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Geography

Geography Collection

History Archive - Geography Collection

Geography means strictly a description of the earth. As now used, it is that branch of science which treats of the features of the earth's surface, the division into countries and the plants and animals, including man, which cover it.

It may be divided into physical geography, dealing with the form and motions of the earth, the atmosphere or air-covering, the land-surface and the water-covering, the facts that make up climate, the great classes of rocks that make up the surface and the leading classes of plants and animals which cover it; and political geography, giving an account of the different states or communities into which man is divided.

The terms commercial geography, which discusses the products and commerce of the different parts of the world; medical geography, dealing with different places as liable to certain diseases; and oceanography, which investigates the ocean and its inhabitants, are also sometimes used. Thus the study of geography touches in various ways upon many other sciences, as geology, history and astronomy.

The progress of geographical knowledge has depended largely on the progress of discovery. The Phoenicians were the first people who communicated to other nations a knowledge of distant lands. Their voyages before the time of Homer, through the Euxine, the Mediterranean and even into the Atlantic form the first link of the great chain of discovery which, centuries later, was extended by Columbus to the shores of America. Travelers like the Greek historian, Herodotus, whose History gives a complete representation of what was known of the earth's surface in his age, did much for the advancement of geography, as did also the exploring and surveying expeditions of Alexander the Great.

At the same time Pytheas, the Massilian navigator, was following the path of discovery in the north, possibly as far as Iceland, and in 276 B.C. Eratosthenes first used parallels of longitude and latitude and made maps on mathematical principles. By this time the old idea of the earth as a flat, circular shield surrounded by a rim of water had given place to the belief that the earth is a sphere, revolving with the surrounding atmosphere on one and the same axis. The practical genius of the Romans led them to make a study of the resources of the countries they conquered, which did much for geography. Their greatest work was a survey of the whole empire, including a description and measurement of each province, which was made under Caesar and Augustus. In the second century of our era Ptolemy wrote a work on geography, in eight books, which for many centuries was regarded as the most perfect system of the science.

The travels of the Venetian, Marco Polo, in the i4th century opened new fields of inquiry, and the close of the next century was marked by the discovery of the American continent. Within thirty years the whole coast of America, from Greenland to Cape Horn, had been explored; the Pacific Ocean had been navigated by Magellan and the world circumnavigated by his ship; the coasts of eastern Africa, Arabia, Persia and India had been visited; and numerous islands in the Indian Ocean discovered. The attempts to find a northwest passage to India increased the knowledge of the Arctic regions. Captain Cook by his long voyages dispelled the old belief in the existence of a great Antarctic continent, and the Antarctic lands have been visited during the 19th and 20th centuries.

In the 17th century the Dutch made the Australian islands (which the Portuguese had discovered about 1500 or else in 1601) known to the world, but it was not until within a few years that the first successful voyage was made through the northeast passage around Europe and Asia and through the northwest one around America. In America the travels of Humboldt, Lewis and Clarke, Fremont and others and the work of the United States and Canadian surveys have done much to add to our scientific knowledge. Africa, Asia and Australia are pretty well-known, but are still lands of exploration, though great areas in each have been opened in recent years, Commander Peary. U. S. N., who on April 6, 1909, reached the long sought North Pole; and Nansen; and Sven Hedin in Tibet in 1906-8 are but a few of the many who have enormously extended geographical knowledge recently. The work of making geography is still going on, and is constantly becoming more complete and important. Among the most valuable efforts in this direction may be mentioned the deep-sea exploring expeditions.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pg. 745.

Available Books

Book Title Date
Geography - A System of Geography A System of Geography 1701
Geography - A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company A View of the Coasts, Countries and Islands within the Limits of the South-Sea-Company 1711
Geography - An Historical Atlas An Historical Atlas 1830
Geography - Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the United States of America Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the United States of America 1889
Geography - Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the World Arbuckles' Illustrated Atlas of the World 1889
Geography - Atlas de Battista Agnese Atlas de Battista Agnese 1544
Geography - Atlas Geografico das Provincias do Reino de Portugal Atlas Geografico das Provincias do Reino de Portugal 1843
Geography - Atlas Geografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos Atlas Geografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos 1897
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 1 Atlas Geographus Vol. 1 1711
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 2 Atlas Geographus Vol. 2 1711
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 3 Atlas Geographus Vol. 3 1712
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 4 Atlas Geographus Vol. 4 1714
Geography - Atlas Geographus Vol. 5 Atlas Geographus Vol. 5 1721
Geography - Atlas Manuale Atlas Manuale 1723
Geography - Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts 1672
Geography - Atlas Minor Atlas Minor 1736
Geography - Atlas National Illustre Atlas National Illustre 1856
Geography - Atlas Novus sive Tabulae Geographicae Atlas Novus sive Tabulae Geographicae 1730
Geography - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
Geography - Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 1964
Geography - Catalan Atlas Catalan Atlas 1375
Geography - La Descripcion de Espana y de las Costas y Puertos de sus Reinos La Descripcion de Espana y de las Costas y Puertos de sus Reinos 1634
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 1 Description de l'Univers Vol. 1 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 2 Description de l'Univers Vol. 2 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 3 Description de l'Univers Vol. 3 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 4 Description de l'Univers Vol. 4 1683
Geography - Description de l'Univers Vol. 5 Description de l'Univers Vol. 5 1683
Geography - Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum 1721
Geography - Huntington's School Atlas Huntington's School Atlas 1836
Geography - Islario General de Todas las Islas del Mundo Islario General de Todas las Islas del Mundo 1550
Geography - Klencke Atlas Klencke Atlas 1660
Geography - Liber Insularum Cycladum Liber Insularum Cycladum 1422
Geography - Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent 1881
Geography - [Manuscript Wall Map of the World] [Manuscript Wall Map of the World] 1587
Geography - Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe 1908
Geography - Mercator's Letter to John Dee Mercator's Letter to John Dee 1577
Geography - Mitchell's New General Atlas Mitchell's New General Atlas 1861
Geography - Museum de la Jeunesse Museum de la Jeunesse 1809
Geography - Premier Voyage Autour du Monde Premier Voyage Autour du Monde 1801
Geography - Purchas His Pilgrimage Purchas His Pilgrimage 1613
Geography - The Compleat Geographer The Compleat Geographer 1723
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 1 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 1 1854
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 2 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 2 1854
Geography - The Geography of Strabo Vol. 3 The Geography of Strabo Vol. 3 1854
Geography - The Illustrated Atlas The Illustrated Atlas 1851
Geography - The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots 1801
Geography - The Natural History of Norway The Natural History of Norway 1755
Geography - The Sea-Atlas The Sea-Atlas 1705
Geography - The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain 1676
Geography - Theatrum Ichnographicum Omnium Urbium Theatrum Ichnographicum Omnium Urbium 1700
Geography - Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Theatrum Orbis Terrarum 1570
Geography - Yaggy's Geographical Portfolio Yaggy's Geographical Portfolio 1893
Geography - Yaggy's Geographical Study Yaggy's Geographical Study 1887

Images

Image Name
Denmark
Europe
Surrey
Yorkshire
Thusciae
A chart of Flanders between Calis and Walcheren
Title Page
The Kingdome of Persia
Dorsetshyre
Huntington
County Map of the States of New York, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut
The Kingdome of China
Dept. De La Charente Infre
Palatinatus Bavariae Descriptio et Wirtenbergensis Duvatus Vera Descriptio
Dept. De L'Allier
Modern Palestine
The Counti of Warwick
Turkey in Europe
A New Map of East India
Daniae Regni Typus
Oceanie
A.D. 1551. At The Death Of Charles V.
Back Cover
A New Description of Carolina
Angliae, Scotiae et Hiberniae sive Britannicar Insularum Descriptio
[I] Map of Denmark [II] Map of Holland and Belgium [III] Russia in Europe, Sweden and Norway
County Map of Florida
[I] Ireland in Provinces [II] Counties County Map of Scotland
A chart of the sea coasts of England Flanders and Holland
Dept. De La Charente
Northumberland
A.D. 814. Exhibiting The Empire Of Charlemagne.
the South-East, South and South-West Roads from London
Map of Persia, Turkey in Asia, Afghanistan, Beloochistan
Dept. De L'Aisne
A chart of the Baltick sea with the North Bodom & Lading
A draught of the sands, channels buoyes beacons and sea marks upon the coast of England -- [Inset] The river of Thames from London Bridge to Tilburyhope
Galliae Narbonensis et Sabaundiae et Burgundiae
Dept. De La Vienne
Africae
Colonies Francaises (en Afrique)
Africa
Jamaica
Dept. De La Dordeogne
Dept. De Maine et Loire
Breknoke
South America
Western Africa
Turkey in Asia
A Map of Jamaica and Barbados
A chart of the Levant or eastermost part of the Mediterranean sea
Dept. De L'Eure et Loir
Newcastle on Tyne
The British Isles. (with) inset map of the Shetland Islands.
America Sive Novi Orbis Nova Descriptio
Egypt, and Arabia Petraea
Front Cover
The West Road from London to Bristol
Schlavoniae, Croatiae, Carniae, Istriae, Bosniae, Finitimarumque Regionum Nova Descriptio
Front Cover
Spain
Leafs 11 & 12 - Map
Austriae
Europe
Dept. De L'Ardeche
Leafs 7 & 8 - Map
Germany
The Kingdome of Scotland
Back Cover
Dept. De La Vendee
Dept. Des Bses. Pyrenees
Falkland Islands and Patagonia
Caletensium Verom.
Austria
Ireland
Hantshire
Dept. De L'Indre
Map of Hindoostan, Farther India, China and Tibet
Boston
A.D. 1498. The Discovery Of America.
Asia
Dublin
Back Cover
The North-West Road from London to Hollyhead
Dept. De La Siene
Facsimile of Behaim's Globe [I]
A Prospect of the Most Famous Parts of the World
Dept. De La Marne
The Kingdome of England
Australia
Amerique Septentrionale
Cyprus Insula
Dept. De Lot et Garonne
Tartariae Sive Magni Chami Regni
Dept. Du Haut Rhin
The Sources of Behaim's Globe

Maps

Map Name
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the Levant or eastermost part of the Mediterranean sea (1672)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Bishophrick and Citie of Durham (1676)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Caletensium / Verom. (1570)
An Historical Atlas - B.C. 301. Exhibiting The Partition Of The Empire Of Alexander. (1830)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regni Hispaniae (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Shropshyre (1676)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of Florida (1861)
The Illustrated Atlas - Islands in the Indian Ocean (with) inset map of Mauritius (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Merionethshire (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Australia (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Lyonne (1856)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 912. Dissolution of the Empire Of Charlemagne. (1830)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Newe Mape of Y XVII Provinces of Low Germanie (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Oise (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Oceanie (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Germany (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Hartfordshire (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Africae (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - New York (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Aberdeen (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Natal and Kaffraria (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Vaucluse (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Transilvania (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Mape of Hungari (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De Tarn et Garonne (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Somersetshire (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Sheffield (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Central America (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Leicester (1676)
An Historical Atlas - B.C. 753. The Foundation Of Rome. (1830)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Typus Orbis Terrarum (1570)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Lot (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Barkshire (1676)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Portugalliae (1570)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Gard (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Bradford, Yorkshire (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Islands in the Atlantic (1851)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the coasts of Barbarie, Gualata, Arguyn & Genehoa from C. Vincent to C Verd. (1672)
Magalhaes-Strasse und Austral-Continent - Westliche Hemisphaere nach der Weltkarte des Lionardo da Vinci (1881)
The Illustrated Atlas - Russia in Europe (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Europe (1856)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas (1861)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Cambridgshire (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Colonies Francaises (en Amerique) [II] (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Darbieshire (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De La Sarthe (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A New Map of East India (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Map of Russia (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Prussia (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Hollandiae (1570)
Atlas National Illustre - Mappemonde (1856)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the South-sea (1672)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - County Map of the State of Maine (1861)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Newe Mape of Poland (1676)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of Canada East in Counties (1861)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Galliae Regni Potentiss (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Glocestershire (1676)
Catalan Atlas - Leafs 9 & 10 (1375)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the Eemes Elve -- A chart of the coast of Jutland (1672)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the western ocean (1672)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Norfolk (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Modern Palestine (1851)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Map of Oregon, Washington and Part of British Columbia (1861)
The Illustrated Atlas - Europe (1851)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 1. The Roman Empire in the Augustan Age. (1830)
An Historical Atlas - A.D. 814. Exhibiting The Empire Of Charlemagne. (1830)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Newe Mape of Germany (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Polynesia, or Islands in the Pacific Ocean (1851)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Insularum Aliquot Maris Mediterranei Descriptio (1570)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Worcestershire (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Africa (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Southern Italy (1851)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the South sea, Texel and Fly-stream -- A chart of the Eemes -- A chart of the Fly and Amerlander gat (1672)
The Illustrated Atlas - Ancient Palestine (1851)
Atlas National Illustre - Afrique (1856)
The Illustrated Atlas - Eastern Hemisphere (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Kingdome of Irland (1676)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A chart of the Maes and Wielingen -- The coast of Holland between the Maes and Texel (1672)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - A Map of New England and New York (1676)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - The Kingdome of Persia (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Finistere (1856)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. De L'Eure (1856)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Canaan (1676)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Des Vosges (1856)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Barbariae et Biledvlgerid Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - America Sive Novi Orbis Nova Descriptio (1570)
An Historical Atlas - B.C. 1491. The Exodus Of The Israelites. (1830)
Mitchell's New General Atlas - Prussia and the German States (1861)
Atlas National Illustre - Dept. Du Tarn (1856)
An Historical Atlas - B.C. 323. Exhibiting The Empire Of Alexander. (1830)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Spaine (1676)
The Illustrated Atlas - Brighton (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - China and Burmah (1851)
The Illustrated Atlas - Venezuela, New Granada, Equador, and the Guayanas (1851)
The Theatre of the Empire of Great-Britain - Rutlandshire (1676)
Atlas Maritimus, or a Book of Charts - A draught of the sands, channels buoyes beacons and sea marks upon the coast of England -- [Inset] The river of Thames from London Bridge to Tilburyhope (1672)

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