843
Geography - Atlas Geografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos Atlas Geografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos 1897
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 1 Atlas Geographus Vol. 1 1711
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 2 Atlas Geographus Vol. 2 1711
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 3 Atlas Geographus Vol. 3 1712
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 4 Atlas Geographus Vol. 4 1714
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 5 Atlas Geographus Vol. 5 1721
Geography - Atlas Manuale Atlas Manuale 1723
Geography - Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts 1672
Geography - Atlas Minor Atlas Minor 1736
Geography - Atlas National Illustre Atlas National Illustre 1856
Geography - Atlas Novus sive Tabulae Geographicae Atlas Novus sive Tabulae Geographicae 1730
Geography - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
Geography - Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 1964
Geography - Catalan Atlas Catalan Atlas 1375
Geography - La Descripcion de Espana y de las Costas y Puertos de sus Reinos La Descripcion de Espana y de las Costas y Puertos de sus Reinos 1634
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 1 Description de l'Univers Vol. 1 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 2 Description de l'Univers Vol. 2 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 3 Description de l'Univers Vol. 3 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 4 Description de l'Univers Vol. 4 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 5 Description de l'Univers Vol. 5 1683
Geography - Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum 1721
Geography - Huntington's School Atlas Huntington's School Atlas 1836
Geography - Islario General de Todas las Islas del Mundo Islario General de Todas las Islas del Mundo 1550
Geography - Klencke Atlas Klencke Atlas 1660
Geography - Liber Insularum Cycladum Liber Insularum Cycladum 1422
Geography - Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent 1881
Geography - [Manuscript Wall Map of the World] [Manuscript Wall Map of the World] 1587
Geography - Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe 1908
Geography - Mercator's Letter to John Dee Mercator's Letter to John Dee 1577
Geography - Mitchell's New General Atlas Mitchell's New General Atlas 1861
Geography - Museum de la Jeunesse Museum de la Jeunesse 1809
Geography - Premier Voyage Autour du Monde Premier Voyage Autour du Monde 1801
Geography - Purchas His Pilgrimage Purchas His Pilgrimage 1613
Geography - The Compleat Geographer The Compleat Geographer 1723
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 1 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 1 1854
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 2 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 2 1854
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 3 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 3 1854
Geography - The Illustrated Atlas The Illustrated Atlas 1851
Geography - The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots 1801
Geography - The Natural History of Norway The Natural History of Norway 1755
Geography - The Sea-Atlas The Sea-Atlas 1705
Geography - The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain 1676
Geography - Theatrum Ichnographicum Omnium Urbium Theatrum Ichnographicum Omnium Urbium 1700
Geography - Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Theatrum Orbis Terrarum 1570
Geography - Yaggy's Geographical Portfolio Yaggy's Geographical Portfolio 1893
Geography - Yaggy's Geographical Study Yaggy's Geographical Study 1887

Images

Image Name
Dept. De La Correze
United States
A generall chart of the north erne navigation
Greece
Asia
Leicester
Dept. De La Drome
A draught of the sands, channels buoyes beacons and sea marks upon the coast of England -- [Inset] The river of Thames from London Bridge to Tilburyhope
Brazil
Silesiae Typus
Peru & Bolivia
Newcastle on Tyne
[I] Ireland in Provinces [II] Counties County Map of Scotland
B.C. 1491. The Exodus Of The Israelites.
Dept. De L'Oise
Salisburgensis
Western Australia, Swan River
Plan of Baltimore
Book Display
The Kingdome of China
B.C. 529. Exhibiting The Empire Of Cyrus.
Map of Hindoostan, Farther India, China and Tibet
A.D. 1498. The Discovery Of America.
Aberdeen
Galliae Narbonensis et Sabaundiae et Burgundiae
Dept. Du Puy De Dome
British India
Dept. Du Finistere
Zelandicarum et Prussiae Descriptio
Austria
The West Ridinge of Yorkeshyre
Oceania and Comparative N. America and Asia
A.D. 1. The Roman Empire in the Augustan Age.
Dept. De L'Isere
A chart of the Narrow seas
Bedfordshire
The Kingdome of Denmarke
Map of Persia, Turkey in Asia, Afghanistan, Beloochistan
A.D. 337. At The Death Of Constantine.
Hartfordshire
A large description of the two chanells in the river Dwina goeing up to the citty of Archangel
Dept. De La Marne
Europe
Cyprus Insula
The Countie of Leinster
Holy Iland, Garnsey, Farne and Iarsey [Copy II]
A New Map of East India
Thusciae
Asia
Map of the Austrian Empire, Italian States, Turkey in Europe and Greece
Devonshire
B.C. 146. At The End Of The Third Punic War.
The Third Book - Scotland
The Countie Westmorland
Southern India including the Presidencies of Bombay & Madras
Dept. De Siene et Oise
County Map of England and Wales
Dept. De Maine et Loire
Dept. De L'Orne
Afrique
Regionis Biturigum Limaniae
Map of Canada West in Counties
[I] Map of Denmark [II] Map of Holland and Belgium [III] Russia in Europe, Sweden and Norway
Dept. Des Bses. Pyrenees
Map of Europe Showing It's Political Divisions
Van Diemen's Island or Tasmania
The World
Title Page
Caernarvon
Spain
Leafs 1 & 2 - Text
Cork
A.D. 814. Exhibiting The Empire Of Charlemagne.
Northern Africa
Worcestershire
Dept. De La Creuse
China and Burmah
Exeter
Regni Neapolitani
Eastern Hemisphere
A chart of the eastermost part of the East Indies with all the adjacent islands from Cape Comorin to lapan
Sheffield
Dept. De La Lozere
Back Cover
Northern India including the Presidency of Calcutta
Thietmarsiae
Title Page
Dorsetshyre
Map of Africa Showing It's Most Recent Discoveries
Dept. Des De La Somme
Front Cover
France
Dept. De La Charente Infre
Map of Oregon, Washington and Part of British Columbia
Dept. Du Cantal
Graeciae Universae

Maps

Map Name
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Aisne (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Leeds (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Europae (1570)
The Illustrated Atlas - Natal and Kaffraria (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Hungariae Descriptio Wolfgang Lazio Auct. (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Buckingham (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Colonies Francaises Martinique (1856)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A generall chart of the north erne navigation (1672)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - France (1676)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Italia Novissima Descriptio (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Newe Mape of Y XVII Provinces of Low Germanie (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Bohemia (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Bas Rhin (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Victoria or Port Phillip (1851)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland and Delaware (1861)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Gironde (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Countie Westmorland (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Counti of Warwick (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Doubs (1856)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the Brittish chanel (1672)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Insularum Aliquot Maris Mediterranei Descriptio (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Newe Mape of Germany (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Sweden and Norway (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Barbariae et Biledvlgerid Nova Descriptio (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Isle of Man (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Vienne (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Persicic Sive Sophorum Regni Typus (1570)
Atlas National Illustre - Amerique Meridionale (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Schlavoniae, Croatiae, Carniae, Istriae, Bosniae, Finitimarumque Regionum Nova Descriptio (1570)
Huntington's School Atlas - Chart of Climates and Productions (1836)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Anglesey (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Syria (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Des Landes (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Turkey in Europe (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Spaine (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Haute Loire (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Ireland (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Jamaica (1851)
A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company - A New and Exact Map of the Coasts, Countries, and Islands within the Limits of the South Sea Company (1711)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The West Ridinge of Yorkeshyre (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Ancient Palestine (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Ardennes (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Septentrionalium Regionum Descrip (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Map of New England and New York (1676)
An Historical Atlas - B.C. 753. The Foundation Of Rome. (1830)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Surrey (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Bradford, Yorkshire (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Europe (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Norhamtonshire (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Nievre (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - France (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Belgium (1851)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of Hindoostan, Farther India, China and Tibet (1861)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Kingdome of Irland (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Sheffield (1851)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Minnesota and Dacotah (1861)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Wilshire (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. D'Indre et Loire (1856)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - [I] Map of Denmark [II] Map of Holland and Belgium [III] Russia in Europe, Sweden and Norway (1861)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Ain (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Mape of Hungari (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Hte. Vienne (1856)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - The river of Humber -- The river of Tyne (1672)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Ducatus Mediolanensis (1570)
The Illustrated Atlas - Chili and La Plata (1851)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - [I] Map of New Granada, Venezuela and Guiana [II] Map of Peru and Ecuador [III] Map of the Argentine Confederation (1861)
The Illustrated Atlas - Islands in the Atlantic (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - New Zealand (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Saone et Loire (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Africae (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - British America (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Germania (1570)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Herault (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Leicester (1676)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the Caribe islands (1672)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Cotes du Nord (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Van Diemen's Island or Tasmania (1851)
Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe - Guinea and South Western Africa (1908)
The Illustrated Atlas - The British Isles. (with) inset map of the Shetland Islands. (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Glamorganshyre (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Eure et Loir (1856)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A Map of New Jarsey (1672)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Aveyron (1856)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 476. The Dissolution Of the Western Empire. (1830)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Typus Vindelicae (1570)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 1. The Roman Empire in the Augustan Age. (1830)
Huntington's School Atlas - Africa and the Atlantic Ocean (1836)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Cape Breton and Prince Edwards Island (1861)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 1811. Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte. (1830)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Countie of Leinster (1676)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Cyprus Insula (1570)
The Illustrated Atlas - Southampton (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Clifton and Bristol (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Southern Italy (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Mexico, California and Texas (1851)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the South-sea (1672)

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