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Circumnavigations

Circumnavigations Collection

History Archive - Circumnavigations Collection

Circumnavigation is the complete navigation around the entire globe. The first circumnavigation of Earth was the Magellan-Elcano expedition, which sailed from Seville, Spain in 1519 and returned in 1522, after crossing the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. Since the rise of commercial aviation in the late 20th century, circumnavigating Earth is straightforward, usually taking days instead of years.

The word circumnavigation is a noun formed from the verb circumnavigate, from the past participle of the Latin verb circumnavigare, from circum "around" + navigare "to sail". The first single voyage of global circumnavigation was that of the ship Victoria, between 1519 and 1522, known as the Magellan–Elcano expedition. It was a Castilian (Spanish) voyage of discovery, led initially by the Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan between 1519 and 1521, and then by the Spanish Juan Sebastián Elcano from 1521 to 1522.

The voyage started in Seville, crossed the Atlantic Ocean, and after several stopovers rounded the southern tip of South America, where the expedition discovered the Strait of Magellan, named after the fleet's captain. It then continued across the Pacific, discovering a number of islands on its way, including Guam, before arriving in the Philippines. After Magellan's death in the Philippines in 1521, Elcano took command of the expedition and continued the journey across the Indian Ocean, round the Cape of Good Hope, north along the Atlantic Ocean, and back to Spain in 1522. Elcano and a small group of 18 men were the only members of the expedition to make the full circumnavigation.

In 1577, Elizabeth I sent Francis Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas. Drake set out from Plymouth, England in November 1577, aboard Pelican, which he renamed Golden Hind mid-voyage. In September 1578, the ship passed south of Tierra del Fuego, the southern tip of South America, through Drake Passage as it is known today. In June 1579, Drake landed somewhere north of Spain's northernmost claim in Alta California, which is known as Drakes Bay, California. Drake completed the second circumnavigation of the world in September 1580, becoming the first commander to lead an entire circumnavigation. Jeanne Baret is the first woman to complete a voyage of circumnavigation, in 1766–1769

HMS Driver completed the first circumnavigation by a steam ship in 1845–1847. For the wealthy, long voyages around the world, such as was done by Ulysses S. Grant, became possible in the 19th century, and the two World Wars moved vast numbers of troops around the planet. However, it was the rise of commercial aviation in the late 20th century that made circumnavigation, when compared to the Magellan–Elcano expedition, quicker and safer.

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Images

Image Name
Vue d'une partie de la Pagode de Vilnour prise en dedans de la grande enceinte (Indes orientales, Carnate)
Vue prise sur le cours de la rivière Nepean, au dessus de l'habitation de Mr. Macarthur, dans le Camdenshire (Nouvelle Galles méridionale)
Costumes Chinois et famille de pecheurs a Macao (Chine)
Vue prise dans l'intérieur de la Ville de Pondichery, auprès du Canal qui sépare le quartier Europeen du quartier Malabar (Indes orientales, Carnate)
Front Cover
Intérieur d'une Pagode dans le quartier Chinois, a Malacca (Cote Malaye)
Vue de la Riviere St.Denis, prise au Fond de la Ravine ou elle coule, et pres d'une cascade qui vient s'y jeter (Ile Bourbon)
Vue de la Ville et du detroit de Sincapour, prise de la Maison du Resident (Cote Malaye)
Chasse au Cerf dans les Montagnes de Manivelles (Iles Lucon, Philippines)
Le Pont de l'Inca sur le passage de Santiago de Chili a Mendoza (Cordiliere des Andes)
Danse de Bayaderes, a Pondichery (Indes orientales, Carnate)
Station de Voyageurs Eurpoeens aupres de la Chauderie de Vilnour (Indes orientales, Carnate)
Depart de Chasseurs Jagals (Ile Lucon, Philipines)
Idoles Indiennes a 2 lieues sud de Pondichery, sur la route d'Ariancoupan a Goudelour (Indes orientales, Carnate)
Chapelle rustique de San Miguel, près Bacor (Ile Lucon, Philippines)
Hotel du Gouvernement a St. Denis (Ile Bourbon)
Vue prise dans l'interieur de la cour d'une Pagode a Pondichery (Indes orientales, Carnate)
Presqu'ile et Chapelle de Notre-Dame de bon voyage, a l'entree de la baie de Rio Janeiro
Entree de la petite ville de Balanga, du cote de la mer (Ile Lucon, Philippines)
Place publique de la ville de Mendoza, sur la route du Chili a Buenos-Aires (Provinces du Rio de la Plata)
Relais de Poste dans les Pampas, sur la route de Mendora a Buenos aires (Provinces du Rio de la Plata)
Coup de vent de nord sous le cap sud de la terre van Diemen (Ocean Austral)
Fete de Mariage. Malabar a Pondichery (Indes orientales, Carnate)
Vue prise sur les cours de la rivière San Matheo, a la hauteur de la Cueva (Ile Lucon, Philippines)
Vue d'une des Chutes d'eau de la Riviere Ste. Suzanne (Ile Bourbon)
Rochers de marbre a l'extremite-ouest de l'ile d'hoiane près la petite ville de Tourane (Cochinchine)
Vue prise au confluent de la rivière Nepean et du torrent de Glen-brook-creek (Nouvelle Galles méridionale)
Village de Na. Sa. del Pilar sur la route de Balanga, aux montagnes de Marivelles (Ile Lucon, Philippines)
Entree du Palais du Sultan Adden-Engratt, a Madure (Archipel de la Sonde)
Title Page
Villiage Jagal de Bacor, sur la route de Cavite a Manille (Ile Lucon, Philippines)
Back Cover
Vue du bassin de Norton, sur le cours de la rivière Nepean (Nouvelle Galles méridionale)
Vue intérieure de l'Ile, prise dans les environs du Jardin des plantes de la ville de St. Denis (Ile Bourbon)
Vue de la Riviere St. Denis, prise au dessous du Pont qui conduit de la ville haute au quartier d'en bas (Ile Bourbon)
Le Vallon du Rio Quile, a huit lieues au nord de Valparaiso (Chili)
Cascade de la grande Tejuca, pres Rio Janeiro (Brésil)
Vue du fort Macquarie, sur la pointe est de l'anse Sidney (Nouvelle Galles méridionale)

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