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Ethnology

Ethnology Collection

History Archive - Ethnology Collection

Ethnology is the branch of the science of anthropology which treats of the races of mankind and seeks to explain their origin and development. Anthropology is the science which treats of man in relation to himself, to other men and to all nature.

Anthropology is subdivided into several branches, each of which treats of some special phase of man's natural history. There is a difference in the meaning given by students to the names employed to designate the divisions of the study of man. Ethnology, ethnography, and anthropology have been to some extent interchangeable terms. Each of these branches of knowledge has a special meaning given it in different countries. However, there is becoming a more general acceptance of a definite meaning for these topics.

The comprehensive term anthropology is recognized in its general sense to include all others (Keane, Tylor, Mason). The meaning herein given to Ethnology is widely recognized (Keene, Brinton). The use of the term anthropology, to designate societies for the study of man and for sections in national scientific bodies on both sides of the Atlantic, indicates a general tendency to accept the proper meaning of the word.

Ethnology differs from ethnography, which deals chiefly with the collection of facts regarding the families, tribes and races of mankind, in seeking to explain the significance of the information obtained. Ethnography (from a people, to write) is a writing about, a description of, peoples. Ethnology (from , a people, a discourse), attempts to interpret the facts gathered, to explain the causes for the conditions and the relationships of different peoples. Ethnography and ethnology occupy a relation to each other somewhat akin to that of geography and geology. One deals chiefly with existing facts, the other attempts to interpret the history which brought them forth.

Broca says ethnography studies peoples, ethnology races. The following seems a convenient scheme for grouping the branches of anthropology. Substantially it is as follows: Archaeology, Biology, Psychology, Ethnology, Ethnography, Philology, Technology, Sociology and Religion (Mason).

The unity of the race is now generally accepted. From the researches of the physiologist, the anatomist, the philologist and the psychologist we obtain the same testimony as to the specific unity of our race. The place of origin or centre of dispersal is not fixed. From the studies of eminent specialists, it would seem that the land about the shores of the Mediterranean, or the region farther eastward toward India, may claim to be the home of primitive man. About the Mediterranean they settled down like frogs about a pond (Plato).

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Classification. - For classification, mankind is divided into groups. On account of their distribution, these are sometimes named for geographical divisions. They are also distinguished as families, clans, tribes, nations, peoples and races. In the naming of the latter, family relationships form a prominent factor. It is with both of these lines of classification and the distribution of those discussed under them that ethnology has to do. In these efforts at classification, different schemes have been tried. It is generally accepted that there are two groups of elements of characterization, which are sometimes called criteria. These are physical elements and psychical elements.

The principal physical elements are the bones, the shape of the skull, the facial angle, the color of the skin, color, shape and texture of the hair. Of these, color, probably because the most conspicuous feature, was the first to be considered and formed the basis of all the early classifications. The craniological school founded by the elder Retzius (1796-1860), made the shape of the head the basis of classification, and introduced exact methods into this branch of the subject. This was based on the relative length and breadth of the skull, and accordingly mankind was divided into long-skulled and short, broad-skulled races. Later developments in craniology introduced a third class, representing a mean between the other two. Craniology alone cannot be depended upon to supply sufficient or trustworthy materials for the proper classification of mankind. Nevertheless it has thrown much light upon the subject. Of late years the color, shape and texture of the hair have steadily risen in the estimation of naturalists as a racial test. The hair is now regarded as the most constant of all the physical features and has been made the foundation of their groupings by some of the most eminent anthropologists.

The other physical ethnical elements are of little value separately, but are often useful aids in combination with others. Such are stature; the shape, color and position of the eye; the size and form of the brain; the shape of the nose and mouth; the superciliary and zygomatic arches, and all such other elements as collectively constitute the broad, flat features of the lower, the oval and regular faces of the higher races.

The psychical elements are less conspicuous, and have but recently been taken into account in classification. It has been said that "Love and hunger rule the world." The former relates to the perpetuation of kind, the latter to self-preservation. Around these two may be grouped the other factors of this class. The following are the principal psychical elements:

(1) Preservative instinct, food, clothing, shelter; (2) Perpetuating instinct; (3) Language; (4) Religion; (5) Government (6) The Arts.

Food, clothing and shelter are the imperative needs of the human species at all ages and under all conditions. Among the prominent topics considered under the sexual impulse are the position of woman, the marriage relation and the line of descent. Language is the chief of the psychical elements. Some perhaps, with Horatio Hale, would make it the sole test of race. The power of religion, both as a constructive and dispersive force, is the repeated testimony of history. The organization and administration of government, whether in its primitive form or in the more enlightened stage, is of deepest interest. The arts of life find their origin in the rude homes of early man, and have steadily been influential in all human progress. For these have lives been lost, tribes been destroyed, nations been formed, battles been won. They have been the motive power in every effort, the impulse behind every forward movement of mankind from the earliest days to now.

References:

The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)

1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 9. pgs. 849-851.

The New International Encyclopaedia (1905)

Available Books

Book Title Date
Ethnology - Africa, Being an Accurate Description Africa, Being an Accurate Description 1670
Ethnology - America: Being an Accurate Description of the Nevv VVorld America: Being an Accurate Description of the Nevv VVorld 1670
Ethnology - Amerika: eine allgemeine Landeskund Amerika: eine allgemeine Landeskund 1894
Ethnology - An Account of the Abipones Vol. 1 An Account of the Abipones Vol. 1 1822
Ethnology - An Account of the Abipones Vol. 2 An Account of the Abipones Vol. 2 1822
Ethnology - An Account of the Abipones Vol. 3 An Account of the Abipones Vol. 3 1822
Ethnology - Die Völker der Erde nach ihrer Eigenthümlichkeit in Regierungsform Die Völker der Erde nach ihrer Eigenthümlichkeit in Regierungsform 1859
Ethnology - Esplorazione delle Regioni Equatoriali Esplorazione delle Regioni Equatoriali 1854
Ethnology - Great Races of Mankind Vol. 1 Great Races of Mankind Vol. 1 1893
Ethnology - Great Races of Mankind Vol. 2 Great Races of Mankind Vol. 2 1893
Ethnology - Great Races of Mankind Vol. 3 Great Races of Mankind Vol. 3 1893
Ethnology - Great Races of Mankind Vol. 4 Great Races of Mankind Vol. 4 1893
Ethnology - Histoire de la Laponie Histoire de la Laponie 1678
Ethnology - History of the Indian Archipelago Vol. 1 History of the Indian Archipelago Vol. 1 1820
Ethnology - History of the Indian Archipelago Vol. 2 History of the Indian Archipelago Vol. 2 1820
Ethnology - History of the Indian Archipelago Vol. 3 History of the Indian Archipelago Vol. 3 1820
Ethnology - Joannis Schefferi Argentoratensis Lapponia Joannis Schefferi Argentoratensis Lapponia 1674
Ethnology - Joannis Schefferi von Strassburg Lappland Joannis Schefferi von Strassburg Lappland 1675
Ethnology - Journal of a Cruise Among the Islands of the Western Pacific Journal of a Cruise Among the Islands of the Western Pacific 1853
Ethnology - Kaladilt Pelleserkangoaeta Hans Ededib Kaladilt Pelleserkangoaeta Hans Ededib 1837
Ethnology - Lappland, dess natur och folk Lappland, dess natur och folk 1871
Ethnology - Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 1 Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 1 1843
Ethnology - Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 2 Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 2 1844
Ethnology - Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 3 Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 3 1844
Ethnology - Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 4 Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 4 1843
Ethnology - Om Lappland och Lapparne, företrädesvis de Svenske Om Lappland och Lapparne, företrädesvis de Svenske 1873
Ethnology - Puteshestvie po vostochnoi Sibiri Puteshestvie po vostochnoi Sibiri 1856
Ethnology - Race and Society in the Andean Countries Race and Society in the Andean Countries 1918
Ethnology - Racial Factors in Democracy Racial Factors in Democracy 1918
Ethnology - Reisen in die Felsengebirge Nord-Amerikas Reisen in die Felsengebirge Nord-Amerikas 1861
Ethnology - Sketches of Character in Jamaica Sketches of Character in Jamaica 1837
Ethnology - Sketches of Japanese Manners and Customs Sketches of Japanese Manners and Customs 1867
Ethnology - Tent-life in Siberia Tent-life in Siberia 1881
Ethnology - The Aryan Maori The Aryan Maori 1885
Ethnology - The Costume of the Russian Empire The Costume of the Russian Empire 1803
Ethnology - The History of Lapland The History of Lapland 1674
Ethnology - The History of Lapland The History of Lapland 1704
Ethnology - The Living Races of Mankind Vol. 1 The Living Races of Mankind Vol. 1 1902
Ethnology - The Living Races of Mankind Vol. 2 The Living Races of Mankind Vol. 2 1902
Ethnology - The New Zealanders Illustrated The New Zealanders Illustrated 1847
Ethnology - The People of the Polar North The People of the Polar North 1908
Ethnology - The Song of the Ancient People The Song of the Ancient People 1893
Ethnology - The Story of Man The Story of Man 1889
Ethnology - Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas 1840
Ethnology - Waarachtige en aen-merkens-waardige Historie van Lapland Waarachtige en aen-merkens-waardige Historie van Lapland 1682

Images

Image Name
Motupoi Pah and Roto-Aire Lake. Tongariro in the distance
Petropavlovskii port v Kamchatke
A Koriak, in his dress of ceremony
Hundeschlitten der Mandan Indianer. / Traineaux à chiens des IndienssMandans. / Dog-sledges of the Mandan Indians.
Ladies of the Mikado's Court performing the Butterfly Dance
An Old Mordvine Woman of the Mokshan Tribe
Gorod Olekminsk na reke Lene
Biberbau am Missouri. / Constructions des castors sur le Missouri. / Beaver hut on the Missouri.
Natives of Port Nicholson (4 figs)
Ornamental Carvings in Wood (7 figs)
Vid Irkutska
Vid starago iakutskago ostroga
Odeianie Iakutov
Buriatka
Leuchtthurm bei Cleveland am Erie See. / Phare de Clevelandsur le Lac Erie. / Cleveland Lighthouse on the Lake Erie.
Honi Heki and Patuone
A Female Tartar, of the Teleouti Tribe, shewing the back part of her dress
Cremation of the Body
A Female Samoyed, in her summer dress
Title Page
A Japanese Wedding
Fort Mackenzie den 28-ten August 1833. / Fort Mackenzie le 28 Aout 1833. / Fort Mackenzie, August 28th 1833.
Mehkskeme-Sukahs, Blackfoot-chef. Mehkskeme-Sukahs, Chef des Pieds-noirs. Mehkskeme-Sukahs, Blackfoot-chief; Tatsicki-Stomick, Piekann-chef. Tatsicki-Stomick, Chef des Piekanns. Tatsicki-Stomick, Piekann chief.
A Mestscherakian Woman
Whatas, or Patukas, storehouses for food
Die weissen Schlösser am obern Missouri. / Les châteaux blancs, Missouri superieur. / The white castels on the upper Missouri.
Navindi, Chief of the Fishermen, Feejee Islands
Snags (im Missouri versunkene Baumstämme). / Snags (troncs d'arbres obstruant le cours du Missouri). / Snags (sunken trees on the Missouri).
A Female Tartar of Kazan, shewing the back part of her dress
Scalptanz der Mönnitarris. / Danse du scalp des indiens Meunitarris. / Scalp dance of the Minatarres.
Children at the Boiling Springs, near Taupo Lake
Zimniaia doroga po beregu Okhotskago moria
Theatrical performance in front of the Mikado's Palace
Back Cover
Ko Nga Waka Te Karaka, (or Clark), the Christian Chief of the Nga-ti-Wacroa Tribe, Waikato and Wakauenuku, his attendant boy
A Tiki at Raroera Pah
Abdih-Hiddisch, Mönnitarri -Chef. / Abdih-Hiddisch, Chef Meunitarri. / Abdih-HIddisch, a Minatarre Chief.
Njommelsaska
Indianische geräthschaften und waffen. / Ustensiles et armes indiens. / Indian utensils and arms.
Merchant's Great Festival
Throwing the Spear, the mode of Salutation
A Feast at Mata-Ta, on the East Coast, Mt. Edgecumbe in the Distance
Man and Woman of Vate or Sandwich Island
Domestic Sketches (5 figs)
A Married Oman of Waldai
Mungakahu, chief of Motupoi, and his wife Ko Mari
Letniaia stantsiia po Okhotskomu traktu
Merkwürdige Hügel an obern Missouri. / Collines singulières su le haut Missouri. / Remarkable hills on the upper Missouri. [I]
A Koriak
A Female Peasant of Finland
Wald-Ansicht am Tobihanna, Alleghany-Gebirge. / Forêt sur le Tobihanna, Montagnes Alleghanys. / Forest scene on the Tobihanna, Alleghany Mountains.
To Ngaporutu, and his wife, Rihe, at Wakatumutu
Kirenskii Sviato-Troitskii monastyr'
A Tcheremhisian Woman
A Woman of Tschutski, preparing skins
Zauber Maal bei den Assiniboin Indianern. / Monument magique des Indiens Assiniboins. / Magic pile erected by the Assiniboin Indians.
Vid na reke Lene mezhdu Iakutskom i Olekminskom
Brodiachie tungusy
Rybnye magaziny (veshala) v Okhotske
Narty
Assiniboin Baumgräber. / Tombeaux des Assiniboins dans des arbres. / Tombs of Assiniboin Indians on trees.
Tu Kaitote, the Pah of Te Whero Whero, on the Waikato, Taupiri Mountains in the distance
Dacota indianerin und Assiniboin Mädchen. / Indienne Dacota et jeune fille Assiniboine. / Dacota woman and Assiniboin girl.
Taupo Pah
E Rua, E Pari and E Hoki, women of Ngatitoa Tribe, Cook's Strait
A Bakers Shop
A Tungoose
A Bratzkian Schaman, or female magician
Chief of Vate, New Hebrides
Illustrated Title Page
Selling Indulgences by Public Auction
Toea, daughter of Te Awaitaia, chief of Waingaroa with an attendant boy, carrying water
A Laplander
Title Page - English
An Ostiak, in his winter hunting dress
A Mongloe Schaman
The Volcanic region of Pumice Hills, looking toward Tongariro and the Ruapahu
Relatives Collecting Ashes
Einfahrt des Hafens von New York von Staten Island aus. / Entrée de Port New York pris de Staten Island. / Entry to the bay of New York taken from Staten Island.
Paratene Maioha, a chief of Waingaroa. Wearing the Parawal, or Dog's skin Robe
Bluff Head, Lifu, Loyalty Islands
Kamchatskie sobaki
A Tartar of Kazan
Ko Tauwaki, a chief of the Tukanu, Ko Teonionga, a boy of Te Rapa. Taupo Lake
Felsen genannt die Citadelle am oberen Missouri. / Rocher dit la Citadelle sur lehaut Missouri. / The Citadel-rock on the upper Missouri.
Title Page - Pamiatnik Ermaku v Tobol'ske
Chief of Feejee without the Sala
Weapons & Implements of War Warriors prepaing for a fight (9 figs)
A Female of Kamtshatka, with her child
Kahawai
Ngeungeu and her son James Maxwell
Letniia iakutskiia iurty
Te Ohu, a Heathen Priest of the Ngatimaniapotp Tribe
Merkwürdige Hügel an obern Missouri. / Collines singulières su le haut Missouri. / Remarkable hills on the upper Missouri. [II]
Book Display [I]
1-Zhitel' oliutorskago seleniia. 2-Brodiachii tungus

Maps

Map Name
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Map to Illustrate the Route of Prince Maximilian of Wied (1840)
Lappland, dess natur och folk - Karta ofver Norrbottens Lan [..] Peterson, 1865 (1871)

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