History Archive Icon

History Archive

Pompeii

Pompeii Collection

History Archive - Pompeii Collection

Pompeii, an ancient Italian city, near the mouth of Sarnus River and at the foot of Mt. Vesuvius, 13 miles southeast of Naples. It was founded by the Oscans about 600 B. C., and was afterwards occupied by the Etruscans and Samnites, the latter being dispossessed by the Romans about 100 B. C. From that time until its destruction in 79 A. D. it was a resort, frequented by the Roman aristocracy.

In 63 its magnificent buildings were nearly all leveled to the ground by an earthquake, and some years elapsed before the citizens could be induced to return and rebuild them. Before this work was fully completed, Mt. Vesuvius, whose volcanic fires had been slumbering for unknown ages, burst forth in a violent eruption, which buried Pompeii and Herculaneum under dense beds of cinders and ashes.

Amid the deep gloom that covered land and sea the panic of the citizens was aggravated by repeated shocks of earthquake, and for three days the flight continued, till Pompeii was abandoned by all who could effect their escape. By the fourth day the sun again became dimly visible, and the more courageous of the citizens began to return for such portions of their property as they could rescue from the ruins.

The desolation and distress were so great that Emperor Titus organized relief on a grand scale, and even undertook to clear and rebuild the city. This attempt, however, was soon abandoned; and the unfortunate city remained a heap of hardened earth and ashes until its very site was forgotten, and even the celebrated topographer Cluverius was unable to fix it with certainty.

This difficulty arose in large measure from the fact that the convulsions attending the eruption had turned the Sarnus from its regular course, and so raised the sea-beach that the ruins are nearly a mile from the coast. It was not until 1748 that an accidental discovery revealed that beneath the vineyards and mulberry grounds which covered the site lay the ruins of a city far more accessible, if not more interesting, than the previously discovered Herculaneum. Excavation proceeded fitfully until 1860, when the Italian government commenced unearthing the city in a systematic and scientific manner.

The general plan of the town is very regular, the streets being straight and crossing each other at right angles or nearly so. The streets rarely exceed 20 feet in width, the broadest yet found being less than 30 feet, while the back streets running parallel to the main lines are only about 15 feet. They are usually paved with blocks of lava fitted very closely together, and the marks of horses hoofs and the ruts of chariot wheels are still plainly visible. The houses are generally low, rarely exceeding two stories in height. Not more than 300 skeletons have been discovered, chiefly in cellars and underground apartments. This fact makes it probable that most of the inhabitants escaped. The population probably was 12,000.

References:

See E. Neville Rolfe's Pompeii Past and Present.

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pg. 1524.

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 22. pp. 50-55.

Available Books

Images

Image Name
View 24
The Temple of Fortuna Augusta
View 6
View 20
Amphitheatre
Semicircular Seats
Foro Civile, looking towards the Temple of Jupiter.
Temple of Hercules, looking towards the Portico
Pompeii : Spring
Peristyle of the House of the Vettii
View 9
View 15
View 4
Nola Gate
Temple of Venus
View 31
Temple of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva in the Forum
View 22
Back Cover
Temple of Isis
View 3
View 7
Tragic Theatre
Portico leading to the Temple of Hercules
View 18
View from the Walls
View 10
View 16
Decorative Panel Picture
Comic Theatre
The Gladiatorial Barracks
House of the Vettii
View 11
View 1
The House of the Faun
Plan of Pompeii
View 5
The Dancing Faun or Satyr
Sketch Plan of an Insula, containing the House of Pansa
View 19
The Archaic Artemis
View 28
The Herculaneum Gate
Front Cover
View from Pompeii
Title Page
Entrance to the Forum
One of the Fountains at the Corner of the Street
Title Page
The Street of Tombs
Front Cover
View 29
View 14
Semicircular Bench Tomb
Street of the Tombs
View 32
View 23
Back Cover
Front Cover
The Blue Glass Vase
The Stabian Gate
Temple of Fortune
View 26
View 33
Temple of Hercules
View 8
View 13
The Inn
Entrance to the Triangular Forum
Consular Street
Public Bake House
View 30
View 25
In the Triangular Forum
View 17
View 2
View 27
House of Ariadne
View from the Herculaneum Gate
Basilica
Temple of Aesculapius, and Sculptor's Shop
Villa of Diomedes
House of Caius Sallust
Stabian Street
View 21
The City Covered and Uncovered
The Stabian Baths
View 34
Foro Civile, looking towards Castell' a Mare
View 12
House of Castor and Pollux
Sketch Plan of Pompeii
The Listening Dionysus

Regions

View All Regions
Sabalico Logo
Sabali Mail Logo
Domain Search Logo
Test Speed Logo
Website On Logo
Code Editor Logo
ASCII Table Logo
HTML Symbols Logo
Emoji Symbols Logo
Encode File Logo
Generator Password Logo
QR Code Generator Logo
Barcode Generator Logo
Online Sign Logo
Dictionary Online Logo
Counter Word Logo
Text Convert Logo
Lorem Ipsum Generator Logo
Sprite Sheet Logo
Resize Image Logo
Image Compress Logo
Image Color Logo
Image Crop Logo
Combine Images Logo
Color Picker Logo
Color Convert Logo
CSS Gradient Logo
To-Do List Logo
Calendar Free Logo
Generator Meme Logo
Word Spinner Logo
Phone Country Logo
Sabalytics Logo
Senty Logo
World Map Logo
SEO Guide Logo
Keyword Tool Logo
What is my IP Logo
My Device Logo
My Browser Logo
My Location Logo
Time Zone Logo
Day Map Logo
My Weather Logo
My Galaxy Logo
The Moon Logo
Periodic Table Logo
rStatistics Logo
Unit Convert Logo
Data Convert Logo
Coordinate Converter Logo
Temperature Convert Logo
2020 Election Logo
Currency Convert Logo
Free Calculator Logo
Finance Calculator Logo
Loan Calculator Logo
Calculator Mortgage Logo
Stock Calculator Logo
Bond Calculator Logo
Tax Calculator Logo
Tip Calculator Logo
Gas Mileage Logo
History of Humanity - History Archive Logo
History of Humanity - History Mysteries Logo
History of Humanity - Ancient Mesopotamia Logo
History of Humanity - Egypt History Logo
History of Humanity - Persian Empire Logo
History of Humanity - Greek History Logo
History of Humanity - Alexander the Great Logo
History of Humanity - Roman History Logo
History of Humanity - Punic Wars Logo
History of Humanity - Golden Age of Piracy Logo
History of Humanity - Revolutionary War Logo
History of Humanity - Mafia History Logo