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Ethnology

Ethnology Collection

History Archive - Ethnology Collection

Ethnology is the branch of the science of anthropology which treats of the races of mankind and seeks to explain their origin and development. Anthropology is the science which treats of man in relation to himself, to other men and to all nature.

Anthropology is subdivided into several branches, each of which treats of some special phase of man's natural history. There is a difference in the meaning given by students to the names employed to designate the divisions of the study of man. Ethnology, ethnography, and anthropology have been to some extent interchangeable terms. Each of these branches of knowledge has a special meaning given it in different countries. However, there is becoming a more general acceptance of a definite meaning for these topics.

The comprehensive term anthropology is recognized in its general sense to include all others (Keane, Tylor, Mason). The meaning herein given to Ethnology is widely recognized (Keene, Brinton). The use of the term anthropology, to designate societies for the study of man and for sections in national scientific bodies on both sides of the Atlantic, indicates a general tendency to accept the proper meaning of the word.

Ethnology differs from ethnography, which deals chiefly with the collection of facts regarding the families, tribes and races of mankind, in seeking to explain the significance of the information obtained. Ethnography (from a people, to write) is a writing about, a description of, peoples. Ethnology (from , a people, a discourse), attempts to interpret the facts gathered, to explain the causes for the conditions and the relationships of different peoples. Ethnography and ethnology occupy a relation to each other somewhat akin to that of geography and geology. One deals chiefly with existing facts, the other attempts to interpret the history which brought them forth.

Broca says ethnography studies peoples, ethnology races. The following seems a convenient scheme for grouping the branches of anthropology. Substantially it is as follows: Archaeology, Biology, Psychology, Ethnology, Ethnography, Philology, Technology, Sociology and Religion (Mason).

The unity of the race is now generally accepted. From the researches of the physiologist, the anatomist, the philologist and the psychologist we obtain the same testimony as to the specific unity of our race. The place of origin or centre of dispersal is not fixed. From the studies of eminent specialists, it would seem that the land about the shores of the Mediterranean, or the region farther eastward toward India, may claim to be the home of primitive man. About the Mediterranean they settled down like frogs about a pond (Plato).

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Classification. - For classification, mankind is divided into groups. On account of their distribution, these are sometimes named for geographical divisions. They are also distinguished as families, clans, tribes, nations, peoples and races. In the naming of the latter, family relationships form a prominent factor. It is with both of these lines of classification and the distribution of those discussed under them that ethnology has to do. In these efforts at classification, different schemes have been tried. It is generally accepted that there are two groups of elements of characterization, which are sometimes called criteria. These are physical elements and psychical elements.

The principal physical elements are the bones, the shape of the skull, the facial angle, the color of the skin, color, shape and texture of the hair. Of these, color, probably because the most conspicuous feature, was the first to be considered and formed the basis of all the early classifications. The craniological school founded by the elder Retzius (1796-1860), made the shape of the head the basis of classification, and introduced exact methods into this branch of the subject. This was based on the relative length and breadth of the skull, and accordingly mankind was divided into long-skulled and short, broad-skulled races. Later developments in craniology introduced a third class, representing a mean between the other two. Craniology alone cannot be depended upon to supply sufficient or trustworthy materials for the proper classification of mankind. Nevertheless it has thrown much light upon the subject. Of late years the color, shape and texture of the hair have steadily risen in the estimation of naturalists as a racial test. The hair is now regarded as the most constant of all the physical features and has been made the foundation of their groupings by some of the most eminent anthropologists.

The other physical ethnical elements are of little value separately, but are often useful aids in combination with others. Such are stature; the shape, color and position of the eye; the size and form of the brain; the shape of the nose and mouth; the superciliary and zygomatic arches, and all such other elements as collectively constitute the broad, flat features of the lower, the oval and regular faces of the higher races.

The psychical elements are less conspicuous, and have but recently been taken into account in classification. It has been said that "Love and hunger rule the world." The former relates to the perpetuation of kind, the latter to self-preservation. Around these two may be grouped the other factors of this class. The following are the principal psychical elements:

(1) Preservative instinct, food, clothing, shelter; (2) Perpetuating instinct; (3) Language; (4) Religion; (5) Government (6) The Arts.

Food, clothing and shelter are the imperative needs of the human species at all ages and under all conditions. Among the prominent topics considered under the sexual impulse are the position of woman, the marriage relation and the line of descent. Language is the chief of the psychical elements. Some perhaps, with Horatio Hale, would make it the sole test of race. The power of religion, both as a constructive and dispersive force, is the repeated testimony of history. The organization and administration of government, whether in its primitive form or in the more enlightened stage, is of deepest interest. The arts of life find their origin in the rude homes of early man, and have steadily been influential in all human progress. For these have lives been lost, tribes been destroyed, nations been formed, battles been won. They have been the motive power in every effort, the impulse behind every forward movement of mankind from the earliest days to now.

References:

The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)

1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 9. pgs. 849-851.

The New International Encyclopaedia (1905)

Available Books

Book Title Date
Ethnology - Africa, Being an Accurate Description Africa, Being an Accurate Description 1670
Ethnology - America: Being an Accurate Description of the Nevv VVorld America: Being an Accurate Description of the Nevv VVorld 1670
Ethnology - Amerika: eine allgemeine Landeskund Amerika: eine allgemeine Landeskund 1894
Ethnology - An Account of the Abipones Vol. 1 An Account of the Abipones Vol. 1 1822
Ethnology - An Account of the Abipones Vol. 2 An Account of the Abipones Vol. 2 1822
Ethnology - An Account of the Abipones Vol. 3 An Account of the Abipones Vol. 3 1822
Ethnology - Die Völker der Erde nach ihrer Eigenthümlichkeit in Regierungsform Die Völker der Erde nach ihrer Eigenthümlichkeit in Regierungsform 1859
Ethnology - Esplorazione delle Regioni Equatoriali Esplorazione delle Regioni Equatoriali 1854
Ethnology - Great Races of Mankind Vol. 1 Great Races of Mankind Vol. 1 1893
Ethnology - Great Races of Mankind Vol. 2 Great Races of Mankind Vol. 2 1893
Ethnology - Great Races of Mankind Vol. 3 Great Races of Mankind Vol. 3 1893
Ethnology - Great Races of Mankind Vol. 4 Great Races of Mankind Vol. 4 1893
Ethnology - Histoire de la Laponie Histoire de la Laponie 1678
Ethnology - History of the Indian Archipelago Vol. 1 History of the Indian Archipelago Vol. 1 1820
Ethnology - History of the Indian Archipelago Vol. 2 History of the Indian Archipelago Vol. 2 1820
Ethnology - History of the Indian Archipelago Vol. 3 History of the Indian Archipelago Vol. 3 1820
Ethnology - Joannis Schefferi Argentoratensis Lapponia Joannis Schefferi Argentoratensis Lapponia 1674
Ethnology - Joannis Schefferi von Strassburg Lappland Joannis Schefferi von Strassburg Lappland 1675
Ethnology - Journal of a Cruise Among the Islands of the Western Pacific Journal of a Cruise Among the Islands of the Western Pacific 1853
Ethnology - Kaladilt Pelleserkangoaeta Hans Ededib Kaladilt Pelleserkangoaeta Hans Ededib 1837
Ethnology - Lappland, dess natur och folk Lappland, dess natur och folk 1871
Ethnology - Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 1 Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 1 1843
Ethnology - Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 2 Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 2 1844
Ethnology - Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 3 Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 3 1844
Ethnology - Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 4 Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 4 1843
Ethnology - Om Lappland och Lapparne, företrädesvis de Svenske Om Lappland och Lapparne, företrädesvis de Svenske 1873
Ethnology - Puteshestvie po vostochnoi Sibiri Puteshestvie po vostochnoi Sibiri 1856
Ethnology - Race and Society in the Andean Countries Race and Society in the Andean Countries 1918
Ethnology - Racial Factors in Democracy Racial Factors in Democracy 1918
Ethnology - Reisen in die Felsengebirge Nord-Amerikas Reisen in die Felsengebirge Nord-Amerikas 1861
Ethnology - Sketches of Character in Jamaica Sketches of Character in Jamaica 1837
Ethnology - Sketches of Japanese Manners and Customs Sketches of Japanese Manners and Customs 1867
Ethnology - Tent-life in Siberia Tent-life in Siberia 1881
Ethnology - The Aryan Maori The Aryan Maori 1885
Ethnology - The Costume of the Russian Empire The Costume of the Russian Empire 1803
Ethnology - The History of Lapland The History of Lapland 1674
Ethnology - The History of Lapland The History of Lapland 1704
Ethnology - The Living Races of Mankind Vol. 1 The Living Races of Mankind Vol. 1 1902
Ethnology - The Living Races of Mankind Vol. 2 The Living Races of Mankind Vol. 2 1902
Ethnology - The New Zealanders Illustrated The New Zealanders Illustrated 1847
Ethnology - The People of the Polar North The People of the Polar North 1908
Ethnology - The Song of the Ancient People The Song of the Ancient People 1893
Ethnology - The Story of Man The Story of Man 1889
Ethnology - Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas 1840
Ethnology - Waarachtige en aen-merkens-waardige Historie van Lapland Waarachtige en aen-merkens-waardige Historie van Lapland 1682

Images

Image Name
Todtengerüste eines Sioux-Chefs bei Fort Pierre. / Échafaudage funeraire d'un chef Sioux près du Fort Pierre. / Funeral scaffold of a Sioux chief near Fort Pierre.
Tower-Rock, Ansicht vom Missisippi. / Tower-Rock, vue sur le Missisippi. / Tower-Rock, view on the Missisippi.
A group at Te Aro Pah, Port Nicholson
Ansicht von Mauch-Chunk (Pennsylvanien). / Vue de Mauch-Chunk (Pennsylvanie). / View of Mauch-Chunk (Pennsylvania).
Letniia iakutskiia iurty
Volcano of Tongariro with Motupoi Pah, from Roto-Aire Lake
New-Harmony aus Wabash. / New-Harmony sur le Wabash. / New-Harmony on the Wabash.
Zimniaia stantsiia po Okhotskomu traktu
A Fire Brigade on its way to a Fire
Merkwürdige Hügel an obern Missouri. / Collines singulières su le haut Missouri. / Remarkable hills on the upper Missouri. [II]
A Female Samoyed, in her summer dress
Man and Woman of Vate or Sandwich Island
Vid na reku Lenu. Urskiia vorota
A Koriak
A Votiakian Woman
A Peasant of Finland
Pereezd po naledi po traktu v Okhotsk
Title Page - Pamiatnik Ermaku v Tobol'ske
An Aleutian
Bisonheerge am obern Missouri. / Troupeau de bisons sur le haut Missouri. / Herd of bisons on the upper Missouri.
Vid v okrestnostiakh Okhotska
Kengis Bruk
Blackfoot Indianer zu Pferd. / Indien Pieds Noir à cheval. / A Blackfoot Indian on horse-back.
Motupoi Pah and Roto-Aire Lake. Tongariro in the distance
Scalptanz der Mönnitarris. / Danse du scalp des indiens Meunitarris. / Scalp dance of the Minatarres.
An Ostiak, in his winter hunting dress
A Female Tartar, of the Teleouti Tribe, shewing the back part of her dress
Praying a Soul out of Purgatory
Horomona Maruhau or Blind Solomon
A Mongole Woman
Chief of Feejee without the Sala
Fort Pierre am Missouri. / Fort Pierre sur le Missouri. / Fort Pierre on the Missouri.
Maunca, Chief of Tutuila, Samoan Islands
A Kirghi on Horseback
Festival in Honour of the Birth of Children
Church at Manua
Native Tombs (5 figs)
Cutoff-River, Arm des Wabash. / Cutoff-River, Bras du Wabash. / Cutoff-River, branch of the Wabash.
Native Swing
Mungakahu, chief of Motupoi, and his wife Ko Mari
A Woman of Esthonia
e Amotutu. A young chief of Nga-Ti-Pou Tribe
A Laplander
A Woman of Tschutski, preparing skins
A Tungoose
Sudangee, or Last Offices
To Ngaporutu, and his wife, Rihe, at Wakatumutu
Feejeean Village of Levuka, Ovolau
Crow Indianer. / Indiens Corbeaux. / Crow Indians.
Hundeschlitten der Mandan Indianer. / Traineaux à chiens des IndienssMandans. / Dog-sledges of the Mandan Indians.
Te Henheu's Old Pah of Waitahanui, at Taupo Lake
Fort Union and Missouri. / Fort Union sur le Missouri. / Fort Union on the Missouri.
Bivouac der Reisenden am Missouri. / Halte des voyageurs sur le Missouri. / Encampment of the travellers ont the Missouri.
Kliuchevskaia sopka
Weapons & Implements of War Warriors prepaing for a fight (9 figs)
Theatrical performance in front of the Mikado's Palace
Ptihn-Tak-Ochatä, Tanz der Mandan Weiber. / Ptihn-Tak-Ochatä, Danse des femmes Mandans. / Ptihn-Tak-Ochatä, dance of the Mandan women.
Kamchadaly (zimniaia stantsiia)
A Japanese Wedding
A Flower Show
A Minister of the Mikado on a Religious Expedition
Gorod Okhotsk
Domestic Sketches (5 figs)
Muonioniska
A Mestscherakian Woman
Front Cover
Midnattssolen vid Stora Lulejaur Maltid hos fiskarelappen Abmut Merak
A Mordvine of the Mokshan Tribe
Indianische geräthschaften und waffen. / Ustensiles et armes indiens. / Indian utensils and arms.
Izdeliia koriak
Vid goroda Irkutska
Zauber Maal bei den Assiniboin Indianern. / Monument magique des Indiens Assiniboins. / Magic pile erected by the Assiniboin Indians.
E Wai and Kahoki. Nieces of Rauparaka
Sidiachie koriaki
A Female Yakouti
Kamchatskie sobaki
An Unmarried Female Yakouti
Skaly na reke Lene bliz goroda Olekminska (stolby)
A Merchant of Kalouga
Izdeliia koriak iz morzhovoi kosti
Jukkasjarvi
Maketu House, Otawhao Pah. Built by Puatia to commemorate the taking of Maketu
Rangihaeata's Pah; with the Island of Mana and the opposite shores of Cook's Straits
Snags (im Missouri versunkene Baumstämme). / Snags (troncs d'arbres obstruant le cours du Missouri). / Snags (sunken trees on the Missouri).
Nochleg v lesu (v severnykh lesakh)
Qvickjocks Kapell
Karta ofver Norrbottens Lan [..] Peterson, 1865
Merchant's Great Festival
A Tiki at Raroera Pah
Vid na reke Lene bliz goroda Kirenska
Whatas, or Patukas, storehouses for food
Ischohä-Kakoschóchatä, Tanz der Mandan Indianer. / Ischohä-Kakoschóchatä, Dance des Indiens Mandans. / Dance of the Manda Indians.
A Koriak, in his dress of ceremony
Leuchtthurm bei Cleveland am Erie See. / Phare de Clevelandsur le Lac Erie. / Cleveland Lighthouse on the Lake Erie.
A woman and her sons, of Nga Ti Toa Tribe. Cook's Strait
A Tcheremhisian Woman

Maps

Map Name
Lappland, dess natur och folk - Karta ofver Norrbottens Lan [..] Peterson, 1865 (1871)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Map to Illustrate the Route of Prince Maximilian of Wied (1840)

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