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Pompeii

Pompeii Collection

History Archive - Pompeii Collection

Pompeii, an ancient Italian city, near the mouth of Sarnus River and at the foot of Mt. Vesuvius, 13 miles southeast of Naples. It was founded by the Oscans about 600 B. C., and was afterwards occupied by the Etruscans and Samnites, the latter being dispossessed by the Romans about 100 B. C. From that time until its destruction in 79 A. D. it was a resort, frequented by the Roman aristocracy.

In 63 its magnificent buildings were nearly all leveled to the ground by an earthquake, and some years elapsed before the citizens could be induced to return and rebuild them. Before this work was fully completed, Mt. Vesuvius, whose volcanic fires had been slumbering for unknown ages, burst forth in a violent eruption, which buried Pompeii and Herculaneum under dense beds of cinders and ashes.

Amid the deep gloom that covered land and sea the panic of the citizens was aggravated by repeated shocks of earthquake, and for three days the flight continued, till Pompeii was abandoned by all who could effect their escape. By the fourth day the sun again became dimly visible, and the more courageous of the citizens began to return for such portions of their property as they could rescue from the ruins.

The desolation and distress were so great that Emperor Titus organized relief on a grand scale, and even undertook to clear and rebuild the city. This attempt, however, was soon abandoned; and the unfortunate city remained a heap of hardened earth and ashes until its very site was forgotten, and even the celebrated topographer Cluverius was unable to fix it with certainty.

This difficulty arose in large measure from the fact that the convulsions attending the eruption had turned the Sarnus from its regular course, and so raised the sea-beach that the ruins are nearly a mile from the coast. It was not until 1748 that an accidental discovery revealed that beneath the vineyards and mulberry grounds which covered the site lay the ruins of a city far more accessible, if not more interesting, than the previously discovered Herculaneum. Excavation proceeded fitfully until 1860, when the Italian government commenced unearthing the city in a systematic and scientific manner.

The general plan of the town is very regular, the streets being straight and crossing each other at right angles or nearly so. The streets rarely exceed 20 feet in width, the broadest yet found being less than 30 feet, while the back streets running parallel to the main lines are only about 15 feet. They are usually paved with blocks of lava fitted very closely together, and the marks of horses hoofs and the ruts of chariot wheels are still plainly visible. The houses are generally low, rarely exceeding two stories in height. Not more than 300 skeletons have been discovered, chiefly in cellars and underground apartments. This fact makes it probable that most of the inhabitants escaped. The population probably was 12,000.

References:

See E. Neville Rolfe's Pompeii Past and Present.

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pg. 1524.

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 22. pp. 50-55.

Available Books

Images

Image Name
View 9
View 14
View 33
View 23
House of Ariadne
Foro Civile, looking towards Castell' a Mare
Public Bake House
View 4
View 2
View 19
View from the Walls
Temple of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva in the Forum
The Stabian Gate
Temple of Hercules, looking towards the Portico
Stabian Street
View 12
View 26
Pompeii : Spring
View 1
In the Triangular Forum
View 5
Temple of Fortune
Title Page
One of the Fountains at the Corner of the Street
View 30
View 31
Consular Street
Temple of Isis
Amphitheatre
Sketch Plan of Pompeii
Comic Theatre
The Herculaneum Gate
The City Covered and Uncovered
Sketch Plan of an Insula, containing the House of Pansa
The Dancing Faun or Satyr
The Listening Dionysus
The Street of Tombs
View 32
Temple of Aesculapius, and Sculptor's Shop
View 18
The House of the Faun
The Archaic Artemis
House of Castor and Pollux
View 28
View 21
Semicircular Seats
Street of the Tombs
View 7
View 20
View 27
Back Cover
Front Cover
View from Pompeii
The Stabian Baths
Entrance to the Triangular Forum
The Inn
View 8
Front Cover
View 15
View 29
Temple of Hercules
View 22
View 25
View 10
Entrance to the Forum
Peristyle of the House of the Vettii
Portico leading to the Temple of Hercules
Semicircular Bench Tomb
View 6
Foro Civile, looking towards the Temple of Jupiter.
Nola Gate
View from the Herculaneum Gate
Decorative Panel Picture
Back Cover
House of Caius Sallust
View 13
View 24
Front Cover
The Temple of Fortuna Augusta
Temple of Venus
View 16
Title Page
View 17
Tragic Theatre
View 34
House of the Vettii
View 11
Villa of Diomedes
Plan of Pompeii
Basilica
View 3
The Blue Glass Vase
The Gladiatorial Barracks

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