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Geography Collection

History Archive - Geography Collection

Geography means strictly a description of the earth. As now used, it is that branch of science which treats of the features of the earth's surface, the division into countries and the plants and animals, including man, which cover it.

It may be divided into physical geography, dealing with the form and motions of the earth, the atmosphere or air-covering, the land-surface and the water-covering, the facts that make up climate, the great classes of rocks that make up the surface and the leading classes of plants and animals which cover it; and political geography, giving an account of the different states or communities into which man is divided.

The terms commercial geography, which discusses the products and commerce of the different parts of the world; medical geography, dealing with different places as liable to certain diseases; and oceanography, which investigates the ocean and its inhabitants, are also sometimes used. Thus the study of geography touches in various ways upon many other sciences, as geology, history and astronomy.

The progress of geographical knowledge has depended largely on the progress of discovery. The Phoenicians were the first people who communicated to other nations a knowledge of distant lands. Their voyages before the time of Homer, through the Euxine, the Mediterranean and even into the Atlantic form the first link of the great chain of discovery which, centuries later, was extended by Columbus to the shores of America. Travelers like the Greek historian, Herodotus, whose History gives a complete representation of what was known of the earth's surface in his age, did much for the advancement of geography, as did also the exploring and surveying expeditions of Alexander the Great.

At the same time Pytheas, the Massilian navigator, was following the path of discovery in the north, possibly as far as Iceland, and in 276 B.C. Eratosthenes first used parallels of longitude and latitude and made maps on mathematical principles. By this time the old idea of the earth as a flat, circular shield surrounded by a rim of water had given place to the belief that the earth is a sphere, revolving with the surrounding atmosphere on one and the same axis. The practical genius of the Romans led them to make a study of the resources of the countries they conquered, which did much for geography. Their greatest work was a survey of the whole empire, including a description and measurement of each province, which was made under Caesar and Augustus. In the second century of our era Ptolemy wrote a work on geography, in eight books, which for many centuries was regarded as the most perfect system of the science.

The travels of the Venetian, Marco Polo, in the i4th century opened new fields of inquiry, and the close of the next century was marked by the discovery of the American continent. Within thirty years the whole coast of America, from Greenland to Cape Horn, had been explored; the Pacific Ocean had been navigated by Magellan and the world circumnavigated by his ship; the coasts of eastern Africa, Arabia, Persia and India had been visited; and numerous islands in the Indian Ocean discovered. The attempts to find a northwest passage to India increased the knowledge of the Arctic regions. Captain Cook by his long voyages dispelled the old belief in the existence of a great Antarctic continent, and the Antarctic lands have been visited during the 19th and 20th centuries.

In the 17th century the Dutch made the Australian islands (which the Portuguese had discovered about 1500 or else in 1601) known to the world, but it was not until within a few years that the first successful voyage was made through the northeast passage around Europe and Asia and through the northwest one around America. In America the travels of Humboldt, Lewis and Clarke, Fremont and others and the work of the United States and Canadian surveys have done much to add to our scientific knowledge. Africa, Asia and Australia are pretty well-known, but are still lands of exploration, though great areas in each have been opened in recent years, Commander Peary. U. S. N., who on April 6, 1909, reached the long sought North Pole; and Nansen; and Sven Hedin in Tibet in 1906-8 are but a few of the many who have enormously extended geographical knowledge recently. The work of making geography is still going on, and is constantly becoming more complete and important. Among the most valuable efforts in this direction may be mentioned the deep-sea exploring expeditions.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pg. 745.

Available Books

Book Title Date
Geography - A System of Geography A System of Geography 1701
Geography - A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company 1711
Geography - An Historical Atlas An Historical Atlas 1830
Geography - Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the United States of America Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the United States of America 1889
Geography - Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the World Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the World 1889
Geography - Atlas de Battista Agnese Atlas de Battista Agnese 1544
Geography - Atlas Geografico das Provincias do Reino de Portugal Atlas Geografico das Provincias do Reino de Portugal 1843
Geography - Atlas Geografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos Atlas Geografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos 1897
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 1 Atlas Geographus Vol. 1 1711
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 2 Atlas Geographus Vol. 2 1711
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 3 Atlas Geographus Vol. 3 1712
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 4 Atlas Geographus Vol. 4 1714
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 5 Atlas Geographus Vol. 5 1721
Geography - Atlas Manuale Atlas Manuale 1723
Geography - Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts 1672
Geography - Atlas Minor Atlas Minor 1736
Geography - Atlas National Illustre Atlas National Illustre 1856
Geography - Atlas Novus sive Tabulae Geographicae Atlas Novus sive Tabulae Geographicae 1730
Geography - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
Geography - Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 1964
Geography - Catalan Atlas Catalan Atlas 1375
Geography - La Descripcion de Espana y de las Costas y Puertos de sus Reinos La Descripcion de Espana y de las Costas y Puertos de sus Reinos 1634
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 1 Description de l'Univers Vol. 1 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 2 Description de l'Univers Vol. 2 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 3 Description de l'Univers Vol. 3 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 4 Description de l'Univers Vol. 4 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 5 Description de l'Univers Vol. 5 1683
Geography - Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum 1721
Geography - Huntington's School Atlas Huntington's School Atlas 1836
Geography - Islario General de Todas las Islas del Mundo Islario General de Todas las Islas del Mundo 1550
Geography - Klencke Atlas Klencke Atlas 1660
Geography - Liber Insularum Cycladum Liber Insularum Cycladum 1422
Geography - Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent 1881
Geography - [Manuscript Wall Map of the World] [Manuscript Wall Map of the World] 1587
Geography - Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe 1908
Geography - Mercator's Letter to John Dee Mercator's Letter to John Dee 1577
Geography - Mitchell's New General Atlas Mitchell's New General Atlas 1861
Geography - Museum de la Jeunesse Museum de la Jeunesse 1809
Geography - Premier Voyage Autour du Monde Premier Voyage Autour du Monde 1801
Geography - Purchas His Pilgrimage Purchas His Pilgrimage 1613
Geography - The Compleat Geographer The Compleat Geographer 1723
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 1 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 1 1854
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 2 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 2 1854
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 3 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 3 1854
Geography - The Illustrated Atlas The Illustrated Atlas 1851
Geography - The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots 1801
Geography - The Natural History of Norway The Natural History of Norway 1755
Geography - The Sea-Atlas The Sea-Atlas 1705
Geography - The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain 1676
Geography - Theatrum Ichnographicum Omnium Urbium Theatrum Ichnographicum Omnium Urbium 1700
Geography - Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Theatrum Orbis Terrarum 1570
Geography - Yaggy's Geographical Portfolio Yaggy's Geographical Portfolio 1893
Geography - Yaggy's Geographical Study Yaggy's Geographical Study 1887

Images

Image Name
The Western Road from London to the Lands-End in Cornwal
A Newe Mape of Poland
Manchester and It's Environs
The Countye of Monmouth
Amerique Septentrionale
Map of Mexico, Central America and the West Indies
County Map of Kentucky and Tennessee
Essex
Glasgow
Caermarden
Front Cover
British America
The House in Which Martin Behaim was Born
A Map of the Sommer Ilands
B.C. 1491. The Exodus Of The Israelites.
Barkshire
Typus Vindelicae
Dorsetshyre
Map of Canada East in Counties
Natoliae / Aegypti, Recentior Descriptio / Carthaginis Celeberrim Sinus Typis
Title Page
Leafs 3 & 4 - Zodiac
The Countie Pallatine of Lancaster
Dept. De La Loire Infre
Hungariae Descriptio Wolfgang Lazio Auct.
Book Display
Dept. Des Vosges
Map of Canada West in Counties
County Map of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Cape Breton and Prince Edwards Island
Schlavoniae, Croatiae, Carniae, Istriae, Bosniae, Finitimarumque Regionum Nova Descriptio
Transilvania
New York
Dept. De La Hte. Vienne
A chart of the West Indies from Cape Cod to the river Oronoque
Dept. De La Gironde
Tableau
Northern Italy
Globus des Johannes Schöner A.D Jahare 1520
Van Diemen's Island or Tasmania
Facsimile of Behaim's Globe [II]
Africae
The Kingdome of Denmarke
Front Cover
Behaim's Monument at Nuremberg
A chart of the eastermost part of the East Indies with all the adjacent islands from Cape Comorin to lapan
B.C. 301. Exhibiting The Partition Of The Empire Of Alexander.
The British Isles. (with) inset map of the Shetland Islands.
Belfast
Dept. De Siene et Marne
The North Road from London to Birwick
Huntington
County Map of Georgia and Alabama
Denbighshore
A chart of the sea coasts of England Flanders and Holland
Title Page
South America
Plymouth, Devonport and Stonehouse
Barbariae et Biledvlgerid Nova Descriptio
The World in Hemispheres
Colonies Francaises (en Amerique) [I]
Map of North America Showing the Political Divisions
France
A large description of the two chanells in the river Dwina goeing up to the citty of Archangel
the South-East, South and South-West Roads from London
Breknoke
Plan of Philadelphia
Graeciae Universae
Illustrated Title Page
A Newe Mape of Y XVII Provinces of Low Germanie
A.D. 395. The Division Of The Roman Empire.
Devonshire
Back Cover
Dept. Des Pyrenees Orles
Bath
Natal and Kaffraria
Dept. Des De La Somme
County Map of Ohio and Indiana
United States
Map of the Austrian Empire, Italian States, Turkey in Europe and Greece
Behaim's Globe at Nuremberg in 1905
The World
America Sive Novi Orbis Nova Descriptio
Spain
Descriptio Germaniae Inferioris
Map of Asia Showing It's Political Divisions
The Isle of Man
Asiae Nova Descriptio
Indiae Orientalis Insularumque Adiacientium Typus
Dept. De La Vienne
Dept. De Cher
Regni Bohemiae Descriptio
Front Cover
Dept. Du Pas De Calais
Dept. Du Puy De Dome
Oceania and Comparative N. America and Asia
The Fourth Book - Ireland

Maps

Map Name
Huntington's School Atlas - Middle with Part of the Southern and Western States (1836)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Bedfordshire (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - A Comparative View Of the Principal Waterfalls, Islands, Lakes, Rivers and Mountains, in the Eastern Hemisphere (1851)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the north part of America -- [Inset] A polar projection describing ye northermost parts of the world (1672)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Charente (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Countie of Leinster (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Nova Scotia and Newfoundland (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Northumberland (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Manchester and It's Environs (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Arabia (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Eure et Loir (1856)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 1828. End Of The General Peace. (1830)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Creuse (1856)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Cape Breton and Prince Edwards Island (1861)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the West Indies from Cape Cod to the river Oronoque (1672)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Surrey (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Yorkshire (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Greece (1676)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the South sea, Texel and Fly-stream -- A chart of the Eemes -- A chart of the Fly and Amerlander gat (1672)
Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent - Globus des Johannes Schöner A.D Jahare 1520 (1881)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Lozere (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Graeciae Universae (1570)
The Illustrated Atlas - Ceylon (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Natal and Kaffraria (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Afrique (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Lakii Lacus Vulgo Terretorii Romani Descrip Fori Iulii (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Italia Novissima Descriptio (1570)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the South-sea (1672)
The Illustrated Atlas - Austria (1851)
An Historical Atlas - B.C. 2348. The Deluge. (1830)
Catalan Atlas - Leafs 9 & 10 (1375)
The Illustrated Atlas - Turkey in Asia (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Charente Infre (1856)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A large description of the two chanells in the river Dwina goeing up to the citty of Archangel (1672)
Catalan Atlas - Leafs 7 & 8 (1375)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Brabantiae (1570)
The Illustrated Atlas - Turkey in Europe (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Islands in the Atlantic (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Rhone (1856)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - The river of Humber -- The river of Tyne (1672)
Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe - The Sources of Behaim's Globe (1908)
An Historical Atlas - B.C. 529. Exhibiting The Empire Of Cyrus. (1830)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of Kentucky and Tennessee (1861)
The Illustrated Atlas - Switzerland (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Huntington (1676)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of Virginia and North Carolina (1861)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Hartfordshire (1676)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - Novissima et accuratissima Insuale Jamaicae (1672)
Huntington's School Atlas - Oceania and Comparative N. America and Asia (1836)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the western ocean (1672)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Vendee (1856)
Huntington's School Atlas - Asia (1836)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Newe Mape of the Romane Empire (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Aisne (1856)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of the World on the Mercator Projection (1861)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 912. Dissolution of the Empire Of Charlemagne. (1830)
Catalan Atlas - Leafs 11 & 12 (1375)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Salisburgensis (1570)
The Illustrated Atlas - Sweden and Norway (1851)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Plan of Baltimore (1861)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Puy De Dome (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Evrop [Europe] (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Province of Ulster (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - British America (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Corse [Corsica] (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Typus Vindelicae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Asiae Nova Descriptio (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Shropshyre (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Countye Palatine of Chester (1676)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Zelandicarum et Prussiae Descriptio (1570)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Aveyron (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Kingdome of China (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Northern India including the Presidency of Calcutta (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Leeds (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Malay Archipelago, or East India Islands (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Loir et Cher (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Jamaica (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Russiae, Moscoviae et Tartariae Descriptio (1570)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of Georgia and Alabama (1861)
The Illustrated Atlas - Cape Colony (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Siene et Oise (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Nievre (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Schlavoniae, Croatiae, Carniae, Istriae, Bosniae, Finitimarumque Regionum Nova Descriptio (1570)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Dordeogne (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Finistere (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Newe Mape of Poland (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Kent (1676)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Austriae (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Map of Virginia and Maryland (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Falkland Islands and Patagonia (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Devonshire (1676)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Palatinatus Bavariae Descriptio et Wirtenbergensis Duvatus Vera Descriptio (1570)
Huntington's School Atlas - North America (1836)
The Illustrated Atlas - Europe (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Map of New England and New York (1676)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 1. The Roman Empire in the Augustan Age. (1830)

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