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Wales Collection

History Archive - Wales Collection

Wales, a part of Great Britain, is a peninsula on the western coast of England, lying between Bristol Channel and the Irish Sea. It is 136 miles long and about 90 wide, with an area of 7,442 square miles, making it about as large as Massachusetts. It has a broken coast-line of 360 miles, and is a mountainous country. The Snowdon Mountains in the north, the Plinlimmon and the Black Mountains are the main ranges, with peaks over 3,000 feet high.

The people are of Celtic origin, and call themselves Cymri, the name Welsh being given them by the English. The English language is spoken in most of the large cities, but Welsh or Cymraeg, as they call it, is the language of the country. It is the best preserved of the Celtic dialects. Wales was inhabited by three Celtic tribes when the Romans invaded it, but the latter never conquered it.

It was in constant warfare with the Saxons and the Danes, paying tribute to Athelstan, king of England, and later to Harold. William the Conqueror subdued it, and the English kings have ever since claimed possession of the country. In 1267 Llewellyn ap Gryffith was acknowledged prince of Wales by Henry III, but, refusing to obey the call of Edward I to Parliament, was attacked and defeated. In 1282 he rebelled again, was slain in battle, his brother David, who succeeded him, was executed as a traitor, and Wales was united to England. The title Prince of Wales has been given ever since to the oldest son of the English sovereign. Under Owen Glendower the Welsh made a final effort for freedom, the struggle lasting 15 years from 1400 till his death in 1415. Population 2,037,610.

There are several small streams, and only one lake, Bala. The country abounds in minerals; copper, lead, iron, coal, zinc and silver are found, and remains of gold mines worked by the Romans. The climate is not severe, though somewhat cold and very damp. Butter, cheese, wool and grain are among the most important products, and iron and flannel are the principal manufactures.

All children between the ages of five and fourteen are required to attend schools provided for them, which are practically free. In 1905-6 Wales expended over $1,000,000 on secondary and technical schools. Among the higher institutions are the University of Wales, consisting of the Aberystwith, Bangor and Cardiff Colleges; University College; St. David's College; St. Beuno's College; and colleges at Bala, Brecon, Llangollen and Trevesca.


The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Available Books


Image Name
Boddnant Hall, Conway Valley
Yachts, Anglesey Coast
Hampton Court Palace
St. Joseph's Chapel, Glastonbury Abbey
Falls of the Mynach
Title Page
Carnarvon Castle
Llyn Idwal
Morning Mists, near Trefriw
Above Monmouth
Llyn Ogwen
Sunset on the Moor
Near Erwood
Old Weir Bridge
Map of Glyn Neath
Title Page
Matlock from the Heights of Abraham
Coldwell Rocks
Hadley Church, Monken Hadley
Duffws Mountain in Mist
Stirling Castle
Front Cover
The Dee at Cambus o' May
From the Wyndcliff - the Junction of Wye and Severn
Dumbarton Castle
Arundel Castle
St. Dogmael's Priory
Symond's Yat - the Last Glow
In the Woods, Farchynys, Barmouth Estuary
Caerphilly Castle
Old Cottage at Cockington
Mist on Cader Idris
Near Bangor
Snowdon from Cwm-y-Glo
View near Mumbles, Swansea
A Nocturne, Llandudno Bay
Hay, and Radnor Forest
Aberdeen and the Mouth of the Dee
View on the Wye
Distant View of Carnarvon Bay
A Footpath on the Great Orme
Dinevawr Castle
Snowdon from Capel Curig Lake - Summer Evening
Loch Lomond
River-side Path above Monmouth
Sketch Map of Deeside
Conway from Benarth - Early Morning
Front Cover
Rocks Off Cornwall
In the Scottish Highlands
The Caledonian Coast
Towers of Elgin Cathedral, North Scotland
Entrance to Loch Tyne
Distant View of Magdalen Tower, Oxford
Title Page
A Cottage in Holdenhurst, Hampshire
Elian Donan Castle
Einon Gan
Snowdon from Llanberis Lake
Front Cover
In the Woods, Berwyn
Barmouth Bridge
Dunseverick Castle
Somersby Rectory, Birthplace of Tennyson
View of Llangollen
Map of England and Wales
In Gloucestershire
On Dartmoor
The Ferry, Tintern Abbey
The Falls of Muick
Swallow Falls, Bettws-y-Coed
John Wyclif's Church, Lutterworth
The Harbour and Lantern Hill, Ilfracombe
The River Wye near Buxton
Ross Castle
Sketch Map of the River Wye
Above Builth
Caernarvon Castle
Thundery Weather, near Dolgelly
Penshurst Place, Home of the Sidneys
Stokesay Manor House, near Ludlow
The Map
Distant View of Ross, South Welsh Border
Winchelsea Church and Elm Tree
The Muir of Dinnet
Crathes Castle
Pevensey Castle, Where the Normans Landed
Middle Glyngwyn
Abergeldie Castle


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