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Wales Collection

History Archive - Wales Collection

Wales, a part of Great Britain, is a peninsula on the western coast of England, lying between Bristol Channel and the Irish Sea. It is 136 miles long and about 90 wide, with an area of 7,442 square miles, making it about as large as Massachusetts. It has a broken coast-line of 360 miles, and is a mountainous country. The Snowdon Mountains in the north, the Plinlimmon and the Black Mountains are the main ranges, with peaks over 3,000 feet high.

The people are of Celtic origin, and call themselves Cymri, the name Welsh being given them by the English. The English language is spoken in most of the large cities, but Welsh or Cymraeg, as they call it, is the language of the country. It is the best preserved of the Celtic dialects. Wales was inhabited by three Celtic tribes when the Romans invaded it, but the latter never conquered it.

It was in constant warfare with the Saxons and the Danes, paying tribute to Athelstan, king of England, and later to Harold. William the Conqueror subdued it, and the English kings have ever since claimed possession of the country. In 1267 Llewellyn ap Gryffith was acknowledged prince of Wales by Henry III, but, refusing to obey the call of Edward I to Parliament, was attacked and defeated. In 1282 he rebelled again, was slain in battle, his brother David, who succeeded him, was executed as a traitor, and Wales was united to England. The title Prince of Wales has been given ever since to the oldest son of the English sovereign. Under Owen Glendower the Welsh made a final effort for freedom, the struggle lasting 15 years from 1400 till his death in 1415. Population 2,037,610.

There are several small streams, and only one lake, Bala. The country abounds in minerals; copper, lead, iron, coal, zinc and silver are found, and remains of gold mines worked by the Romans. The climate is not severe, though somewhat cold and very damp. Butter, cheese, wool and grain are among the most important products, and iron and flannel are the principal manufactures.

All children between the ages of five and fourteen are required to attend schools provided for them, which are practically free. In 1905-6 Wales expended over $1,000,000 on secondary and technical schools. Among the higher institutions are the University of Wales, consisting of the Aberystwith, Bangor and Cardiff Colleges; University College; St. David's College; St. Beuno's College; and colleges at Bala, Brecon, Llangollen and Trevesca.


The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Available Books


Image Name
Back Cover
Penshurst Place, Home of the Sidneys
The Three Spires of Lichfield
Title Page
Lower Lake
Illustrated Title Page
The Trout Stream
Front Cover
A Cottage in Holdenhurst, Hampshire
Conway Castle and Quay - Noon
Torc Waterfall
Distant View of Carnarvon Bay
Harvesting in Hertfordshire
The Dee at Cambus o' May
Conway Castle
Crathes Castle
Drum Castle
Beaumaris - Moonlight
Carew Castle
Miner's Bridge on River Llugwy
Pass of Llanberis
A Bit of Old England
O'Sullivan's Cascade
Old Castle Keep, Cardiff
Chepstow Castle
Valle Crucis Abbey
From the Wyndcliff - the Junction of Wye and Severn
Sunny Afternoon, Cardigan Bay
A Lonely Shore, Barmouth Estuary
Above Monmouth
Fairy Glen, Bettws-y-Coed
Front Cover
Old Roman Bridge, near Swansea
The Bridge of Dee
Kilchurn Castle, Loch Awe
A Mountain Pass - Noon
View from Piercefield
Cader Idris from the Barmouth Road
Distant View of Magdalen Tower, Oxford
The River Wye near Buxton
St. Catherine's Rock, Tenby
Near Erwood
Morning Mists, near Trefriw
Stokesay Manor House, near Ludlow
Near Menai Straits
Dunnottar Castle, Stonehaven, near Aberdeen
Near Land's End
Mist on Cader Idris
Dickens' Home, Gad's Hill, near Rochester
Distant View of Ross, South Welsh Border
Town House, Dunbar, Scotland
Ruins of Raglan Castle, South Wales
Winchelsea Church and Elm Tree
Old Cottage at Norton, near Evesham
Sketch Map of Deeside
Country Lane
Back Cover
Above Builth
Book Display
Barmouth Bridge
Pevensey Castle, Where the Normans Landed
Near Rhayader
Towers of Elgin Cathedral, North Scotland
View near Mumbles, Swansea
Snowdon from Cwm-y-Glo
Front Cover
The Lake of the Pleasant Retreat, Llyn Mwyngl; from Tal-Y-Llyn
In Glen Dee
Hampton Court Palace
Swallow Falls, Bettws-y-Coed
Welsh Farm, near Llanberis
Glyn Neath Plaids
Ringwood Church
Front Cover
Kidwelly Castle
The Shore near Harlech - Afternoon
Entrance Front Bodiam Castle, Sussex
A View from the Great Orme's Head
Map of Scotland
Sunset on the Moor
In the Scottish Highlands
A Hayfield near Portmadoc
In the Woods, Farchynys, Barmouth Estuary
Conway from Benarth - Early Morning
Balmoral Castle
Monsal Dale


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