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Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire Collection

History Archive - Ottoman Empire Collection

The Ottoman Empire, also known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Sogut (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.

With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians.

The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires. The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernization known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organized, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.

The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, and thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to largely hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent, especially with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, genocide was committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks.

The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.

References:

1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 27 pgs. 426-467.

Stanford Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey (Cambridge: University Press, 1976), vol. 1 p. 13

Available Books

Book Title Date
Ottoman Empire - Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 2 Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 2 1839
Ottoman Empire - Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 1 Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 1 1839
Ottoman Empire - The Military Costume of Turkey The Military Costume of Turkey 1818
Ottoman Empire - The Costume of Turkey The Costume of Turkey 1802
Ottoman Empire - The Present State of the Ottoman Empire The Present State of the Ottoman Empire 1668
Ottoman Empire - A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey 1813
Ottoman Empire - Views in Egypt Views in Egypt 1801
Ottoman Empire - Views in Palestine Views in Palestine 1804
Ottoman Empire - Views in the Ottoman Dominions Views in the Ottoman Dominions 1810
Ottoman Empire - Views in the Ottoman Empire Views in the Ottoman Empire 1803
Ottoman Empire - Voyage des Souverains du Canal du Suez Voyage des Souverains du Canal du Suez 1870
Ottoman Empire - Voyage a Athenes et a Constantinopole Voyage a Athenes et a Constantinopole 1825
Ottoman Empire - Elbicei atika : Musee des Anciens Costumes Turcs de Constantinople Elbicei atika : Musee des Anciens Costumes Turcs de Constantinople 1855
Ottoman Empire - Recueil de Cent Estampes Representant Differentes Nations du Levant Recueil de Cent Estampes Representant Differentes Nations du Levant 1714
Ottoman Empire - Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 1 Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 1 1823
Ottoman Empire - Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 2 Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 2 1823
Ottoman Empire - Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly [Atlas] Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly [Atlas] 1823
Ottoman Empire - Interesting Views in Turkey Interesting Views in Turkey 1819
Ottoman Empire - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 1 Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 1 1815
Ottoman Empire - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 2 Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 2 1815
Ottoman Empire - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 3 Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 3 1815
Ottoman Empire - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Atlas Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Atlas 1817
Ottoman Empire - Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 1 Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 1 1819
Ottoman Empire - Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 2 Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 2 1819
Ottoman Empire - Constantinople Painted and Described Constantinople Painted and Described 1906
Ottoman Empire - The Dardanelles : Colour Sketches from Gallipoli The Dardanelles : Colour Sketches from Gallipoli 1915
Ottoman Empire - Clouds in the East Clouds in the East 1876
Ottoman Empire - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
Ottoman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 1820
Ottoman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 1820
Ottoman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 1820
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 1 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 1 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 2 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 2 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 3 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 3 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 4 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 4 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 5 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 5 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 6 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 6 1821
Ottoman Empire - Turkey, Russia, the Black Sea, and Circassia Turkey, Russia, the Black Sea, and Circassia 1854
Ottoman Empire - The Oriental Album The Oriental Album 1862
Ottoman Empire - Life in Asiatic Turkey Life in Asiatic Turkey 1879
Ottoman Empire - Anatolica Anatolica 1874

Images

Image Name
Gentilhomme Valaque
Ceremonie Religieuse sur la Plage de Port Said
Spahi
Ponte Piccolo
Femme arabe de la tribu des Ababdeh
Caravansary at Borgas
Baluk hané
Ancient Granary at Cacamo
Mameluke of the Grand Vizier
Title Page
Women of Caramania
Turkish Letter-Writer, Constantinople
A Caramanian Family changing it's Abode
Mosque of Buyuk Djami, Scutari
Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea
A Caramanian Waiwode
Mount Balkan
Bey
Camp on the River Las with a View of Demaveno
A Soldier
No. 25. Vue de la ville de Scutari, prise à Péra
L'Acropolis Vu de la Maison du Consul de France Mr Fauvel
Circassian Slaves in the Interior of a Harem, Constantinople
Part of Jerusalem
Un Boucher Albanis a Athenes
Bulgare
Turkish Well, Stamboul
An Arabian Summer House upon antique fragments on the Canal of Menouf
Principal Entrance of the Harbour of Cacamo
Turkish Lady (Unveiled)
Un Prince Armenien et sa femme
Map of Constantinople
Mouhamet Ruschen Effendi Dervis
A Blacksmith's Shop
Jewish Marriage
The Remains of Hierapolis
Remains of a Tower on Mount Zion
An Egyptian Bey
Ancient Sepulchre near Macri
A Page of the Grand Signior
The Ajemi Café at Adana
Persian Scenery - A Caravanserai
Officer of European Infantry
Military Chief of Upper Egypt
XXI. Vue de la Vallée de Rujuk-Dèré
Femme Turque qui repose sur le Sopha sortant du bain
City of Thyatira
Front Cover
Suif
Saka Charitable Derviche qui porte de l'eau par la ville
[Greek Bas-Relief]
Temple of Jupiter Ammon in Libya
Title Page
Pitesti
A Turkish Woman in a Provincial Dress
Front Cover
Arnaut Soldier
The Source of the Attrek, Kara-Kazan
Ascent of the High Balkan Mountains
Crimean Memorial, British Cemetery, Haidar Pasha
No. 2. Vue des Dardanelles
Title Page
Entree a Port Said du Yacht Imperial L'Aigle and L'Aigle en Rade II
Front Cover
Monuments near Tortosa
A Flower-Market, Scutari
No. 29. Palais de la sultane Hadidgé, à Defterdar-Bournou
Subterranean Chamber, near the Pyramids at Geeza
XII. Vue de la Caserne et du champ des Morts de Péra
Entree des Souverains dans le Canal de Suez a Port Said
The Triple Wall of Constantinople
Stamboul Beggar
Interior of the Mosque of Sultan Ahmed I.
Yourouk Encampment in the Taurus
Governor's House, Philadelphia
Ruins of the Baths at Ephesus
An Albanian
Afriquaine en deshabille
Book Display
Shells Falling on the Base Camp at Helles
Title Page
Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem
Peik, Page du Grand Seigneur, qui le suit a pied quand
Jannissaire en habit de ceremonie
Turkish Scribe
Galata and Stamboul from Eyoub
The City of Corinth
Ast - chi, Cuisinier de Grand Seigneur
The Acropolis of Pergamus
An Officer of the Janissaries
Mameluke of Constantinople
The Seraglio Lighthouse and Scutari
A Street in Smyrna
Jannissaire en Turban ordinarie
Road Over the Balkan Mountain
An Ancient Obelisk at Matarea, formerly Heliopolis

Maps

Map Name
Life in Asiatic Turkey - A Sketch Map to Illustrate Revd E. J. Davis' Journey's in Cilicia &c. (1879)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - Map of Asia Minor Shewing the District Visited by Revd E. J. Davis (1879)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 - Map of Greece and the Archipelago (1820)
A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey - Map of the Western Half of the Hellespontine Phrygia (1813)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 - Map of the Countries on the East Coast of the Mediterranean Sea (1820)
A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey - Map of Albania (1813)

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