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Wales Collection

History Archive - Wales Collection

Wales, a part of Great Britain, is a peninsula on the western coast of England, lying between Bristol Channel and the Irish Sea. It is 136 miles long and about 90 wide, with an area of 7,442 square miles, making it about as large as Massachusetts. It has a broken coast-line of 360 miles, and is a mountainous country. The Snowdon Mountains in the north, the Plinlimmon and the Black Mountains are the main ranges, with peaks over 3,000 feet high.

The people are of Celtic origin, and call themselves Cymri, the name Welsh being given them by the English. The English language is spoken in most of the large cities, but Welsh or Cymraeg, as they call it, is the language of the country. It is the best preserved of the Celtic dialects. Wales was inhabited by three Celtic tribes when the Romans invaded it, but the latter never conquered it.

It was in constant warfare with the Saxons and the Danes, paying tribute to Athelstan, king of England, and later to Harold. William the Conqueror subdued it, and the English kings have ever since claimed possession of the country. In 1267 Llewellyn ap Gryffith was acknowledged prince of Wales by Henry III, but, refusing to obey the call of Edward I to Parliament, was attacked and defeated. In 1282 he rebelled again, was slain in battle, his brother David, who succeeded him, was executed as a traitor, and Wales was united to England. The title Prince of Wales has been given ever since to the oldest son of the English sovereign. Under Owen Glendower the Welsh made a final effort for freedom, the struggle lasting 15 years from 1400 till his death in 1415. Population 2,037,610.

There are several small streams, and only one lake, Bala. The country abounds in minerals; copper, lead, iron, coal, zinc and silver are found, and remains of gold mines worked by the Romans. The climate is not severe, though somewhat cold and very damp. Butter, cheese, wool and grain are among the most important products, and iron and flannel are the principal manufactures.

All children between the ages of five and fourteen are required to attend schools provided for them, which are practically free. In 1905-6 Wales expended over $1,000,000 on secondary and technical schools. Among the higher institutions are the University of Wales, consisting of the Aberystwith, Bangor and Cardiff Colleges; University College; St. David's College; St. Beuno's College; and colleges at Bala, Brecon, Llangollen and Trevesca.


The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Available Books


Image Name
Giant's Causeway
St. Catherine's Rock, Tenby
Dunluce Castle
Milton's Room in Cottage at Chalfont St. Giles
Near Menai Straits
In the Woods, Farchynys, Barmouth Estuary
Hampton Court Palace
Near Land's End
Tintern Abbey and Village
Aberdeen and the Mouth of the Dee
Somersby Rectory, Birthplace of Tennyson
Boddnant Hall, Conway Valley
Swallow Falls, Bettws-y-Coed
A Mountain Pass - Noon
Title Page
Distant View of Carnarvon Bay
Bamborough Castle, Northumberland
Drum Castle
View from Piercefield
Einon Gan
Moel Siabod from Bettys-Y-Coed
Snowdon from Llanberis Lake
Harvesting in Hertfordshire
Conway Valley
Front Cover
Manorbeer Castle
The Loom (Giant's Causeway)
Dunnottar Castle, Stonehaven, near Aberdeen
The Valley of the Dee near Mar Lodge
The Dee at Ardoe
Lower Glyngwyn
Lanthony Abbey
Loch Lomond
Valle Crucis Abbey
Glyn Neath Costume
Front Cover
The Harbour and Lantern Hill, Ilfracombe
Field Path, near Llanrug
Miller's Dale
Braeriach and the Source of the Dee
Goodrich Castle
Back Cover
St. David's - Bishop's Palace
Old Cottage and Ruins of Abbey, Great Orme's Head
St. George's Chapel
St. Botolph's Church from the River, Boston
The Dee at Ballatar
Chepstow Castle
Cascade at Virginia Water
A Footpath on the Great Orme
Carnarvon Castle
Near Rhayader
Stirling Castle
A Bit of Old England
View from Richmond Hill
Dark Lochnagar
Church Pool, Bettws-y-Coed
Distant View of Penmaenmawr - Early Morning Light
Duffws Mountain in Mist
Ludlow Castle, the Keep and Entrance
Country Lane
River-side Path above Monmouth
Chepstow Castle
Pembroke Castle
Carnarvon Castle
The Bridge of Dee
Conway Castle and Quay - Noon
Symond's Yat - the Last Glow
Careg-cannon Castle
View of Llangollen
Old Cottage at Norton, near Evesham
Above Builth
Coming Night, near Beddgelert
Pennard Castle, Glamorganshire
Town House, Dunbar, Scotland
Caernarvon Castle
A Sudden Squall, Cardigan Bay
Llyn Ogwen
A Typical Byway
A Nocturne, Llandudno Bay
The Ferry, Tintern Abbey
Ruins in Windsor Park
Elian Donan Castle
Sunny Field, near Llanberis
Snowden from Llyn Llydaw
From the Wyndcliff - the Junction of Wye and Severn
Barmouth Bridge
Hay, and Radnor Forest
Torc Waterfall
Silvery Light, Conway Shore


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