History Archive Icon

History Archive

Scotland

Scotland Collection

History Archive - Scotland Collection

Scotland is one of the political divisions forming the British Empire, and is the northern part of Great Britain, surrounded by the ocean on all sides except the south, where it touches England. It is 274 miles long and from 24 to 146 miles wide, including 29,796 square miles, which makes it about as large as Indiana. The coast of 3,000 miles is deeply indented, so that very few places are more than 40 miles from the sea, and there are 186 islands, mostly in the Hebrides, Orkney and Shetland groups.

Solway Firth, Liddel and Tweed Rivers and Cheviot Hills separate Scotland from England. The rivers, flowing mostly to the sea, are not large, the Clyde of 106 miles being the longest. The Tweed, Forth, Tay and Dee are well-known, as are also the beautiful fresh-water lakes of Loch Lomond, Loch Katrine, Loch Leven etc. The division of the country into Highlands and Lowlands is rather a division of race than of country, for, though the Highlands include the more mountainous parts of the country, they have rich, level tracts, while there is hardly any part of the Lowlands without mountains.

The Highlands are that part of the north and northwest of Scotland, where the Celtic language and customs still linger, and include the Hebrides, but not the Orkneys and Shetlands, where the people are of Norwegian origin. There are nearly 200 mountain-peaks in Scotland over 3,000 feet in height, the highest being Ben Nevis, 4,406 feet. The northern Highlands, the Grampians and the Cheviot Hills, with their beautiful glens and mountain lakes make the famous scenery of Scotland. The nearness of the ocean tempers the climate, so that the thermometer rarely falls to zero in winter or rises above 80° in summer.

The animals and plants resemble those of England. About half of the birds are waterbirds, and fish, especially shellfish, abound. The country is not well-adapted to agriculture, because of its cool summers, late springs and heavy rains, but it is carried on with great care and the use of the most improved methods; and in the wildest mountain-regions sheep graze.

The fisheries form an important industry, especially the salmon, herring, cod and ling. The salmon is so abundant that before it was sent to England in large quantities, servants used to make a condition that they should not be fed upon it more than three times a week. The principal minerals are coal, iron known in the United States as Scotch pig, lead, granite, sandstone and other fine building-stones. The linen, cotton and wool manufactures are large, and there are silk, hemp, hosiery, hats, leather and soap factories and large breweries and shipyards.

Scotland, since its union with England, sends 16 peers to the house of lords and elects 72 members to the house of commons. It has its own courts and its state religion, which is Presbyterian. Its common-school system, going back to 1695, made the Scottish people of the i8th century the best educated in Europe. There are four universities, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Edinburgh and St. Andrews.

+ Read More

The early inhabitants were the Picts, a collection of Celtic tribes, and by the Romans the country was called Caledonia. The Scots were a tribe from Ireland, then called, Scotia, who settled on the western coast of Caledonia, and the kingdom of the Picts and Scots seems to have been first called Scotland in the loth century. There are Pictish kings mentioned in early Scotch history. The Saxons settled in the lowlands in 449, and one of their leaders, Edwin, founded Edinburgh (Edwin's burgh). The introduction of Christianity into Scotland by Irish missionaries dates back to the 6th century.

In the 9th century the Scots became the leading power in the country, and the government was in the hands of Prince Kenneth Macalpin. The first great battle of Scottish princes on English soil was fought in 937 between Constantino their king, aided by the Danes, and Saxon King Athel-stan. During the reign of Malcolm, the son of Constantine, Edmund, king of England, restored to that prince a part of the Cambrian kingdom, which Edmund had wrested from the Britons, and this grant was the pretext for the claim of homage from the Scottish rulers, made by the English kings for so many years. Malcolm II, Duncan and Macbeth, a usurper, the next three kings of Scotland, are well-known through Shakespeare's tragedy.

Malcolm III defeated Macbeth in 1057. His wife was Margaret, the sister of Edgar, the Atheling of England, and her influence and that of his own life in England led to the introduction of English customs; while the tyranny of William the Conqueror drove large numbers of the Saxons into Scotland, The three sons of Malcolm who succeeded him, Edgar, Alexander and David, continued their father's policy; David was to Scotland what Arthur was to Britain. He established Norman, English and French colonies, introduced a system of written law, and placed the religion of the country on a new basis, providing for the support of the clergy and the building of churches. His grandsons, Malcolm IV and William the Lion, and Alexander II, the son of William, bring the list of Scottish kings to Alexander III, one of the ablest and best of their rulers. His sudden death in 1286 ended the period of Scotland's prosperity that had lasted for 400 years. The struggle for the succession between Balliol and Bruce and the ambition of Edward I of England, who had conquered Wales, to add Scotland to his kingdom, brought in the series of conflicts under Wallace and Bruce, ending in the battle of Bannockburn.

Robert I (Robert Bruce) was succeeded by David, his infant son, and his grandson Robert, who, as Robert II, heads the list of the Stuart sovereigns of Scotland, which numbers fourteen; an unfortunate race, including Robert II; Robert III, who died of grief, with his older son murdered and his younger son an English captive; James I, for eighteen years a prisoner in England and finally murdered; James II, killed in battle; James III, murdered with his son in rebellion against him; James IV, killed at Floddem; James V, who died broken-hearted at the rout of Solway Moss; Mary, twice a widow and twenty years a captive, beheaded at Fotheringay Castle; and James VI of Scotland and I of England. The ferns of the powerful nobles of Scotland and the struggles with England kept the country in a state of turmoil. In 1503 James IV married Margaret of England which finally resulted in the Union of the two kingdoms. Under James V religious struggles added to the troubles of the country, and James VI became king of England on the death of Elizabeth in 1603.

The Scotch parliament met for the last time in 1706. The leading statesmen of both Scotland and England felt that nothing but a complete union of the two countries would bring about permanent peace, and, though opposed by a majority of the people, the Scottish parliament passed the Act of Union on Jan. 16, 1707. The union was unpopular in Scotland for many years, but with the evident prosperity of the country under the new arrangement discontent gradually disappeared; though Scotland and England are still two countries, and a Scot abroad, if asked if he is an Englishman, will seldom answer "yes." The Gaelic language used in the west and north of Scotland is a Celtic dialect, while the Lowland Scotch is a form of the Saxon, being the same as the northern English of Northumbria. The dialects are many, classed as Border Scotch, Central Scotch and Northeastern Scotch. The chief cities of Scotland are Edinburgh the capital (population 355,366), Glasgow (872,021), Dundee, Aberdeen, Leith, Paisley and Greenock.

References:

See Scotland under Early Kings, by Robertson; Scotland as It Was and as It Is, by Argyll; Scotland from the Earliest Century to the Present Time, by Mackintosh.

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pg. 1707-1709.

Available Books

Book Title Date
Scotland - Highlands and Islands of Scotland Painted and Described Highlands and Islands of Scotland Painted and Described 1907
Scotland - The Clyde River and Firth Painted and Described The Clyde River and Firth Painted and Described 1907
Scotland - Galloway Painted and Described Galloway Painted and Described 1908
Scotland - Scottish Life and Character Scottish Life and Character 1906
Scotland - Liverpool Painted and Described Liverpool Painted and Described 1907
Scotland - The Heart of Scotland Painted and Described The Heart of Scotland Painted and Described 1909
Scotland - Bonnie Scotland Painted and Described Bonnie Scotland Painted and Described 1912
Scotland - Edinburgh Painted and Described Edinburgh Painted and Described 1904
Scotland - Scottish Loch Scenery Scottish Loch Scenery 1882
Scotland - Scotland ; Picturesque, Historical, Descriptive Vol. 1 Scotland ; Picturesque, Historical, Descriptive Vol. 1 1840
Scotland - Scotland ; Picturesque, Historical, Descriptive Vol. 2 Scotland ; Picturesque, Historical, Descriptive Vol. 2 1840
Scotland - Scotland ; Picturesque, Historical, Descriptive Vol. 3 Scotland ; Picturesque, Historical, Descriptive Vol. 3 1840
Scotland - Scotland ; Picturesque, Historical, Descriptive Vol. 4 Scotland ; Picturesque, Historical, Descriptive Vol. 4 1840
Scotland - Sculptured Stones of Scotland Vol. 1 Sculptured Stones of Scotland Vol. 1 1856
Scotland - Sculptured Stones of Scotland Vol. 2 Sculptured Stones of Scotland Vol. 2 1857
Scotland - Picturesque Scotland Picturesque Scotland 1887
Scotland - Two Months in the Highlands, Orcadia, and Skye Two Months in the Highlands, Orcadia, and Skye 1860
Scotland - A History of the Scottish Highlands Vol. 1 A History of the Scottish Highlands Vol. 1 1875
Scotland - A History of the Scottish Highlands Vol. 2 A History of the Scottish Highlands Vol. 2 1875
Scotland - British Highways And Byways From A Motor Car British Highways And Byways From A Motor Car 1908
Scotland - Our Native Land, Its Scenery and Associations Our Native Land, Its Scenery and Associations 1879
Scotland - History of the Burgh of Dumfries History of the Burgh of Dumfries 1873
Scotland - History of the Burgh of Dumfries History of the Burgh of Dumfries 1867
Scotland - Picturesque Scottish Scenery Picturesque Scottish Scenery 1875
Scotland - Proclamation for Apprehending Henry Every Proclamation for Apprehending Henry Every 1696
Scotland - St. Kilda: Past and Present St. Kilda: Past and Present 1878
Scotland - The World in Miniature: England, Scotland & Ireland Vol. 1 The World in Miniature: England, Scotland & Ireland Vol. 1 1827
Scotland - The World in Miniature: England, Scotland & Ireland Vol. 2 The World in Miniature: England, Scotland & Ireland Vol. 2 1827
Scotland - The World in Miniature: England, Scotland & Ireland Vol. 3 The World in Miniature: England, Scotland & Ireland Vol. 3 1827
Scotland - The World in Miniature: England, Scotland & Ireland Vol. 4 The World in Miniature: England, Scotland & Ireland Vol. 4 1827
Scotland - An Account of the Tournament at Eglinton An Account of the Tournament at Eglinton 1839
Scotland - Scenery of Great Britain and Ireland in Aquatint and Lithography Scenery of Great Britain and Ireland in Aquatint and Lithography 1952
Scotland - Illustrations of the Island of Staffa Illustrations of the Island of Staffa 1818

Images

Image Name
Loch Ken, looking North
Bothwell Castle
Inveraray Cross and Castle
Moor and Mountain, Ross-shire
The Marshes below Bowling
Front Cover
The Falls of Tummel
Dunnottar Castle, Kincardineshire
Milton's Room in Cottage at Chalfont St. Giles
Glen Sannox, Isle of Arran
A Croft near Loch Etive, Argyllshire
Strath Glass, Inverness-shire
Wastwater
A Peep of the Grampians, Inverness-shire
Loch Coruisk
Shetlanders
Silver Strand, Loch Katrine
Long Walk, Windsor Park
Dunrobin Castle, Sutherlandshire
On the Dochart, Killin, Perthshire
A Highland River
Matlock from the Heights of Abraham
Hampton Court Palace
The Bass Rock—A Tranquil Evening
Dunkeld and Birnam
O'Sullivan's Cascade
Map of Scotland
Wallace's Leap, near Lanark
Distant View of Magdalen Tower, Oxford
Oban Bay at Night
An Auld Licht
The River Glass near Beauly, Inverness-shire
The High Tor, Matlock
St. Nicholas' Church and the Last of Tower Buildings
Interior, Iona Cathedral
Glen Sligachan
Snowden from Llyn Llydaw
The National Monument on Calton Hill
Tillietudlem(Craignethan Castle)
Port Askaig, Islay
Front Cover
Nethanfoot
Dunskey Castle
Title Page
Loch Etive
On Dartmoor
The Pass of Killiecrankie
The Morven Hills from Appin, Argyllshire
Back Cover
Map of Dumfries and Maxwelltown
A Shepherd's Cot in Glen Nevis, Inverness-shire
Cathedral, Canterbury
Bonnington Falls
Lady Stair's Close
The Yew Avenue, Rosneath
Doune Castle - Stirling in the Distance
Loch Triochatan, Entrance to Glencoe, Argyllshire
Tinto, and the Clyde Valley at Abington, .
Harvesting in Hertfordshire
Loch Lomond
St. Giles's Cathedral from the Lawnmarket
Granny's Blessing
Title Page
Low Tide at Daybreak - Dumbarton Rock
Front Cover
Carting Peat, Orkney
Loch Ness
A Highland Strath
High Street, Dumfries
A Bit of Old England
John Wyclif's Church, Lutterworth
Corra Linn
Ruins of Uriconium, near Shrewsbury
Dunderave Castle, Head of Loch Fyne
Title Page
Port Askaig, Islay
Inverness
The Standing Stones of Callernish, Island of Lewis
Spinning in Skye
Richmond Bridge
Title Page
Title Page
Albert Dock: Twilight
The Homeward Bound, off Ailsa Craig
Carting Peat, Orkney
Old Mar Bridge and Lochnagar, Aberdeenshire
Tantallon Castle, on Coast of Haddingtonshire
The Island of Rum, From Arisaig
Edinburgh from Salisbury Crags—Evening
Sunset on the Moor
Stokesay Manor House, near Ludlow
A Difficult Text
Sketch Map of Scotland
Loch Achray, the Trossachs, Perthshire
Dumfries from Mountain Hall
Hadley Church, Monken Hadley

Maps

Map Name
History of the Burgh of Dumfries - Map of Dumfries and Maxwelltown (1873)

Regions

View All Regions
History of Humanity - History Archive Logo
History of Humanity - History Mysteries Logo
History of Humanity - Ancient Mesopotamia Logo
History of Humanity - Egypt History Logo
History of Humanity - Persian Empire Logo
History of Humanity - Greek History Logo
History of Humanity - Alexander the Great Logo
History of Humanity - Roman History Logo
History of Humanity - Punic Wars Logo
History of Humanity - Golden Age of Piracy Logo
History of Humanity - Revolutionary War Logo
History of Humanity - Mafia History Logo