History Archive Icon

History Archive

Geography

Geography Collection

History Archive - Geography Collection

Geography means strictly a description of the earth. As now used, it is that branch of science which treats of the features of the earth's surface, the division into countries and the plants and animals, including man, which cover it.

It may be divided into physical geography, dealing with the form and motions of the earth, the atmosphere or air-covering, the land-surface and the water-covering, the facts that make up climate, the great classes of rocks that make up the surface and the leading classes of plants and animals which cover it; and political geography, giving an account of the different states or communities into which man is divided.

The terms commercial geography, which discusses the products and commerce of the different parts of the world; medical geography, dealing with different places as liable to certain diseases; and oceanography, which investigates the ocean and its inhabitants, are also sometimes used. Thus the study of geography touches in various ways upon many other sciences, as geology, history and astronomy.

The progress of geographical knowledge has depended largely on the progress of discovery. The Phoenicians were the first people who communicated to other nations a knowledge of distant lands. Their voyages before the time of Homer, through the Euxine, the Mediterranean and even into the Atlantic form the first link of the great chain of discovery which, centuries later, was extended by Columbus to the shores of America. Travelers like the Greek historian, Herodotus, whose History gives a complete representation of what was known of the earth's surface in his age, did much for the advancement of geography, as did also the exploring and surveying expeditions of Alexander the Great.

At the same time Pytheas, the Massilian navigator, was following the path of discovery in the north, possibly as far as Iceland, and in 276 B.C. Eratosthenes first used parallels of longitude and latitude and made maps on mathematical principles. By this time the old idea of the earth as a flat, circular shield surrounded by a rim of water had given place to the belief that the earth is a sphere, revolving with the surrounding atmosphere on one and the same axis. The practical genius of the Romans led them to make a study of the resources of the countries they conquered, which did much for geography. Their greatest work was a survey of the whole empire, including a description and measurement of each province, which was made under Caesar and Augustus. In the second century of our era Ptolemy wrote a work on geography, in eight books, which for many centuries was regarded as the most perfect system of the science.

The travels of the Venetian, Marco Polo, in the i4th century opened new fields of inquiry, and the close of the next century was marked by the discovery of the American continent. Within thirty years the whole coast of America, from Greenland to Cape Horn, had been explored; the Pacific Ocean had been navigated by Magellan and the world circumnavigated by his ship; the coasts of eastern Africa, Arabia, Persia and India had been visited; and numerous islands in the Indian Ocean discovered. The attempts to find a northwest passage to India increased the knowledge of the Arctic regions. Captain Cook by his long voyages dispelled the old belief in the existence of a great Antarctic continent, and the Antarctic lands have been visited during the 19th and 20th centuries.

In the 17th century the Dutch made the Australian islands (which the Portuguese had discovered about 1500 or else in 1601) known to the world, but it was not until within a few years that the first successful voyage was made through the northeast passage around Europe and Asia and through the northwest one around America. In America the travels of Humboldt, Lewis and Clarke, Fremont and others and the work of the United States and Canadian surveys have done much to add to our scientific knowledge. Africa, Asia and Australia are pretty well-known, but are still lands of exploration, though great areas in each have been opened in recent years, Commander Peary. U. S. N., who on April 6, 1909, reached the long sought North Pole; and Nansen; and Sven Hedin in Tibet in 1906-8 are but a few of the many who have enormously extended geographical knowledge recently. The work of making geography is still going on, and is constantly becoming more complete and important. Among the most valuable efforts in this direction may be mentioned the deep-sea exploring expeditions.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pg. 745.

Available Books

Book Title Date
Geography - A System of Geography A System of Geography 1701
Geography - A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company 1711
Geography - An Historical Atlas An Historical Atlas 1830
Geography - Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the United States of America Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the United States of America 1889
Geography - Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the World Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the World 1889
Geography - Atlas de Battista Agnese Atlas de Battista Agnese 1544
Geography - Atlas Geografico das Provincias do Reino de Portugal Atlas Geografico das Provincias do Reino de Portugal 1843
Geography - Atlas Geografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos Atlas Geografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos 1897
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 1 Atlas Geographus Vol. 1 1711
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 2 Atlas Geographus Vol. 2 1711
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 3 Atlas Geographus Vol. 3 1712
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 4 Atlas Geographus Vol. 4 1714
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 5 Atlas Geographus Vol. 5 1721
Geography - Atlas Manuale Atlas Manuale 1723
Geography - Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts 1672
Geography - Atlas Minor Atlas Minor 1736
Geography - Atlas National Illustre Atlas National Illustre 1856
Geography - Atlas Novus sive Tabulae Geographicae Atlas Novus sive Tabulae Geographicae 1730
Geography - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
Geography - Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 1964
Geography - Catalan Atlas Catalan Atlas 1375
Geography - La Descripcion de Espana y de las Costas y Puertos de sus Reinos La Descripcion de Espana y de las Costas y Puertos de sus Reinos 1634
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 1 Description de l'Univers Vol. 1 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 2 Description de l'Univers Vol. 2 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 3 Description de l'Univers Vol. 3 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 4 Description de l'Univers Vol. 4 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 5 Description de l'Univers Vol. 5 1683
Geography - Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum 1721
Geography - Huntington's School Atlas Huntington's School Atlas 1836
Geography - Islario General de Todas las Islas del Mundo Islario General de Todas las Islas del Mundo 1550
Geography - Klencke Atlas Klencke Atlas 1660
Geography - Liber Insularum Cycladum Liber Insularum Cycladum 1422
Geography - Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent 1881
Geography - [Manuscript Wall Map of the World] [Manuscript Wall Map of the World] 1587
Geography - Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe 1908
Geography - Mercator's Letter to John Dee Mercator's Letter to John Dee 1577
Geography - Mitchell's New General Atlas Mitchell's New General Atlas 1861
Geography - Museum de la Jeunesse Museum de la Jeunesse 1809
Geography - Premier Voyage Autour du Monde Premier Voyage Autour du Monde 1801
Geography - Purchas His Pilgrimage Purchas His Pilgrimage 1613
Geography - The Compleat Geographer The Compleat Geographer 1723
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 1 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 1 1854
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 2 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 2 1854
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 3 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 3 1854
Geography - The Illustrated Atlas The Illustrated Atlas 1851
Geography - The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots 1801
Geography - The Natural History of Norway The Natural History of Norway 1755
Geography - The Sea-Atlas The Sea-Atlas 1705
Geography - The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain 1676
Geography - Theatrum Ichnographicum Omnium Urbium Theatrum Ichnographicum Omnium Urbium 1700
Geography - Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Theatrum Orbis Terrarum 1570
Geography - Yaggy's Geographical Portfolio Yaggy's Geographical Portfolio 1893
Geography - Yaggy's Geographical Study Yaggy's Geographical Study 1887

Images

Image Name
Dept. De Vaucluse
A chart of the Eemes Elve -- A chart of the coast of Jutland
The Kingdome of Persia
Title Page
Back Cover
A chart of the north part of America -- [Inset] A polar projection describing ye northermost parts of the world
Dept. De La Mayenne
The Lakes of the Cumberland, Westmoreland, etc
Holy Iland, Garnsey, Farne and Iarsey
Septentrionalium Regionum Descrip
Dept. De La Loire
[I] Map of Chili [II] Map of Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay
Plymouth, Devonport and Stonehouse
B.C. 529. Exhibiting The Empire Of Cyrus.
France
Lakii Lacus Vulgo Terretorii Romani Descrip Fori Iulii
Mappemonde
Typus Orbis Terrarum
Plan of New Orleans
B.C. 1491. The Exodus Of The Israelites.
Map of the United States and Territories
Sheffield
The Kingdome of Denmarke
Helvetiae Descriptio Aegidio
Independent Tartary
A New Map of East India
County Map of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Cape Breton and Prince Edwards Island
Britain
Russia in Europe
A chart of the sea coasts of England Flanders and Holland
Dept. Du Gard
Devonshire
Boston
Brazil
Galliae Narbonensis et Sabaundiae et Burgundiae
Index of the Facsimile of Behaim's Globe
A chart of the western part of the East Indies, with all the aejacent islands from Cape Bona Esperanca to Cape Comorin
Polynesia, or Islands in the Pacific Ocean
Behaim's Monument at Nuremberg
The Invasions of England and Ireland
Western Hemisphere
The Province of Ulster
Anglesey
Dept. De Ardennes
Tartariae Sive Magni Chami Regni
France
Islands in the Indian Ocean (with) inset map of Mauritius
Title Page
Back Cover
Cyprus Insula
Dept. Des Vosges
A chart of the Caribe islands
[I] Ireland in Provinces [II] Counties County Map of Scotland
Asia Minor
Colonies Francaises Martinique
Martin Behaim
Back Cover
Dept. De Basse-Alpes
Dept. De Lyonne
A chart of Spaine
America
Van Diemen's Island or Tasmania
Caermarden
Dublin
Northern India including the Presidency of Calcutta
Südliche Hemisphaere der Weltkarte des Orontius Finaeus A.D Jahare 1531
Italia Novissima Descriptio
Hantshire
Dept. Du Lot
Dept. Des Pyrenees Orles
Front Cover
B.C. 146. At The End Of The Third Punic War.
Brabantiae
America Sive Novi Orbis Nova Descriptio
Map of Oregon, Washington and Part of British Columbia
Dept. De L'Aube
Dept. De La Meurthe
Canaan
Glasgow
A Prospect of the Most Famous Parts of the World
Plan of Boston
Japan & Corea
Dept. De La Hte. Vienne
Dept. De L'Ardeche
Liverpool
The North and East Ridins of Yorkshire
Thibet, Mongolia, and Mandchouria
Dept. De Corsica
Caernarvon
A Newe Mape of the Romane Empire
A chart of the western ocean
A Comparative View Of the Principal Waterfalls, Islands, Lakes, Rivers and Mountains, in the Eastern Hemisphere
[I] Map of New Granada, Venezuela and Guiana [II] Map of Peru and Ecuador [III] Map of the Argentine Confederation
Overland Route to India
Bradford, Yorkshire
Amerique Meridionale

Maps

Map Name
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of Texas (1861)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Helvetiae Descriptio Aegidio (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Greece (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - The World on Mercator's Projection (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Colonies Francaises (en Afrique) (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Kingdome of China (1676)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Gelriae, Cliviae Finitimorumque Locorumverissima Descriptio (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - America (1676)
Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent - Globus des Johannes Schöner A.D Jahare 1515 (1881)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Cher (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Indre (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Thusciae (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Penbrokshyre (1676)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of North America Showing the Political Divisions (1861)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Kingdome of Irland (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Doubs (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. D'Ille et Vilaine (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Birmingham (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - British India (1851)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of Hindoostan, Farther India, China and Tibet (1861)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Siene et Marne (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Cornwall (1676)
Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent - Südliche Hemisphaere der Weltkarte des Orontius Finaeus A.D Jahare 1531 (1881)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Yorkshire (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Cape Colony (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Van Diemen's Island or Tasmania (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Map of Virginia and Maryland (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Southampton (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Lot et Garonne (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Cote D'Or (1856)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 1828. End Of The General Peace. (1830)
The Illustrated Atlas - British Possessions in the Mediterranean (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Charente Infre (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Loire Infre (1856)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - Novissima totius terrarum orbis tabula (1672)
Atlas National Illustre - Amerique Septentrionale (1856)
A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company - A New and Exact Map of the Coasts, Countries, and Islands within the Limits of the South Sea Company (1711)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Stafford Countie and Towne (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Islands in the Atlantic (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Morbihan (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Midlesex (1676)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - [I] Map of Denmark [II] Map of Holland and Belgium [III] Russia in Europe, Sweden and Norway (1861)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A New Map of East India (1676)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of Canada West in Counties (1861)
The Illustrated Atlas - Northern Africa (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - France (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Galliae Narbonensis / Sabaundiae et Burgundiae (1570)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 1. The Roman Empire in the Augustan Age. (1830)
Catalan Atlas - Leafs 11 & 12 (1375)
The Illustrated Atlas - Ceylon (1851)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - [I] Map of New Granada, Venezuela and Guiana [II] Map of Peru and Ecuador [III] Map of the Argentine Confederation (1861)
The Illustrated Atlas - British America (1851)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the Baltick sea with the North Bodom & Lading (1672)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the South sea, Texel and Fly-stream -- A chart of the Eemes -- A chart of the Fly and Amerlander gat (1672)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Aude (1856)
Huntington's School Atlas - Oceania and Comparative N. America and Asia (1836)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of California (1861)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Tarn et Garonne (1856)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas (1861)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the North sea (1672)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Septentrionalium Regionum Descrip (1570)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Haut Rhin (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Mappemonde (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Asia (1851)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A Map of New Jarsey (1672)
The Illustrated Atlas - Chili and La Plata (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Salisburgensis (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Montgomeryshire (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Saone et Loire (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Turkey in Europe (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Bath (1851)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the sea coasts of Russia, Lapland, Finmarke, Nova Zembla and Greenland (1672)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Worcestershire (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Central America (1851)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the sea coasts of England Flanders and Holland (1672)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Counti of Warwick (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Russia in Europe (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Glocestershire (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Basse-Alpes (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Eure et Loir (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Graeciae Universae (1570)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the sea coast of Brazil from Cape St. Augustine to the straights of Magellan (1672)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the western part of the East Indies, with all the aejacent islands from Cape Bona Esperanca to Cape Comorin (1672)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Kingdome of Scotland (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Spaine (1676)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regionis Biturigum Limaniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Brabantiae (1570)
The Illustrated Atlas - West India Islands (1851)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Plan of Boston (1861)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of England and Wales (1861)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of Ohio and Indiana (1861)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Glamorganshyre (1676)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of Florida (1861)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 395. The Division Of The Roman Empire. (1830)
The Illustrated Atlas - New York (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Allier (1856)

Topics

View All Topics
Sabalico Logo
Sabali Mail Logo
Domain Search Logo
Test Speed Logo
Website On Logo
Code Editor Logo
ASCII Table Logo
HTML Symbols Logo
Emoji Symbols Logo
Encode File Logo
Generator Password Logo
QR Code Generator Logo
Barcode Generator Logo
Online Sign Logo
Dictionary Online Logo
Counter Word Logo
Text Convert Logo
Lorem Ipsum Generator Logo
Sprite Sheet Logo
Resize Image Logo
Image Compress Logo
Image Color Logo
Image Crop Logo
Combine Images Logo
Color Picker Logo
Color Convert Logo
CSS Gradient Logo
To-Do List Logo
Calendar Free Logo
Generator Meme Logo
Word Spinner Logo
Phone Country Logo
Sabalytics Logo
Senty Logo
World Map Logo
SEO Guide Logo
Keyword Tool Logo
What is my IP Logo
My Device Logo
My Browser Logo
My Location Logo
Time Zone Logo
Day Map Logo
My Weather Logo
My Galaxy Logo
The Moon Logo
Periodic Table Logo
rStatistics Logo
Unit Convert Logo
Data Convert Logo
Coordinate Converter Logo
Temperature Convert Logo
2020 Election Logo
Currency Convert Logo
Free Calculator Logo
Finance Calculator Logo
Loan Calculator Logo
Calculator Mortgage Logo
Stock Calculator Logo
Bond Calculator Logo
Tax Calculator Logo
Tip Calculator Logo
Gas Mileage Logo
History of Humanity - History Archive Logo
History of Humanity - History Mysteries Logo
History of Humanity - Ancient Mesopotamia Logo
History of Humanity - Egypt History Logo
History of Humanity - Persian Empire Logo
History of Humanity - Greek History Logo
History of Humanity - Alexander the Great Logo
History of Humanity - Roman History Logo
History of Humanity - Punic Wars Logo
History of Humanity - Golden Age of Piracy Logo
History of Humanity - Revolutionary War Logo
History of Humanity - Mafia History Logo