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Portugal Collection

History Archive - Portugal Collection

Portugal is a nation located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

Portugal is the oldest nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. The pre-Celtic people, Celts, Carthaginians and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128. The Kingdom of Portugal was later proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, and independence from León was recognized by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope (1488), Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India (1497-98) and the European discovery of Brazil (1500).

During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil (1822), and a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence.

After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, later being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974, ending the Portuguese Colonial War. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories. The handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire.

Available Books


Image Name
The Cork Convent
Sketch of the Action near the Hill of Barrosa on 5th March 1811
Hot Baths, in the Mountains of Monchique, Algarve
The Convent of Na. Sra. Da Penna
Military Execution
Penafiel de Lousa from the East Entre Douro e Minho
Day of All Souls, in the Convent of St. Joao de Deos.
Punhete, at the junction of the River Zerere with the Tejo: Estramadura
Aqueduct of Alcantara
Back Cover
City of Tuy on the Mino; Galicia
Peasant in a Straw Coat
Position of Donna Maria's Army Before Santarem 1834
Front Cover
Entrance to Cintra, from Lisbon
Fountain opposite the Inn at Ponte de Lima, Entre Douro-e-Minho
Town and Harbour of Setubal
Spanish Military Costume
First degree of Torture of the Inquisition
Faro, the Capital of the Algarve
Slave shop at Rio Minas. Merchant bargaining
Plan of the Attack of Cuidad Rodrigo, 19th Jan 1812
Begging for the Festival of N.S. d'Atalaya
Castle of Benevente
Cintra from the Lisbon Road
French coins shewing their value as directed to pass current in Portugal by General Junot.
Pombal and Bridge, from the South-west Estremadura
Girl of Guarda
Cintra from the East
The Market Place, Cintra
A Lady of Lisbon in her walking dress
Plan of the Battle of the Arapiles near Salamanca
Spanish Grenadiers
Sketch of the Disposition of the Allies under the Command of Lieut. Gen. Hill
Title Page
Monchique near Cape San Vicente Algarve
Lisbon Police Guard and Armed Peasant of Algarva
Landing place at Belem
Arroyoles; Anciently called Calentica Alemtejo
Portuguese Regiment of Alcantara
Silves, the ancient Capital of Algarve
Attack of the Castle of Burgos, 1812
Amarante and Bridge, from the Convent of San Domingo: Entre Douro-e-Minho
Front Cover
Cintra from the Liboa-road Estramadura
A Student of the Irish College, Salamanca
Portuguese Dragoons
Bishop of Guarda
Convent near Cintra on the Highest pinnacle of the Rock of Lisboa Estramadura
Scene on the River Oeiras, at Mertolla, anciently called Mirtiles Julia
An Internment
View up the Tejo
A Spanish lady with her attendant going to mass
Back Cover
An Infant Capuchin
Mertola; from the North
Pass of Manzanal
The Boleras Dance
Spanish Courier
Mouth of the Tejo
Plan of Tarifa and Island in the Straits of Gibraltar
Plan of the Fortress of St. Sebastian
Spanish coins shewing their value as directed to pass current in Portugal by General Junot.
Bridge & Ford on the River Niza, on the road from Villa Velha to Niza Alentejo
Peasant of Torres Vedras
Straw Boat unloading. Black Women emptying their pots
Sir Arthur Wellesley's Quarters, Vimieiro, 21st & 22nd Aug 1808 Estremadura
Estremoz, from the Road leading to Elvas, Alemtejo
A Private of French Infantry
Party at Rio de Janeiro. A castrate singing
Vimieiro from near the road leading to Lorinha Estramadura
A Doctor of Salamanca
The Church of Cintra
From the Castle at Abrantes, anciently called Tubuci: Estremadura
Peasant of the Corregimiento of Salamanca (I)
Silves, the ancient Capital of Algarve, from the East
Vidigal's Modinha of Cruel Saudade
Execution of the Conspirators - Plate 1st
Portuguese Legion of Alorgna
Battle of Albuera, 16th May, 1811
Going home from the Lisbon Market
City of Coimbra, anciently called Conimbra, from the South: Beira
Servant Girls of Salamanca
Ponte de Lima, anciently called Forum Limicorum Entre Douro-e-Minho
Cintra, from the Road leading to Mafra; Estramadura
View near Villa Franca
A Portuguese Gentleman
Book Display
A Saloia retailing fruit
Head of the Bay of Vigo between Puente San Payo and Ponte Vedra, Galicia
Albofeira and Sea Coast, from the East Algrave


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