Panama (p?n??-mä?). A small republic comprising the narrowest part of Central America, between Costa Rica and Colombia. It formerly belonged to Colombia, but seceded in November, 1903. It is 35 miles wide, and has an area of 31,571 square miles. The population is 400,000. The isthmus is traversed by a range of mountains running between the Atlantic and the Pacific, and many streams, some of considerable size, notably the Tuira (160 miles), flow into both oceans. The trading ports are Aspinwall (or Colon) and Panama, and the exports are hides, tallow, indigo, caoutchouc, coffee, vanilla, gold-dust and tortoise shell. A railway crosses the isthmus from Colon to Pamama. The capital is Panama (population 35,500).
The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pp. 1415