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Geography Collection

History Archive - Geography Collection

Geography means strictly a description of the earth. As now used, it is that branch of science which treats of the features of the earth's surface, the division into countries and the plants and animals, including man, which cover it.

It may be divided into physical geography, dealing with the form and motions of the earth, the atmosphere or air-covering, the land-surface and the water-covering, the facts that make up climate, the great classes of rocks that make up the surface and the leading classes of plants and animals which cover it; and political geography, giving an account of the different states or communities into which man is divided.

The terms commercial geography, which discusses the products and commerce of the different parts of the world; medical geography, dealing with different places as liable to certain diseases; and oceanography, which investigates the ocean and its inhabitants, are also sometimes used. Thus the study of geography touches in various ways upon many other sciences, as geology, history and astronomy.

The progress of geographical knowledge has depended largely on the progress of discovery. The Phoenicians were the first people who communicated to other nations a knowledge of distant lands. Their voyages before the time of Homer, through the Euxine, the Mediterranean and even into the Atlantic form the first link of the great chain of discovery which, centuries later, was extended by Columbus to the shores of America. Travelers like the Greek historian, Herodotus, whose History gives a complete representation of what was known of the earth's surface in his age, did much for the advancement of geography, as did also the exploring and surveying expeditions of Alexander the Great.

At the same time Pytheas, the Massilian navigator, was following the path of discovery in the north, possibly as far as Iceland, and in 276 B.C. Eratosthenes first used parallels of longitude and latitude and made maps on mathematical principles. By this time the old idea of the earth as a flat, circular shield surrounded by a rim of water had given place to the belief that the earth is a sphere, revolving with the surrounding atmosphere on one and the same axis. The practical genius of the Romans led them to make a study of the resources of the countries they conquered, which did much for geography. Their greatest work was a survey of the whole empire, including a description and measurement of each province, which was made under Caesar and Augustus. In the second century of our era Ptolemy wrote a work on geography, in eight books, which for many centuries was regarded as the most perfect system of the science.

The travels of the Venetian, Marco Polo, in the i4th century opened new fields of inquiry, and the close of the next century was marked by the discovery of the American continent. Within thirty years the whole coast of America, from Greenland to Cape Horn, had been explored; the Pacific Ocean had been navigated by Magellan and the world circumnavigated by his ship; the coasts of eastern Africa, Arabia, Persia and India had been visited; and numerous islands in the Indian Ocean discovered. The attempts to find a northwest passage to India increased the knowledge of the Arctic regions. Captain Cook by his long voyages dispelled the old belief in the existence of a great Antarctic continent, and the Antarctic lands have been visited during the 19th and 20th centuries.

In the 17th century the Dutch made the Australian islands (which the Portuguese had discovered about 1500 or else in 1601) known to the world, but it was not until within a few years that the first successful voyage was made through the northeast passage around Europe and Asia and through the northwest one around America. In America the travels of Humboldt, Lewis and Clarke, Fremont and others and the work of the United States and Canadian surveys have done much to add to our scientific knowledge. Africa, Asia and Australia are pretty well-known, but are still lands of exploration, though great areas in each have been opened in recent years, Commander Peary. U. S. N., who on April 6, 1909, reached the long sought North Pole; and Nansen; and Sven Hedin in Tibet in 1906-8 are but a few of the many who have enormously extended geographical knowledge recently. The work of making geography is still going on, and is constantly becoming more complete and important. Among the most valuable efforts in this direction may be mentioned the deep-sea exploring expeditions.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pg. 745.

Available Books

Book Title Date
Geography - A System of Geography A System of Geography 1701
Geography - A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company 1711
Geography - An Historical Atlas An Historical Atlas 1830
Geography - Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the United States of America Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the United States of America 1889
Geography - Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the World Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the World 1889
Geography - Atlas de Battista Agnese Atlas de Battista Agnese 1544
Geography - Atlas Geografico das Provincias do Reino de Portugal Atlas Geografico das Provincias do Reino de Portugal 1843
Geography - Atlas Geografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos Atlas Geografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos 1897
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 1 Atlas Geographus Vol. 1 1711
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 2 Atlas Geographus Vol. 2 1711
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 3 Atlas Geographus Vol. 3 1712
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 4 Atlas Geographus Vol. 4 1714
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 5 Atlas Geographus Vol. 5 1721
Geography - Atlas Manuale Atlas Manuale 1723
Geography - Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts 1672
Geography - Atlas Minor Atlas Minor 1736
Geography - Atlas National Illustre Atlas National Illustre 1856
Geography - Atlas Novus sive Tabulae Geographicae Atlas Novus sive Tabulae Geographicae 1730
Geography - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
Geography - Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 1964
Geography - Catalan Atlas Catalan Atlas 1375
Geography - La Descripcion de Espana y de las Costas y Puertos de sus Reinos La Descripcion de Espana y de las Costas y Puertos de sus Reinos 1634
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 1 Description de l'Univers Vol. 1 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 2 Description de l'Univers Vol. 2 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 3 Description de l'Univers Vol. 3 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 4 Description de l'Univers Vol. 4 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 5 Description de l'Univers Vol. 5 1683
Geography - Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum 1721
Geography - Huntington's School Atlas Huntington's School Atlas 1836
Geography - Islario General de Todas las Islas del Mundo Islario General de Todas las Islas del Mundo 1550
Geography - Klencke Atlas Klencke Atlas 1660
Geography - Liber Insularum Cycladum Liber Insularum Cycladum 1422
Geography - Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent 1881
Geography - [Manuscript Wall Map of the World] [Manuscript Wall Map of the World] 1587
Geography - Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe 1908
Geography - Mercator's Letter to John Dee Mercator's Letter to John Dee 1577
Geography - Mitchell's New General Atlas Mitchell's New General Atlas 1861
Geography - Museum de la Jeunesse Museum de la Jeunesse 1809
Geography - Premier Voyage Autour du Monde Premier Voyage Autour du Monde 1801
Geography - Purchas His Pilgrimage Purchas His Pilgrimage 1613
Geography - The Compleat Geographer The Compleat Geographer 1723
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 1 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 1 1854
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 2 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 2 1854
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 3 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 3 1854
Geography - The Illustrated Atlas The Illustrated Atlas 1851
Geography - The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots 1801
Geography - The Natural History of Norway The Natural History of Norway 1755
Geography - The Sea-Atlas The Sea-Atlas 1705
Geography - The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain 1676
Geography - Theatrum Ichnographicum Omnium Urbium Theatrum Ichnographicum Omnium Urbium 1700
Geography - Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Theatrum Orbis Terrarum 1570
Geography - Yaggy's Geographical Portfolio Yaggy's Geographical Portfolio 1893
Geography - Yaggy's Geographical Study Yaggy's Geographical Study 1887

Images

Image Name
A chart of Flanders between Calis and Walcheren
Flintshire
A.D. 912. Dissolution of the Empire Of Charlemagne.
Dept. De La Mayenne
Spain
Dept. De L'Ain
Dept. De L'Herault
Central America
Amerique Meridionale
Africae
Greece. (with) inset maps of Corfu and Stampalia
Switzerland
Galliae Regni Potentiss
Brighton
Dept. De La Correze
A chart of the coasts of Barbarie, Gualata, Arguyn & Genehoa from C. Vincent to C Verd.
Northumberland
A.D. 395. The Division Of The Roman Empire.
Dept. De Cher
Dept. De Corsica
Austriae
Back Cover
A.D. 1660. At The Restoration Of The Stuarts.
Vtriusque
The British Isles. (with) inset map of the Shetland Islands.
The Countie of Leinster
The Second Book - Wales
Hungariae Descriptio Wolfgang Lazio Auct.
New England States
Hantshire
West India Islands
The Kingdome of Denmarke
Germany
A.D. 1294. Exhibiting The Empire Of Kublai Khan.
Typus Orbis Terrarum
Chart of Climates and Productions
Thibet, Mongolia, and Mandchouria
Insularum Aliquot Maris Mediterranei Descriptio
Birmingham
Natal and Kaffraria
Hungary
Victoria or Port Phillip
County Map of Georgia and Alabama
Africa and the Atlantic Ocean
Dept. De La Hte. Marne
B.C. 2348. The Deluge.
Back Cover
A.D. 814. Exhibiting The Empire Of Charlemagne.
Dept. De La Charente Infre
Salisburgensis
Dept. De La Vendee
Germania
Descriptio Germaniae Inferioris
Norfolk
Caernarvon
A Newe Mape of the Romane Empire
Sweden and Norway
Cardiganshyre
Suffolke
B.C. 753. The Foundation Of Rome.
Plan of Baltimore
Persicic Sive Sophorum Regni Typus
Dept. De La Siene
A chart of the Caribe islands
Dept. Des Pyrenees Orles
The Province of Mounster
Map of Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas
Italia Novissima Descriptio
[1] Map of Oceanica Exhibiting It's Various Divisions Island Groups &c. [2] Map of the Sandwich Islands [Hawaii]
British India
Gelriae, Cliviae Finitimorumque Locorumverissima Descriptio
Jamaica
Graeciae Universae
Colonies Francaises Martinique
Dept. De L'Aisne
Turkey in Europe
Western Africa
Front Cover
A chart of the Tartarian sea from Nova Zemla to lapan
Dept. De La Loire
Dept. Du Morbihan
South America
Illustrated Title Page
Holy Iland, Garnsey, Farne and Iarsey
Australia
Dept. De La Moselle
Breknoke
Brabantiae
Belgium
The World on Mercator's Projection
The Countye of Monmouth
Galliae Narbonensis et Sabaundiae et Burgundiae
A Newe Mape of Tartary
Islands in the Atlantic
Map of France, Spain and Portugal
Franciae Orientalis Monasteriensis

Maps

Map Name
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Germania (1570)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Gironde (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Ardennes (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Independent Tartary (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Europae (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Kingdome of Denmarke (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Bes. Du Rhone (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Breknoke (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - West Canada (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. D'Indre et Loire (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Russia in Asia (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Invasions of England and Ireland (1676)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Pedemontanae (1570)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Siene et Marne (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Overland Route to India (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Herefordshire (1676)
Catalan Atlas - Leafs 5 & 6 (1375)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Turcici Imperii Descriptio (1570)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland and Delaware (1861)
The Illustrated Atlas - Northern Italy (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Finistere (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Australia (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Barkshire (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Map of Virginia and Maryland (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - France (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Palestinae Sive Totius Terrae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Silesiae Typus (1570)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A Map of New Jarsey (1672)
The Illustrated Atlas - Ireland (1851)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of the Austrian Empire, Italian States, Turkey in Europe and Greece (1861)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Province of Connaugh (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Japan & Corea (1851)
Huntington's School Atlas - Europe (1836)
Atlas National Illustre - Amerique Meridionale (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Map of the Sommer Ilands (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Leeds (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Turkisch Empire (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Spain and Portugal (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Des Deux Sevres (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regni Bohemiae Descriptio (1570)
The Illustrated Atlas - Sheffield (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Western Australia, Swan River (1851)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of Mexico, Central America and the West Indies (1861)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Charente (1856)
Catalan Atlas - Leafs 11 & 12 (1375)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Lot (1856)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Prussia and the German States (1861)
The Illustrated Atlas - Natal and Kaffraria (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Indre (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - British Possessions in the Mediterranean (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Belgium (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Turkey in Europe (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Countie of Leinster (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Newe Mape of Germany (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Tarn et Garonne (1856)
The Natural History of Norway - An Accurate Map of the Kingdom of Norway (1755)
Atlas National Illustre - Colonies Francaises (en Amerique) [I] (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - England and Wales (1851)
Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent - Globus des Johannes Schöner A.D Jahare 1515 (1881)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A generall chart of the north erne navigation (1672)
The Illustrated Atlas - North America (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Ceylon (1851)
Huntington's School Atlas - Oceania and Comparative N. America and Asia (1836)
An Historical Atlas - B.C. 146. At The End Of The Third Punic War. (1830)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Saxoniae (1570)
Atlas National Illustre - Colonies Francaises (en Afrique) (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Pas De Calais (1856)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 1811. Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte. (1830)
The Illustrated Atlas - Egypt, and Arabia Petraea (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Siene (1856)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - [I] Ireland in Provinces [II] Counties County Map of Scotland (1861)
The Illustrated Atlas - Southern India including the Presidencies of Bombay & Madras (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Loire (1856)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas (1861)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Province of Mounster (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. D'Ille et Vilaine (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Creuse (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Zelandicarum et Prussiae Descriptio (1570)
The Illustrated Atlas - Western Africa (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Part of South Australia (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - South America (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Buckingham (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Turkey in Asia (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - A Comparative View Of the Principal Waterfalls, Islands, Lakes, Rivers and Mountains, in the Western Hemisphere (1851)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 1100. Period Of The First Crusade. (1830)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Newe Mape of Poland (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Saone et Loire (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Persia (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Islands in the Indian Ocean (with) inset map of Mauritius (1851)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas (1861)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of Virginia and North Carolina (1861)
Huntington's School Atlas - Asia (1836)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Barbariae et Biledvlgerid Nova Descriptio (1570)
The Illustrated Atlas - West India Islands (1851)
Catalan Atlas - Leafs 7 & 8 (1375)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the Baltick sea with the North Bodom & Lading (1672)

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