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History Archive - Spain Collection

SPAIN (España), a kingdom in the extreme south-west of Europe, comprising about eleven-thirteenths of the Iberian Peninsula, in addition to the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, and the fortified station of Ceuta, on the Moroccan coast opposite to Gibraltar. Each of the two island groups forms one of the forty-nine provinces of the kingdom, although only the first named belongs geographically to Spain. Ceuta is included in the province of Cadiz.

In 1900 the kingdom (exclusive of its colonies) had a population of 18,607,674, and a total area of 194,700 sq. m. It is thus rather more than twice the size of Great Britain, nearly 50,000 sq. m. larger than Japan, and nearly 85,000 sq. m. larger than Italy and Sicily. Exclusive of the Canaries its area is 191,893 sq. m. On all sides except that of Portugal the boundaries of continental Spain are natural, the Peninsula being separated from France by the Pyrenees and on every other side being surrounded by the sea.

On the side of Portugal a tract of inhospitable country ;led originally to the separation between the two kingdoms, inasmuch as it caused the reconquest of the comparatively populous maritime tracts from the Moors to be carried out independently of that of the eastern kingdoms, which were also well peopled. The absence of any such means of intercommunication as navigable rivers afford has favoured the continuance of this isolation. The precise line of the western frontier is formed for a considerable length by portions of the chief rivers or by small tributaries, and on the north (between Portugal and Galicia) it is determined to a large extent by small mountain ranges. The British rock of Gibraltar, in the extreme south of the peninsula, is separated from Spain by a low isthmus known as the Neutral Ground.

By the relinquishment of Cuba and the cession of Porto Rico, the Philippine and Sulu Islands, and Guam, the largest of the Ladrones, to the United States, as a consequence of the war of 1898, and of the remaining Ladrone or Marianne Islands, together with the Caroline Colonial Possessions. and Pelew Islands, to Germany by a treaty of the 8th of February 1899, the colonial possessions of Spain were greatly reduced. Apart from Ceuta, Spain possesses on the Moroccan seaboard Melilla, Alhucemas, Pefion de la Gomera, Ifni, and the Chaffarinas islets. Besides these isolated posts Spain holds Rio de Oro, a stretch of the Saharan coast, and its hinterland lying between Morocco and French West Africa; the Muni River Settlements or Spanish Guinea, situated between French Congo and the German colony of Cameroon; Fernando Po, Annobon, Corisco and other islands in the Gulf of Guinea. Spain has given to France the right of pre-emption over any of her West African colonies.

Bibliography.— José Rodriguez, Biblioteca valentina (Valencia, 1747); Vicente Ximeno, Escritores del reyno de Valencia (2 vols., Valencia, 1747-1749); Justo Pastor Fuster, Biblioteca valenciana (2 vols., Valencia, 1827-1830); Felix Torres Amat, Memoiras para ayudar á formar un diccionario critico de los escritores catalanes (Barcelona, 1836), with a supplement by J. Corminas (Burgos, 1849); F. R. Camboulin, Essai sur l'histoire de la littérature catalane (Paris, 1858); M. Mila y Fontanals, De los Trovadores en España (Barcelona 1861), and studies included in his Obras completas; E. Cardona, De la Antica literatura catalana (Naples, 1880); A. Morel-Fatio, " Katalanische Litteratur," in the second volume of the Grundriss der romanischen Philologie, pt. ii., and Catalogue des manuscrits espagnols et portugais de la bibliothèque nationale (Paris, 1881–1892); V. M. O. Denk, Einführung in die Geschichte der altcalalanischen Litteratur (Munich, 1893); J. Masso Torrents, Manuscrits Catalans de la biblioteca nacional de Madrid (Barcelona, 1896). For the modern period see Joaquin Rubió y Ors, Breve reseña del actual renacimiento de la lengua y literatura catalanas (2 vols., Barcelona, 1880); F. M. Tubino, Historia del renacimiento contempordneo en Cataluña, Baleares y Valencia (Madrid, 1880); A. de Molins, Diccionario biográfico y bibliográfico de escritores y artistas catalanes del siglo xix. (Barcelona, 1891-1896); E. Toda, La Poesia catalana a Sardenya (Barcelona, 1888). Important articles by P. Meyer, A. Thomas, A. PagSs, J. Masso Torrents, A. Morel-Fatio and others appear from time to time in Romania, the Revue des langues romanes, the Revue hispanique, the Revista catalana and other special periodicals.

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 25 pp. 527-591.

Spain by A. E. Houghton, Alfred Morel-Fatio, David Hannay, Francis Haverfield, James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Kingsley Jayne & W. A. Phillips

Available Books

Images

Image Name
The Mithab in the Mosque of Sidi Okba, Kairowan
Bejar. A Corner in the Market-place
The Prison at Tangiers
In Cordova Cathedral
Salamanca. An Old Street.
Plate IV
Gate in the Old Town Wall, Tangiers
Seville. In the Alcázar, The Patio de las Doncellas
Peasant of the Corregimiento of Salamanca (I)
Orense. In the Cathedral
Entrance to the Mosque of Sidi Okba, Kairowan
Lugo. Fuente de San Vicente
Granada. Exterior of the Cathedral
An Arcade in the Generalife, Granada
Entrance to the Mosque of Sidi, Abd-er-rahman
Orihuela on the River Segura
Granada - The Court of the Lions : Moonlight
Lisbon and Aqueduct of Alcantara
Tarragona. The Cloisters
Valencia. San Pablo
Cintra
View between Constantin and Nogles
Santiago de Corapostela. From the Lugo Road
Sunset at Toledo
Avila. From the North-west
Plasencia. The Town Walls and Cathedral
Tuy and Valencia. The Frontier Towns on the Mirio
Plate II
The Medersa, Algiers
Seville - A Street
Cangas de Onis. The Bridge over the Sella
Topographical Outline of Aetna
Cudillero. The Harbour
Santiago. The Cathedral
In the Garden of the Alcazar, Seville
Frontispiece - Volume 2
The Strait of Messina
Title Page
Valencia - Santa Catalina
Olite. The Castle
The Navia Valley
Shepherds of the Plains of Leon
Title Page - View of Ceuta
Oviedo. A Street near the Cathedral
Cordova - Entrance to the City
Map of Sicily
Distant view of Etna, from the Sea, opposite Catania
Novion or Lisbon Police Cavalry
Title Page
Spanish Military Costume
Architectura Verde, Generalife Gardens, Granada
Toledo. The South Transept
Cordova - Old Houses near the River
Malaga - A Market
Pass of Manzanal
Salamanca
Malaga - The Guadalmedina
Granada. The Alhambra, Court of Lions
Alcantara
Bishop of Guarda
Salamanca. From the left bank of the Tormes
Tuy
An Infant Capuchin
In the Pass of Pajares. Near Pola de Gordon
Granada - The Alhambra from San Miguel
Granada - The Generalife : Patio dee la Acequia
Fountain in the Garden of the Alcazar, Seville
Cordova. Interior of the Mesquita
The Minaret of the Great Mosque of Tangiers
Burgos. From the East
Charts VII and VIII
Fort Gonzago, and Country behind Messina
A Private of French Infantry
Spanish Grenadiers
Leon. The Cathedral
Plate VI
Portuguese Legion of Alorgna
Book Display
Ronda - A Street Scene
Volcano, from the Hill near the Ancient Baths at Lipari
Leon. The West Porch of the Cathedral
Pamplona. A Patio near the Cathedral
Miranda del Ebro. A Corner in the Town
Elche - A Street
Granada - Casa del Carbon
Granada - From the Generalife
Toledo - A Street Scene
The Court of the Myrtles, The Alhambra
Pass at St. Alepo, between Messina and Taorminum
Benavente. From above the Bridge of Castro Gonzalo
General Chart
Ronda - A Moorish Gateway
Castle of Lipari
Toledo. The Zócodover
A Street in Almeria
Cintra - The Summer Palace of the King of Portugal

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