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Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire Collection

History Archive - Ottoman Empire Collection

The Ottoman Empire, also known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Sogut (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.

With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians.

The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires. The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernization known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organized, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.

The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, and thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to largely hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent, especially with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, genocide was committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks.

The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.

References:

1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 27 pgs. 426-467.

Stanford Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey (Cambridge: University Press, 1976), vol. 1 p. 13

Available Books

Book Title Date
Ottoman Empire - Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 2 Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 2 1839
Ottoman Empire - Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 1 Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 1 1839
Ottoman Empire - The Military Costume of Turkey The Military Costume of Turkey 1818
Ottoman Empire - The Costume of Turkey The Costume of Turkey 1802
Ottoman Empire - The Present State of the Ottoman Empire The Present State of the Ottoman Empire 1668
Ottoman Empire - A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey 1813
Ottoman Empire - Views in Egypt Views in Egypt 1801
Ottoman Empire - Views in Palestine Views in Palestine 1804
Ottoman Empire - Views in the Ottoman Dominions Views in the Ottoman Dominions 1810
Ottoman Empire - Views in the Ottoman Empire Views in the Ottoman Empire 1803
Ottoman Empire - Voyage des Souverains du Canal du Suez Voyage des Souverains du Canal du Suez 1870
Ottoman Empire - Voyage a Athenes et a Constantinopole Voyage a Athenes et a Constantinopole 1825
Ottoman Empire - Elbicei atika : Musee des Anciens Costumes Turcs de Constantinople Elbicei atika : Musee des Anciens Costumes Turcs de Constantinople 1855
Ottoman Empire - Recueil de Cent Estampes Representant Differentes Nations du Levant Recueil de Cent Estampes Representant Differentes Nations du Levant 1714
Ottoman Empire - Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 1 Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 1 1823
Ottoman Empire - Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 2 Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 2 1823
Ottoman Empire - Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly [Atlas] Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly [Atlas] 1823
Ottoman Empire - Interesting Views in Turkey Interesting Views in Turkey 1819
Ottoman Empire - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 1 Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 1 1815
Ottoman Empire - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 2 Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 2 1815
Ottoman Empire - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 3 Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 3 1815
Ottoman Empire - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Atlas Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Atlas 1817
Ottoman Empire - Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 1 Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 1 1819
Ottoman Empire - Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 2 Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 2 1819
Ottoman Empire - Constantinople Painted and Described Constantinople Painted and Described 1906
Ottoman Empire - The Dardanelles : Colour Sketches from Gallipoli The Dardanelles : Colour Sketches from Gallipoli 1915
Ottoman Empire - Clouds in the East Clouds in the East 1876
Ottoman Empire - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
Ottoman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 1820
Ottoman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 1820
Ottoman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 1820
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 1 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 1 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 2 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 2 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 3 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 3 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 4 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 4 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 5 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 5 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 6 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 6 1821
Ottoman Empire - Turkey, Russia, the Black Sea, and Circassia Turkey, Russia, the Black Sea, and Circassia 1854
Ottoman Empire - The Oriental Album The Oriental Album 1862
Ottoman Empire - Life in Asiatic Turkey Life in Asiatic Turkey 1879
Ottoman Empire - Anatolica Anatolica 1874

Images

Image Name
Halt of Caravaniers at a Seraï
Tomb in the Valley of Jehosophat
Ascent of the High Balkan Mountains
Tomb in Scutari
Marchand Franc
An Usher
Ground Plan of the Castle of Mout
Kelat and Abivero from the Mountains of Derecuez
Grotto of the Nativity
Plan indicatif des points d'où M. Melling a dessiné les vues qui composent Touvrage
Bostandji Bachi
Fountain near Babu Humayun
Gypsy Fortune Telling
H.M.S. Theseus
The Gate of Rosetta in Alexandria
On a Lee Shore off the Mouth of the Attrek
Spahis ou Cavalier Turc
A Skirmish with Robbers in Mazanderan
"A Kafedji"
Puits a Roue du Pays de Nedjd
Patmos
Back Cover
Ali Tebelen, Pacha de Janina, dessine d'apres nature le 14 Mars sue le lac de Butrinto
A Turk in a Pelise
The Mufti, or Chief of Religion
A Village Store at Kavak
Baghdad Merchant (Travelling)
Mosque in Latachia No. 2
Le Grand Seigneur en habit de Ceremonies
Ceremonie Religieuse sur la Plage de Port Said
A Whirling Dervish
Le Kistar - Agassi, Chef des Eunuques noir
Part of the Grand Gallery of the Temple of Diana
Peik, Page du Grand Seigneur, qui le suit a pied quand
Tchiurluk
Ruins of the Temple of Juno in Samos
La Princesse Helene S
Turkish Arabah
A Turkish Lady in Out-Door Dress
Tombs in Cairo [I]
H.M.S. Exmouth in Kephalo Harbour
Piccolo Bent
The Solimanie, or Mosque of Sultan Soliman
Ancient Temple in the Island of Salina
H.M.S. Talbot in Suvla Bay Shelling Enemy Ridges at Dusk
Title Page
No. 33. Troisième vue du Bosphore, prise à Kandilly
Mosque of Sultan Achmet
An Egyptian Peasant and Family
An Armenian
Passage a el Guisr
Le Garde des Sceaux d'Ali-Pacha
Crimean Memorial, British Cemetery, Haidar Pasha
A Colonel of the Janissaries
Island of Tortola
Pompey's Pillar
Femme d'Afrique allant par les rues
A Flower-Market, Scutari
Albanian Guard
Road Over the Balkan Mountain
A Saka or Turkish Water Carrier
V. Vue de Fener-Bakcthé et de la campagne de Chalcédoin
Hongrois
Dressing Station - "A" Beach
Vendeur de Caffe par les rues
The Ruins of Laodicea
The Triple Wall of Constantinople
A Turkish Lady in her Wedding Dress
Architecte Armenien
No. 38. Vue de Keffeli-Kieuï, et d'une partie de Buyuk-Déré
A Step Street in Galata
The Chief of the Ulemas, or Professors of the Law
No. 22. Vue de la place et de la fontaine de Top-Hané
No. 44. Vue de l'embouchure de la mer Noire
An ancient Bath at Cacamo in Caramania
Camp on the River Las with a View of Demaveno
Front Cover
Eski Estambol
Route through the Balkan Mountains-by Tâtar-Bazaar
Caravanasary ay Kustchiuk-Czemege
Tombs in Cairo [II]
Dance of Bulgarian Peasants
Une Mosquee a Athenes
Un Janissaire du Palais et un Bostangi
XXIV. Vue du village de Buyuck-Dere
Leventi ou Soldat de Marine
Mameluke of the Grand Vizier
Sepulchres of the Judges of Israel
A Hamal, or Common Porter
Tartare de Crimee
Two Janissaries in their Dress of Ceremony
Borgas
No. 3. Vue du château des Sept-Tours, et de la ville de Constantinople telle qu'elle se présente du côté de la mer de Marmara
Gentilhomme Valaque
Cavalry
Turkish and Armenian Ladies (abroad)

Maps

Map Name
A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey - Map of the Western Half of the Hellespontine Phrygia (1813)
A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey - Map of Albania (1813)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - A Sketch Map to Illustrate Revd E. J. Davis' Journey's in Cilicia &c. (1879)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 - Map of the Countries on the East Coast of the Mediterranean Sea (1820)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 - Map of Greece and the Archipelago (1820)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - Map of Asia Minor Shewing the District Visited by Revd E. J. Davis (1879)

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