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Portugal

Portugal Collection

History Archive - Portugal Collection

Portugal is a nation located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

Portugal is the oldest nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. The pre-Celtic people, Celts, Carthaginians and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128. The Kingdom of Portugal was later proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, and independence from León was recognized by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope (1488), Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India (1497-98) and the European discovery of Brazil (1500).

During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil (1822), and a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence.

After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, later being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974, ending the Portuguese Colonial War. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories. The handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire.

Available Books

Images

Image Name
Lisboa or Lisbon, the Capital of Portugal
An Old Chapel of the Moorish Castle
Amarante on the RiverTamega: Entre Douro-e-Minho
Portuguese Legion of Alorgna
Portuguese Dragoons
Alcacer Sal, anciently called Salacia; from the North Estramadura
Toro
Spanish Heavy Horse
Cintra from the Liboa-road Estramadura
Aljustrel, from the East, Alemtejo
Vimieiro from near the road leading to Lorinha Estramadura
Peasant of the Corregimiento of Salamanca (II)
First degree of Torture of the Inquisition
French coins shewing their value as directed to pass current in Portugal by General Junot.
Straw Boat unloading. Black Women emptying their pots
Alcacer Sal, anciently called Salacia or Urbs Imperatoria; from the East, Estramadura
Peasant of the Corregimiento of Salamanca (I)
Armed Peasant of the Ciudad Rodrigo Militia
Franciscans
Plan of the Attack of Cuidad Rodrigo, 19th Jan 1812
Novion or Lisbon Police Cavalry
Attack of the Castle of Burgos, 1812
Lagos Bridge, Algarve
Arroyoles; Anciently called Calentica Alemtejo
Fountain opposite the Inn at Ponte de Lima, Entre Douro-e-Minho
Spanish Infantry
Dedication
Torres Vedlas from the North-West
A Part of the Palace, Cintra
Pass in the mountains near Ladeira: Beira
Torres-Vedras from the North: Estremadura
Albofeira and Sea Coast, from the East Algrave
Punhete, at the junction of the River Zerere with the Tejo: Estramadura
City of Coimbra, anciently called Conimbra, from the South: Beira
Execution of the Conspirators - Plate 1st
Convent on the highest part of the Rock of Lisboa Estramadura
An Infant Capuchin
View up the Tejo
Bridge & Ford on the River Niza, on the road from Villa Velha to Niza Alentejo
Bay and Harbour of Lagos, from O Pinhao Algarve
Aliejos, a town in the Plains of Leon
Spanish Courier
A Peasant Boy of Nisa
Vidigal's Modinha of Cruel Saudade
Opomar Velho, in the mountain of Monchique, Algarve
Third degree of Torture of the Inquisition
A Distant View of the Penna Convent
Cintra from the West
Ford on the River Sever, between Montalvao in Portugal, and Herrera in Spain: Alentejo
Penafiel de Lousa from the East Entre Douro e Minho
Torre Velha de Belem, from the West Estramadura
Spanish Grenadiers
Slave shop at Rio Minas. Merchant bargaining
Creek of Maceira
Portuguese Regiment of Alcantara
The Convent of the Penha Longa
Peasant of Torres Vedras
Albofeira, from the road leading to Faro: Algarve
Faro, the Capital of the Algarve
The Market Place, Cintra
Entrance to Cintra, from Lisbon
Aqueduct of Alcantara
Bishop of Guarda
Girl of Guarda
Cintra from the East
Battle of Albuera, 16th May, 1811
Cintra from the Lisbon Road
Pass of Manzanal
Front Cover
A Lisbon Chiase
Battle of Talavera, 28th & 29th July, 1809
Castle of Benevente
Bridge of Boats at Porto, on the River Douro
Sketch of the Action between the British and French Forces at Vimieiro, Portugal, 21st August, 1808
Lisbon and Aqueduct of Alcantara
A Portuguese Gentleman
Title Page
Title Page
Back Cover
Street Scene in Lisbon
Peasant in a Straw Coat
The Convent of Na. Sra. Da Penna
Cintra
Servant Girls of Salamanca
Aljezur from the South Algarve
Mertola; from the North
Party at Rio de Janeiro. A castrate singing
Plan of the Action near Coruna, Jan 16th, 1809
Scene on the River Oeiras, at Mertolla, anciently called Mirtiles Julia
Villa Nova de Portimao Algarve
Convent near Cintra on the Highest pinnacle of the Rock of Lisboa Estramadura
Bathing in the Tagus
Spanish coins shewing their value as directed to pass current in Portugal by General Junot.
Entrance of the Harbour of Portimao, Algarve
Action of Rolica, 17th of August, 1808
A Saloia retailing fruit

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