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Spain

Spain Collection

History Archive - Spain Collection

SPAIN (España), a kingdom in the extreme south-west of Europe, comprising about eleven-thirteenths of the Iberian Peninsula, in addition to the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, and the fortified station of Ceuta, on the Moroccan coast opposite to Gibraltar. Each of the two island groups forms one of the forty-nine provinces of the kingdom, although only the first named belongs geographically to Spain. Ceuta is included in the province of Cadiz.

In 1900 the kingdom (exclusive of its colonies) had a population of 18,607,674, and a total area of 194,700 sq. m. It is thus rather more than twice the size of Great Britain, nearly 50,000 sq. m. larger than Japan, and nearly 85,000 sq. m. larger than Italy and Sicily. Exclusive of the Canaries its area is 191,893 sq. m. On all sides except that of Portugal the boundaries of continental Spain are natural, the Peninsula being separated from France by the Pyrenees and on every other side being surrounded by the sea.

On the side of Portugal a tract of inhospitable country ;led originally to the separation between the two kingdoms, inasmuch as it caused the reconquest of the comparatively populous maritime tracts from the Moors to be carried out independently of that of the eastern kingdoms, which were also well peopled. The absence of any such means of intercommunication as navigable rivers afford has favoured the continuance of this isolation. The precise line of the western frontier is formed for a considerable length by portions of the chief rivers or by small tributaries, and on the north (between Portugal and Galicia) it is determined to a large extent by small mountain ranges. The British rock of Gibraltar, in the extreme south of the peninsula, is separated from Spain by a low isthmus known as the Neutral Ground.

By the relinquishment of Cuba and the cession of Porto Rico, the Philippine and Sulu Islands, and Guam, the largest of the Ladrones, to the United States, as a consequence of the war of 1898, and of the remaining Ladrone or Marianne Islands, together with the Caroline Colonial Possessions. and Pelew Islands, to Germany by a treaty of the 8th of February 1899, the colonial possessions of Spain were greatly reduced. Apart from Ceuta, Spain possesses on the Moroccan seaboard Melilla, Alhucemas, Pefion de la Gomera, Ifni, and the Chaffarinas islets. Besides these isolated posts Spain holds Rio de Oro, a stretch of the Saharan coast, and its hinterland lying between Morocco and French West Africa; the Muni River Settlements or Spanish Guinea, situated between French Congo and the German colony of Cameroon; Fernando Po, Annobon, Corisco and other islands in the Gulf of Guinea. Spain has given to France the right of pre-emption over any of her West African colonies.

Bibliography.— José Rodriguez, Biblioteca valentina (Valencia, 1747); Vicente Ximeno, Escritores del reyno de Valencia (2 vols., Valencia, 1747-1749); Justo Pastor Fuster, Biblioteca valenciana (2 vols., Valencia, 1827-1830); Felix Torres Amat, Memoiras para ayudar á formar un diccionario critico de los escritores catalanes (Barcelona, 1836), with a supplement by J. Corminas (Burgos, 1849); F. R. Camboulin, Essai sur l'histoire de la littérature catalane (Paris, 1858); M. Mila y Fontanals, De los Trovadores en España (Barcelona 1861), and studies included in his Obras completas; E. Cardona, De la Antica literatura catalana (Naples, 1880); A. Morel-Fatio, " Katalanische Litteratur," in the second volume of the Grundriss der romanischen Philologie, pt. ii., and Catalogue des manuscrits espagnols et portugais de la bibliothèque nationale (Paris, 1881–1892); V. M. O. Denk, Einführung in die Geschichte der altcalalanischen Litteratur (Munich, 1893); J. Masso Torrents, Manuscrits Catalans de la biblioteca nacional de Madrid (Barcelona, 1896). For the modern period see Joaquin Rubió y Ors, Breve reseña del actual renacimiento de la lengua y literatura catalanas (2 vols., Barcelona, 1880); F. M. Tubino, Historia del renacimiento contempordneo en Cataluña, Baleares y Valencia (Madrid, 1880); A. de Molins, Diccionario biográfico y bibliográfico de escritores y artistas catalanes del siglo xix. (Barcelona, 1891-1896); E. Toda, La Poesia catalana a Sardenya (Barcelona, 1888). Important articles by P. Meyer, A. Thomas, A. PagSs, J. Masso Torrents, A. Morel-Fatio and others appear from time to time in Romania, the Revue des langues romanes, the Revue hispanique, the Revista catalana and other special periodicals.

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 25 pp. 527-591.

Spain by A. E. Houghton, Alfred Morel-Fatio, David Hannay, Francis Haverfield, James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Kingsley Jayne & W. A. Phillips

Available Books

Images

Image Name
Charts I and II
Frontispiece - Volume 1
Seville - Gardens of the Alcazar
Ronda - A Moorish Gateway
Lisbon and Aqueduct of Alcantara
Villa Djenan El Mufti, Algiers
Segovia. The Aqueduct
Granada - Old Ayuntamiento
A French Dragoon
Seville. In the Cathedral
Granada - Sierra Nevada from the Alhambra Gardens
Pamplona. A Patio near the Cathedral
Seville - The Torre del Oro and the Cathedral
Plate VIII
Granada. Exterior of the Cathedral
Cordova - Calle Cardinal Herrera
Leon. The Market Place. and Casa del Ayuntamiento
Front Cover
An Infant Capuchin
Ronda - The Market
Creek of Maceira
View of Tangiers from the Beach
Architectura Verde, Generalife Gardens, Granada
Court of Lindaraxa, The Alhambra
Seville - Casa de Pilatos
Villa Franca
A Street in Biskra
The Deva Gorge. Urdon
Toledo. Puerta del Sol
Gate in the Old Town Wall, Tangiers
A Road in Gibraltar
Cordova - Entrance to the City
Leon. From the Pajares Road
Rometta
Lugo. Fuente de San Vicente
Portuguese Marine
Malaga - A Market
Book Display
Pamplona. From the Road to the Frontier
Algeciras
Spanish Infantry
Leon. An Old Palace Doorway
Tower of San Vincente at Belem, Lisbon
The Horse of the Bash Aga, Biskra
Back Cover
Title Page - View of Ceuta
Cordova - The Bridge
Cordova - A Courtyard
Avila
The Court of the Lions, The Alhambra
Profile Volcano
Outline of Situation at Taorminum and Mola
Title Page
Peasant of the Corregimiento of Salamanca (II)
Segovia. Arco Santiago
Seville - Garden of the Casa de Pilatos
Granada - The Generalife : Patio dee la Acequia
Charts III and IV
Toro. From the banks of the Duero
Front Cover
Pasana. An Asturian Mountain Village
Courtyard and Fountain of the Great Mosque, Algiers
Alcantara
Convent of St. Martin near Palermo
Back Cover
Zamora. Church of Sta Maria de la Horta
Courting
Toro
Valladolid. Santa Maria la Antigua
Cadiz. The Cathedral
Cordova - A Street Scene
A Marabout Near Tangiers
Distant View of the Ancient Temple of Segesta
Plate VII
View on the Tagus near Villa Velha
Barcelona. In the Cathedral
Seville - Plaza de San Fernando
Title Page
Oviedo. In the Cathedral
Santiago. Interior of the Cathedral
Title Page
Granada - The Alhambra : Tower of Comares
Ronda - A Street Scene
Avila. Puerta de San Vicente
Malaga. The Market
Seville - The Aceite Gate
Granada - Old Houses, Cuesta del Pescado
Leon. The West Porch of the Cathedral
Segovia. The Aqueduct
Cintra from the Lisbon Road
Title Page - Volume 1
Tarragona. The Cloisters
Leon. The Cathedral
Granada - The Generalife : Court of the Cypresses
Astorga. From the South-east
Seville - Patio de las Banderas

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