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Spain Collection

History Archive - Spain Collection

SPAIN (España), a kingdom in the extreme south-west of Europe, comprising about eleven-thirteenths of the Iberian Peninsula, in addition to the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, and the fortified station of Ceuta, on the Moroccan coast opposite to Gibraltar. Each of the two island groups forms one of the forty-nine provinces of the kingdom, although only the first named belongs geographically to Spain. Ceuta is included in the province of Cadiz.

In 1900 the kingdom (exclusive of its colonies) had a population of 18,607,674, and a total area of 194,700 sq. m. It is thus rather more than twice the size of Great Britain, nearly 50,000 sq. m. larger than Japan, and nearly 85,000 sq. m. larger than Italy and Sicily. Exclusive of the Canaries its area is 191,893 sq. m. On all sides except that of Portugal the boundaries of continental Spain are natural, the Peninsula being separated from France by the Pyrenees and on every other side being surrounded by the sea.

On the side of Portugal a tract of inhospitable country ;led originally to the separation between the two kingdoms, inasmuch as it caused the reconquest of the comparatively populous maritime tracts from the Moors to be carried out independently of that of the eastern kingdoms, which were also well peopled. The absence of any such means of intercommunication as navigable rivers afford has favoured the continuance of this isolation. The precise line of the western frontier is formed for a considerable length by portions of the chief rivers or by small tributaries, and on the north (between Portugal and Galicia) it is determined to a large extent by small mountain ranges. The British rock of Gibraltar, in the extreme south of the peninsula, is separated from Spain by a low isthmus known as the Neutral Ground.

By the relinquishment of Cuba and the cession of Porto Rico, the Philippine and Sulu Islands, and Guam, the largest of the Ladrones, to the United States, as a consequence of the war of 1898, and of the remaining Ladrone or Marianne Islands, together with the Caroline Colonial Possessions. and Pelew Islands, to Germany by a treaty of the 8th of February 1899, the colonial possessions of Spain were greatly reduced. Apart from Ceuta, Spain possesses on the Moroccan seaboard Melilla, Alhucemas, Pefion de la Gomera, Ifni, and the Chaffarinas islets. Besides these isolated posts Spain holds Rio de Oro, a stretch of the Saharan coast, and its hinterland lying between Morocco and French West Africa; the Muni River Settlements or Spanish Guinea, situated between French Congo and the German colony of Cameroon; Fernando Po, Annobon, Corisco and other islands in the Gulf of Guinea. Spain has given to France the right of pre-emption over any of her West African colonies.

Bibliography.— José Rodriguez, Biblioteca valentina (Valencia, 1747); Vicente Ximeno, Escritores del reyno de Valencia (2 vols., Valencia, 1747-1749); Justo Pastor Fuster, Biblioteca valenciana (2 vols., Valencia, 1827-1830); Felix Torres Amat, Memoiras para ayudar á formar un diccionario critico de los escritores catalanes (Barcelona, 1836), with a supplement by J. Corminas (Burgos, 1849); F. R. Camboulin, Essai sur l'histoire de la littérature catalane (Paris, 1858); M. Mila y Fontanals, De los Trovadores en España (Barcelona 1861), and studies included in his Obras completas; E. Cardona, De la Antica literatura catalana (Naples, 1880); A. Morel-Fatio, " Katalanische Litteratur," in the second volume of the Grundriss der romanischen Philologie, pt. ii., and Catalogue des manuscrits espagnols et portugais de la bibliothèque nationale (Paris, 1881–1892); V. M. O. Denk, Einführung in die Geschichte der altcalalanischen Litteratur (Munich, 1893); J. Masso Torrents, Manuscrits Catalans de la biblioteca nacional de Madrid (Barcelona, 1896). For the modern period see Joaquin Rubió y Ors, Breve reseña del actual renacimiento de la lengua y literatura catalanas (2 vols., Barcelona, 1880); F. M. Tubino, Historia del renacimiento contempordneo en Cataluña, Baleares y Valencia (Madrid, 1880); A. de Molins, Diccionario biográfico y bibliográfico de escritores y artistas catalanes del siglo xix. (Barcelona, 1891-1896); E. Toda, La Poesia catalana a Sardenya (Barcelona, 1888). Important articles by P. Meyer, A. Thomas, A. PagSs, J. Masso Torrents, A. Morel-Fatio and others appear from time to time in Romania, the Revue des langues romanes, the Revue hispanique, the Revista catalana and other special periodicals.

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 25 pp. 527-591.

Spain by A. E. Houghton, Alfred Morel-Fatio, David Hannay, Francis Haverfield, James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Kingsley Jayne & W. A. Phillips

Available Books

Images

Image Name
Seville. In the Alcázar, The Patio de las Doncellas
Entrance to the Bibliotheque Nationale, Algiers
The Vierzo. From Ponferrada. looking towards the Pass of Piedrafita
Seville - The Aceite Gate
Tuy and Valencia. The Frontier Towns on the Mirio
Seville - The Torre del Oro and the Cathedral
Front Cover
Cintra from the Lisbon Road
Zamora. Church of Sta Maria de la Horta
Segovia at Sunset
Lugo. Fuente de San Vicente
Pass near Villa Franca
Castro Urdiales. The Bilbao Coastline
Courting
Avila
The Deva Gorge. La Hermida
Gateway in the Generalife Gardens, Granada
Sketch Map of Northern Spain
Granada - From the Generalife
Charts VII and VIII
Cordova - A Courtyard
Toledo. The Gorge of the Tagus
Avila. From the North-west
Granada. The Alhambra
View of Algiers from Mustapha Superieur
Seville - Gardens of the Alcazar
In the Garden of the Generalife, Granada
Plate VIII
An Infant Capuchin
Algeciras
Peasant of the Corregimiento of Salamanca (II)
A Street in Biskra
Leon. Church of San Isidoro
Granada. Carrera de Darro
Seville - A Street
Back Cover
Book Display
The Canal in the Garden of the Generalife, Granada
Granada - In the Market
Granada - The Generalife : Patio dee la Acequia
Oviedo. In the Cathedral
Profile Volcano
Olite. The Castle
An Arcade in the Generalife, Granada
The Great Crater of Etna
Toledo. Puerta del Sol
Astorga
Distant view of Etna, from the Sea, opposite Catania
Interior of the Cathedral of Salamanca
Valladolid. Santa Maria la Antigua
Fort Gonzago, and Country behind Messina
The Great Mosque, Tangiers
Lisbon Police Guard and Armed Peasant of Algarva
The Masma Valley. Near Mondonedo
Granada - Tocador de la Reina
Vigo Bay. The Inner Harbour, looking out towards the Sea
Toledo. The Zócodover
Spanish Heavy Horse
Tower of San Vincente at Belem, Lisbon
Rometta
In the Garden of the Alcazar, Seville
Rivadeo. An Approach to the Harbour
Granada - The Alhambra : The Aqueduct
A Palm Grove in Murcia
The Mithab in the Mosque of Sidi Okba, Kairowan
Malaga. The Market
Seville - Gardens of the Alcazar
Tarragona. The Cloisters
Burgos. Arch of Santa Maria
Map of Sicily
Cudillero. The Harbour
Topographical Outline of Aetna
A Student of the Irish College, Salamanca
Pass at St. Alepo, between Messina and Taorminum
Salamanca. Church of San Martin
Spanish Light Horse
Cordova - A Street Scene
Seville - Garden of the Casa de Pilatos
Betanzos. A Colonnaded Calle
Santona
A Street in Tunis
Ronda - The Market
Astorga. From the South-east
Talavera de la Reina. From the banks of the Tagus
Front Cover
Cintra
Seville - Gardens of the Alcazar
In Cordova Cathedral
Ronda - A Moorish Gateway
View between Constantin and Nogles
The Prison at Tangiers
Avila. Puerta de San Vicente
Town Gateway, Kairowan
Valladolid. San Pablo
Bejar. An Approach to the Town
Bishop of Guarda

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