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Portugal

Portugal Collection

History Archive - Portugal Collection

Portugal is a nation located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

Portugal is the oldest nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. The pre-Celtic people, Celts, Carthaginians and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128. The Kingdom of Portugal was later proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, and independence from León was recognized by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope (1488), Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India (1497-98) and the European discovery of Brazil (1500).

During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil (1822), and a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence.

After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, later being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974, ending the Portuguese Colonial War. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories. The handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire.

Available Books

Images

Image Name
Punhete, at the junction of the River Zerere with the Tejo: Estramadura
A Peasant Boy of Nisa
Day of All Souls, in the Convent of St. Joao de Deos.
Spanish Grenadiers
The Market Place, Cintra
Hot Baths, in the Mountains of Monchique, Algarve
Spanish Light Horse
Cintra from the East
Silves, the ancient Capital of Algarve
Villa Franca
Aqueduct of Alcantara
Third degree of Torture of the Inquisition
A French Dragoon
Procession of the Sesor dos Passos de Graca
Vimieiro from near the road leading to Lorinha Estramadura
Interior of the Dominican Church, Salamanca
Pass near Villa Franca
A Student of the Irish College, Salamanca
The Convent of the Penha Longa
Bay and Harbour of Lagos, from O Pinhao Algarve
The Convent of Na. Sra. Da Penna
Peasant of the Corregimiento of Salamanca (II)
French coins shewing their value as directed to pass current in Portugal by General Junot.
First degree of Torture of the Inquisition
Aljezur from the South Algarve
Portuguese Regiment of Alcantara
Title Page
Plan of the Fortress of St. Sebastian
Sketch of the Disposition of the Allies under the Command of Lieut. Gen. Hill
Spanish Heavy Horse
Sketch of the Action between the British and French Forces at Vimieiro, Portugal, 21st August, 1808
Cintra from the Liboa-road Estramadura
Portuguese Dragoons
Flying Bridge on the Tejo, at Villa-Velha
A Portuguese Gentleman
Spanish Military Costume
View near Villa Franca
Portuguese Marine
Aliejos, a town in the Plains of Leon
Faro, the Capital of the Algarve
Party at Rio de Janeiro. A castrate singing
Portuguese Legion of Alorgna
Entrance to the Penna
Silves, the ancient Capital of Algarve, from the East
Mertola; from the North
Province of Beija. Inhabitants of Foz de Arouce
Title Page
The Church of Cintra
Royal Palace of Mafra, Estramadura
Fountain opposite the Inn at Ponte de Lima, Entre Douro-e-Minho
Peasant of the Corregimiento of Salamanca (I)
A Private of French Infantry
Portuguese Military Costume
Torres-Vedras from the North: Estremadura
Plan of the Battle of the Arapiles near Salamanca
Toro
Sir Arthur Wellesley's Quarters, Vimieiro, 21st & 22nd Aug 1808 Estremadura
Head of the Bay of Vigo between Puente San Payo and Ponte Vedra, Galicia
Street Scene in Lisbon
A Lisbon Chiase
Lagos Bridge, Algarve
Pass in the mountains between Nisa and Villa Velha
Servant Girls of Salamanca
Cintra, from the Road leading to Mafra; Estramadura
Bridge of Boats at Porto, on the River Douro
Near San Payo, on the road to Redondela, looking towards Vigo
Attack of the Castle of Burgos, 1812
Back Cover
Leiria, anciently called Collipo: Estremadura
Opomar Velho, in the mountain of Monchique, Algarve
Entrance to Cintra, from Lisbon
Begging for the Festival of N.S. d'Atalaya
Plan of the Attack of Cuidad Rodrigo, 19th Jan 1812
Cintra
Spanish coins shewing their value as directed to pass current in Portugal by General Junot.
Lisbon Police Guard and Armed Peasant of Algarva
Landing place at Belem
Ford on the River Sever, between Montalvao in Portugal, and Herrera in Spain: Alentejo
Going home from the Lisbon Market
A Saloia retailing fruit
Palmella, from the road leading to Moita: Estramadura
Castle of Benevente
Estremoz, from the Road leading to Elvas, Alemtejo
An Old Chapel of the Moorish Castle
Title Page
View on the Tagus near Villa Velha
Villa-Nova de Mil Fontes, Alemtejo
City of Tuy on the Mino; Galicia
Title Page
Book Display
Scene on the River Oeiras, at Mertolla, anciently called Mirtiles Julia
Fourth degree of Torture of the Inquisition
Plan of the Battle of Busaco, 27th September, 1810
A Distant View of the Penna Convent
Shepherds of the Plains of Leon
A Spanish lady with her attendant going to mass

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