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Wales Collection

History Archive - Wales Collection

Wales, a part of Great Britain, is a peninsula on the western coast of England, lying between Bristol Channel and the Irish Sea. It is 136 miles long and about 90 wide, with an area of 7,442 square miles, making it about as large as Massachusetts. It has a broken coast-line of 360 miles, and is a mountainous country. The Snowdon Mountains in the north, the Plinlimmon and the Black Mountains are the main ranges, with peaks over 3,000 feet high.

The people are of Celtic origin, and call themselves Cymri, the name Welsh being given them by the English. The English language is spoken in most of the large cities, but Welsh or Cymraeg, as they call it, is the language of the country. It is the best preserved of the Celtic dialects. Wales was inhabited by three Celtic tribes when the Romans invaded it, but the latter never conquered it.

It was in constant warfare with the Saxons and the Danes, paying tribute to Athelstan, king of England, and later to Harold. William the Conqueror subdued it, and the English kings have ever since claimed possession of the country. In 1267 Llewellyn ap Gryffith was acknowledged prince of Wales by Henry III, but, refusing to obey the call of Edward I to Parliament, was attacked and defeated. In 1282 he rebelled again, was slain in battle, his brother David, who succeeded him, was executed as a traitor, and Wales was united to England. The title Prince of Wales has been given ever since to the oldest son of the English sovereign. Under Owen Glendower the Welsh made a final effort for freedom, the struggle lasting 15 years from 1400 till his death in 1415. Population 2,037,610.

There are several small streams, and only one lake, Bala. The country abounds in minerals; copper, lead, iron, coal, zinc and silver are found, and remains of gold mines worked by the Romans. The climate is not severe, though somewhat cold and very damp. Butter, cheese, wool and grain are among the most important products, and iron and flannel are the principal manufactures.

All children between the ages of five and fourteen are required to attend schools provided for them, which are practically free. In 1905-6 Wales expended over $1,000,000 on secondary and technical schools. Among the higher institutions are the University of Wales, consisting of the Aberystwith, Bangor and Cardiff Colleges; University College; St. David's College; St. Beuno's College; and colleges at Bala, Brecon, Llangollen and Trevesca.


The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Available Books


Image Name
The Stacks, near Tenby
A Lonely Shore near Penrhyn Deudraeth
Back Cover
In the Scottish Highlands
Windsor Castle
Entrance to Loch Tyne
Near Bangor
Rydal Falls
Dumbarton Castle
The Feathers Hotel, Ludlow
Loch Lomond
St. Botolph's Church from the River, Boston
The Old Bridge, Bettws-y-Coed
In Glen Dee
Ross Castle
Pass of Llanberis
Windmill near Arundel, Sussex
A Lonely Shore, Barmouth Estuary
Above Builth
In the Woods, Berwyn
Miller's Dale
Falls of the Mynach
Lower Lake
Kidwelly Castle
Pembroke Castle
Title Page
Kilgarran Castle
Symond's Yat
Back Cover
The Lover's Walk, Matlock, Bath
Windy Day, near Llanrug
Illustrated Title Page
Coldwell Rocks
Front Cover
Distant View of Tintern Abbey
Aberdeen and the Mouth of the Dee
Dunluce Castle
Margam Abbey
Welsh Farm, near Llanberis
The Trout Stream
Glyn Neath Music
Fairy Glen, Bettws-y-Coed
St. Catherine's Rock, Tenby
Lanthony Abbey
A Footpath on the Great Orme
Conway Valley
Somersby Church
Einon Gan
In the Woods, Farchynys, Barmouth Estuary
St. George's Chapel
The Grey Man's Path, Fair Head, Co. Antrim
Braeriach and the Source of the Dee
From the Wyndcliff - the Junction of Wye and Severn
View of Llangollen
Carew Castle
John Wyclif's Church, Lutterworth
Town House, Dunbar, Scotland
Penshurst Place, Home of the Sidneys
Near Colwyn Bay
Conway Castle and Quay - Noon
Bamborough Castle, Northumberland
Church Pool, Bettws-y-Coed
Carnarvon, from Anglesey
Abergeldie Castle
Chepstow Castle
The Gnoll
Ruins of Raglan Castle, South Wales
The Dee at Cambus o' May
The Old Bridge of Invercauld
Melin Court
The Path By the Loch
St. David's - Bishop's Palace
Sunset on the Moor
Near Menai Straits
The Valley of the Dee above Balmoral
Balmoral Castle
River-side Path above Monmouth
Title Page
Snowden from Llyn Llydaw
The Meeting of the Tanar and the Dee
Field Path, near Llanrug
Silvery Light, Conway Shore
Thundery Weather, near Dolgelly
Ludlow Castle, the Keep and Entrance
Country Lane
Goodrich Castle
Map of Glyn Neath
Stock Gill Force


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