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Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire Collection

History Archive - Ottoman Empire Collection

The Ottoman Empire, also known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Sogut (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.

With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians.

The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires. The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernization known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organized, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.

The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, and thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to largely hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent, especially with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, genocide was committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks.

The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.

References:

1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 27 pgs. 426-467.

Stanford Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey (Cambridge: University Press, 1976), vol. 1 p. 13

Available Books

Book Title Date
Ottoman Empire - Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 2 Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 2 1839
Ottoman Empire - Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 1 Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 1 1839
Ottoman Empire - The Military Costume of Turkey The Military Costume of Turkey 1818
Ottoman Empire - The Costume of Turkey The Costume of Turkey 1802
Ottoman Empire - The Present State of the Ottoman Empire The Present State of the Ottoman Empire 1668
Ottoman Empire - A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey 1813
Ottoman Empire - Views in Egypt Views in Egypt 1801
Ottoman Empire - Views in Palestine Views in Palestine 1804
Ottoman Empire - Views in the Ottoman Dominions Views in the Ottoman Dominions 1810
Ottoman Empire - Views in the Ottoman Empire Views in the Ottoman Empire 1803
Ottoman Empire - Voyage des Souverains du Canal du Suez Voyage des Souverains du Canal du Suez 1870
Ottoman Empire - Voyage a Athenes et a Constantinopole Voyage a Athenes et a Constantinopole 1825
Ottoman Empire - Elbicei atika : Musee des Anciens Costumes Turcs de Constantinople Elbicei atika : Musee des Anciens Costumes Turcs de Constantinople 1855
Ottoman Empire - Recueil de Cent Estampes Representant Differentes Nations du Levant Recueil de Cent Estampes Representant Differentes Nations du Levant 1714
Ottoman Empire - Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 1 Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 1 1823
Ottoman Empire - Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 2 Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 2 1823
Ottoman Empire - Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly [Atlas] Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly [Atlas] 1823
Ottoman Empire - Interesting Views in Turkey Interesting Views in Turkey 1819
Ottoman Empire - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 1 Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 1 1815
Ottoman Empire - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 2 Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 2 1815
Ottoman Empire - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 3 Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 3 1815
Ottoman Empire - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Atlas Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Atlas 1817
Ottoman Empire - Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 1 Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 1 1819
Ottoman Empire - Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 2 Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 2 1819
Ottoman Empire - Constantinople Painted and Described Constantinople Painted and Described 1906
Ottoman Empire - The Dardanelles : Colour Sketches from Gallipoli The Dardanelles : Colour Sketches from Gallipoli 1915
Ottoman Empire - Clouds in the East Clouds in the East 1876
Ottoman Empire - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
Ottoman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 1820
Ottoman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 1820
Ottoman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 1820
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 1 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 1 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 2 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 2 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 3 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 3 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 4 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 4 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 5 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 5 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 6 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 6 1821
Ottoman Empire - Turkey, Russia, the Black Sea, and Circassia Turkey, Russia, the Black Sea, and Circassia 1854
Ottoman Empire - The Oriental Album The Oriental Album 1862
Ottoman Empire - Life in Asiatic Turkey Life in Asiatic Turkey 1879
Ottoman Empire - Anatolica Anatolica 1874

Images

Image Name
Kalioundji Marin militaire attache a l'Amiraute Ottomane
Jewish Merchant
Sepulchral Grots at the Head of the Harbour of Cacamo
The Mosque of Four Hundred Pillars at Cairo
Mameluke of the Grand Vizier
Front Cover
L'Tbriktar - Agassi, Officier qui donne a laver
Ponte Piccolo
A Turk in a Pelise
Jannissaire en Turban ordinarie
Piccolo Bent
An Egyptian Peasant and Family
Map of Constantinople
Shells Falling on the Base Camp at Helles
An Albanian
Pera
Le Prince de Moldavie, Michel Soutzo
Carpet-Menders
A Saka or Turkish Water Carrier
Le Pinde
Un Grec de Janina
Ponte Grande
Village in Roumelia, near Adrianople
XXII. Vue du binde de la Validé
French Flagship Suffren's 12-in. Shells Bursting on Western Slopes of Achi Baba
Hamathite Bas-Relief and Inscription on a Rock at Ibreez
First and Second Pyramid of Gizah, Ancient Memphis
A Female of the Island of Naxos
Mosque of Sultan Achmet
The Walls; the Tower of Isaac Angelus
Front Cover
Tchorbadgi, Capitaine des Jannissaires
Rhodes
Les Souverains
Chamber and Sarcophagus in the Great Pyramid of Gizah
A Street in the Suburbs of Adrianople
Circassian Slaves in the Interior of a Harem, Constantinople
Vue du Palais de Mohammed-Aly sur la Place de l'Ezbekyeh au Kaire prise a l'Epoque de l'Inondation
Mariage Grec a Athenes
The Remains of Hierapolis
Bostangi
Janissary of Arabia Felix
Yourouk Encampment in the Taurus
No. 8. Vue de la première cour du sérail
Back Cover
Antique Fragments at Limisso
Back Cover
Hospital Ships at Kephalo
Nicolacki Mitropolos arborant l'etendard de la Croix a Salona, le jour de Paques 1821
Le Palais et la Forteresse de Janina, vus du Lac Un Turc et un jeune Grec
Two Janissaries in their Dress of Ceremony
French Flagship Suffren
Ast - chi - Bachi, Cuisinier et Officier des Jannissaires
A Fortune-Teller
An Armenian
Mosque of Buyuk Djami, Scutari
No. 34. Vue des anciens châteaux d'Europe et d'Asie, sur le point le plus étroit du Bosphore
Sepulchres of the Judges of Israel
Athens, from the foot of Mt Anchesmus
Route through the Balkan Mountains-by Tâtar-Bazaar
Front Cover
Armenian Ladies (at home)
Principal Square in Grand Cairo, with Murad Bey's Palace
No. 33. Troisième vue du Bosphore, prise à Kandilly
Pillar to which was affixed the sentence passed on our Saviour
Aqueduct near Belgrade
Femme d'Afrique allant par les rues
[Bath House Diagram]
Un Prince Armenien et sa femme
Emir, homme de Loy de la Race de Mahomet
An Inhabitant of the Isle of Simia
Back Cover
Site of Derbe (On a Small Central Hill), Karajah Dagh in the Distance
Indien
A Cossack of the Line
Title Page
Turban Bearer to the Grand Signior
Spahi
H.M.S. Ben-my-chree at Kephalo
Map of Greece and the Archipelago
Stamboul Beggar
Ruins of the Grand Aqueduct of ancient Cathage
Fountain near Babu Humayun
Plan indicatif des points d'où M. Melling a dessiné les vues qui composent Touvrage
Kaskerat
A Bosniac
Arab Woman of Cairo
Island of Stromboli
View on the Aluta
Back Cover
Turkish Lady (Unveiled)
The Medâk or Eastern Story-Teller
An Usher
Map of Asia Minor Shewing the District Visited by Revd E. J. Davis
The Barbyses, or Sweet Waters of Europe
Habillement des principaux Barbaresques

Maps

Map Name
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 - Map of the Countries on the East Coast of the Mediterranean Sea (1820)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - Map of Asia Minor Shewing the District Visited by Revd E. J. Davis (1879)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - A Sketch Map to Illustrate Revd E. J. Davis' Journey's in Cilicia &c. (1879)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 - Map of Greece and the Archipelago (1820)
A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey - Map of Albania (1813)
A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey - Map of the Western Half of the Hellespontine Phrygia (1813)

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