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Geography

Geography Collection

History Archive - Geography Collection

Geography means strictly a description of the earth. As now used, it is that branch of science which treats of the features of the earth's surface, the division into countries and the plants and animals, including man, which cover it.

It may be divided into physical geography, dealing with the form and motions of the earth, the atmosphere or air-covering, the land-surface and the water-covering, the facts that make up climate, the great classes of rocks that make up the surface and the leading classes of plants and animals which cover it; and political geography, giving an account of the different states or communities into which man is divided.

The terms commercial geography, which discusses the products and commerce of the different parts of the world; medical geography, dealing with different places as liable to certain diseases; and oceanography, which investigates the ocean and its inhabitants, are also sometimes used. Thus the study of geography touches in various ways upon many other sciences, as geology, history and astronomy.

The progress of geographical knowledge has depended largely on the progress of discovery. The Phoenicians were the first people who communicated to other nations a knowledge of distant lands. Their voyages before the time of Homer, through the Euxine, the Mediterranean and even into the Atlantic form the first link of the great chain of discovery which, centuries later, was extended by Columbus to the shores of America. Travelers like the Greek historian, Herodotus, whose History gives a complete representation of what was known of the earth's surface in his age, did much for the advancement of geography, as did also the exploring and surveying expeditions of Alexander the Great.

At the same time Pytheas, the Massilian navigator, was following the path of discovery in the north, possibly as far as Iceland, and in 276 B.C. Eratosthenes first used parallels of longitude and latitude and made maps on mathematical principles. By this time the old idea of the earth as a flat, circular shield surrounded by a rim of water had given place to the belief that the earth is a sphere, revolving with the surrounding atmosphere on one and the same axis. The practical genius of the Romans led them to make a study of the resources of the countries they conquered, which did much for geography. Their greatest work was a survey of the whole empire, including a description and measurement of each province, which was made under Caesar and Augustus. In the second century of our era Ptolemy wrote a work on geography, in eight books, which for many centuries was regarded as the most perfect system of the science.

The travels of the Venetian, Marco Polo, in the i4th century opened new fields of inquiry, and the close of the next century was marked by the discovery of the American continent. Within thirty years the whole coast of America, from Greenland to Cape Horn, had been explored; the Pacific Ocean had been navigated by Magellan and the world circumnavigated by his ship; the coasts of eastern Africa, Arabia, Persia and India had been visited; and numerous islands in the Indian Ocean discovered. The attempts to find a northwest passage to India increased the knowledge of the Arctic regions. Captain Cook by his long voyages dispelled the old belief in the existence of a great Antarctic continent, and the Antarctic lands have been visited during the 19th and 20th centuries.

In the 17th century the Dutch made the Australian islands (which the Portuguese had discovered about 1500 or else in 1601) known to the world, but it was not until within a few years that the first successful voyage was made through the northeast passage around Europe and Asia and through the northwest one around America. In America the travels of Humboldt, Lewis and Clarke, Fremont and others and the work of the United States and Canadian surveys have done much to add to our scientific knowledge. Africa, Asia and Australia are pretty well-known, but are still lands of exploration, though great areas in each have been opened in recent years, Commander Peary. U. S. N., who on April 6, 1909, reached the long sought North Pole; and Nansen; and Sven Hedin in Tibet in 1906-8 are but a few of the many who have enormously extended geographical knowledge recently. The work of making geography is still going on, and is constantly becoming more complete and important. Among the most valuable efforts in this direction may be mentioned the deep-sea exploring expeditions.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pg. 745.

Available Books

Book Title Date
Geography - A System of Geography A System of Geography 1701
Geography - A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company 1711
Geography - An Historical Atlas An Historical Atlas 1830
Geography - Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the United States of America Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the United States of America 1889
Geography - Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the World Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the World 1889
Geography - Atlas de Battista Agnese Atlas de Battista Agnese 1544
Geography - Atlas Geografico das Provincias do Reino de Portugal Atlas Geografico das Provincias do Reino de Portugal 1843
Geography - Atlas Geografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos Atlas Geografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos 1897
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 1 Atlas Geographus Vol. 1 1711
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 2 Atlas Geographus Vol. 2 1711
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 3 Atlas Geographus Vol. 3 1712
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 4 Atlas Geographus Vol. 4 1714
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 5 Atlas Geographus Vol. 5 1721
Geography - Atlas Manuale Atlas Manuale 1723
Geography - Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts 1672
Geography - Atlas Minor Atlas Minor 1736
Geography - Atlas National Illustre Atlas National Illustre 1856
Geography - Atlas Novus sive Tabulae Geographicae Atlas Novus sive Tabulae Geographicae 1730
Geography - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
Geography - Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 1964
Geography - Catalan Atlas Catalan Atlas 1375
Geography - La Descripcion de Espana y de las Costas y Puertos de sus Reinos La Descripcion de Espana y de las Costas y Puertos de sus Reinos 1634
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 1 Description de l'Univers Vol. 1 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 2 Description de l'Univers Vol. 2 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 3 Description de l'Univers Vol. 3 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 4 Description de l'Univers Vol. 4 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 5 Description de l'Univers Vol. 5 1683
Geography - Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum 1721
Geography - Huntington's School Atlas Huntington's School Atlas 1836
Geography - Islario General de Todas las Islas del Mundo Islario General de Todas las Islas del Mundo 1550
Geography - Klencke Atlas Klencke Atlas 1660
Geography - Liber Insularum Cycladum Liber Insularum Cycladum 1422
Geography - Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent 1881
Geography - [Manuscript Wall Map of the World] [Manuscript Wall Map of the World] 1587
Geography - Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe 1908
Geography - Mercator's Letter to John Dee Mercator's Letter to John Dee 1577
Geography - Mitchell's New General Atlas Mitchell's New General Atlas 1861
Geography - Museum de la Jeunesse Museum de la Jeunesse 1809
Geography - Premier Voyage Autour du Monde Premier Voyage Autour du Monde 1801
Geography - Purchas His Pilgrimage Purchas His Pilgrimage 1613
Geography - The Compleat Geographer The Compleat Geographer 1723
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 1 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 1 1854
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 2 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 2 1854
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 3 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 3 1854
Geography - The Illustrated Atlas The Illustrated Atlas 1851
Geography - The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots 1801
Geography - The Natural History of Norway The Natural History of Norway 1755
Geography - The Sea-Atlas The Sea-Atlas 1705
Geography - The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain 1676
Geography - Theatrum Ichnographicum Omnium Urbium Theatrum Ichnographicum Omnium Urbium 1700
Geography - Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Theatrum Orbis Terrarum 1570
Geography - Yaggy's Geographical Portfolio Yaggy's Geographical Portfolio 1893
Geography - Yaggy's Geographical Study Yaggy's Geographical Study 1887

Images

Image Name
Preston
Map of Africa Showing It's Most Recent Discoveries
A.D. 1551. At The Death Of Charles V.
Dept. De L'Ain
Russia in Europe
Dept. De Lot et Garonne
Palestinae Sive Totius Terrae
Dept. De La Siene Inferieure
[I] Map of Chili [II] Map of Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay
Rutlandshire
Dept. Du Doubs
The West Road from London to Bristol
Thietmarsiae
A Newe Mape of Tartary
Südliche Hemisphaere des Globus von Johannes Schöner A.D Jahare 1533
Graeciae Universae
Front Cover
Lakii Lacus Vulgo Terretorii Romani Descrip Fori Iulii
Leeds
A chart of the western part of the East Indies, with all the aejacent islands from Cape Bona Esperanca to Cape Comorin
Spain
Arabia
Dept. Du Bas Rhin
The Lakes of the Cumberland, Westmoreland, etc
Behaim's Globe at Nuremberg in 1905
Huntington
Natal and Kaffraria
Venezuela, New Granada, Equador, and the Guayanas
A.D. 912. Dissolution of the Empire Of Charlemagne.
Asia
Book Display
Dept. Du Gers
Western Hemisphere
Dept. Des Deux Sevres
Dept. Du Jura
Belgium
Dept. De L'Eure
Spain and Portugal
Facsimile of Behaim's Globe [IV]
Dept. Des Landes
Dept. De Vaucluse
Daniae Regni Typus
Dept. D'Ille et Vilaine
Holy Iland, Garnsey, Farne and Iarsey
B.C. 2348. The Deluge.
Schlavoniae, Croatiae, Carniae, Istriae, Bosniae, Finitimarumque Regionum Nova Descriptio
New York
United States
Dept. De Siene et Oise
Map of the United States and Territories
Typus Vindelicae
Austria
Italia
Asie
Britain
Worcestershire
Dept. De L'Isere
A Map of New Jarsey
Dept. Du Lot
Dept. De L'Aube
Dept. De La Vienne
Italia Novissima Descriptio
Isthmus of Panama
Amerique Meridionale
Frontispiece
Dept. De La Loire Infre
Plan of Boston
Dept. De L'Ardeche
South America
Novissima totius terrarum orbis tabula
Ancient Palestine
Hungariae Descriptio Wolfgang Lazio Auct.
British Guayana
Plan of New York
A Newe Mape of Hungari
Title Page
Ireland
Map of North America Showing the Political Divisions
Dept. De La Haute Loire
Dept. De Cher
Africae
A chart of the South-sea
Leafs 7 & 8 - Map
A.D. 337. At The Death Of Constantine.
The North and East Ridins of Yorkshire
Dept. De Cotes du Nord
Dept. De La Dordeogne
A New Map of East India
County Map of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland and Delaware
A Map of Virginia and Maryland
B.C. 529. Exhibiting The Empire Of Cyrus.
South America
Poloniae
Norhamtonshire
Galliae Narbonensis et Sabaundiae et Burgundiae
A chart of the Narrow seas

Maps

Map Name
Atlas National Illustre - Amerique Meridionale (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - A Comparative View Of the Principal Waterfalls, Islands, Lakes, Rivers and Mountains, in the Eastern Hemisphere (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Cumberland (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - France (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Gard (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Loiret (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Aube (1856)
A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company - A New and Exact Map of the Coasts, Countries, and Islands within the Limits of the South Sea Company (1711)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the Brittish chanel (1672)
The Illustrated Atlas - East Canada and New Brunswick (1851)
Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent - Südliche Hemisphaere des Globus von Johannes Schöner A.D Jahare 1533 (1881)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Haute Loire (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Shropshyre (1676)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the north part of America -- [Inset] A polar projection describing ye northermost parts of the world (1672)
The Illustrated Atlas - Central America (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Des Deux Sevres (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Galliae Narbonensis / Sabaundiae et Burgundiae (1570)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Lot et Garonne (1856)
Huntington's School Atlas - Africa and the Atlantic Ocean (1836)
Atlas National Illustre - Oceanie (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Italia Novissima Descriptio (1570)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the Levant or eastermost part of the Mediterranean sea (1672)
The Illustrated Atlas - Cork (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Barkshire (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Cape Colony (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Cambridgshire (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Kingdome of England (1676)
Huntington's School Atlas - United States (1836)
The Illustrated Atlas - Chili and La Plata (1851)
Huntington's School Atlas - Oceania and Comparative N. America and Asia (1836)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - [I] Map of Denmark [II] Map of Holland and Belgium [III] Russia in Europe, Sweden and Norway (1861)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the sea coasts of England Flanders and Holland (1672)
The Illustrated Atlas - Nova Scotia and Newfoundland (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Palestinae Sive Totius Terrae (1570)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Siene et Oise (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - British India (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The West Ridinge of Yorkeshyre (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Colonies Francaises (en Amerique) [I] (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Ireland (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Huntington (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Bedfordshire (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Isle de la Reunion (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. D'Ille et Vilaine (1856)
An Historical Atlas - B.C. 301. Exhibiting The Partition Of The Empire Of Alexander. (1830)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Des Bses. Pyrenees (1856)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of Texas (1861)
The Illustrated Atlas - Newcastle on Tyne (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Kent (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Brazil (1851)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of Asia Showing It's Political Divisions (1861)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Vienne (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Africae (1676)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of Gvinea describeing the sea coast from Cape de Verde to Cape Bona Esperanca (1672)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of Spaine (1672)
The Illustrated Atlas - Turkey in Asia (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Kingdome of Persia (1676)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of Florida (1861)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - Novissima totius terrarum orbis tabula (1672)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 1100. Period Of The First Crusade. (1830)
The Illustrated Atlas - British America (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regni Hispaniae (1570)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of Mexico, Central America and the West Indies (1861)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Manche (1856)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 337. At The Death Of Constantine. (1830)
The Illustrated Atlas - Australia (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Ducatus Mediolanensis (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Map of Jamaica and Barbados (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Siene et Marne (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Indiae Orientalis Insularumque Adiacientium Typus (1570)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of the World on the Mercator Projection (1861)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Cantal (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - La France (1856)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 476. The Dissolution Of the Western Empire. (1830)
The Illustrated Atlas - Natal and Kaffraria (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Mape of Hungari (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Var (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Colonies Francaises Martinique (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Gironde (1856)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 1811. Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte. (1830)
The Illustrated Atlas - Islands in the Indian Ocean (with) inset map of Mauritius (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - British Guayana (1851)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 1294. Exhibiting The Empire Of Kublai Khan. (1830)
Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent - Westliche Hemisphaere nach der Weltkarte des Lionardo da Vinci (1881)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Loire (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Russia in Europe (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Hte. Marne (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Dordeogne (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Galliae Regni Potentiss (1570)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Orne (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Hollandiae (1570)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of Kentucky and Tennessee (1861)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regionis Biturigum Limaniae (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Countie Westmorland (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Bradford, Yorkshire (1851)
Huntington's School Atlas - The World (1836)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Pedemontanae (1570)

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