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Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire Collection

History Archive - Ottoman Empire Collection

The Ottoman Empire, also known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Sogut (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.

With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians.

The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires. The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernization known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organized, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.

The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, and thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to largely hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent, especially with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, genocide was committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks.

The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.

References:

1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 27 pgs. 426-467.

Stanford Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey (Cambridge: University Press, 1976), vol. 1 p. 13

Available Books

Book Title Date
Ottoman Empire - Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 2 Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 2 1839
Ottoman Empire - Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 1 Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 1 1839
Ottoman Empire - The Military Costume of Turkey The Military Costume of Turkey 1818
Ottoman Empire - The Costume of Turkey The Costume of Turkey 1802
Ottoman Empire - The Present State of the Ottoman Empire The Present State of the Ottoman Empire 1668
Ottoman Empire - A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey 1813
Ottoman Empire - Views in Egypt Views in Egypt 1801
Ottoman Empire - Views in Palestine Views in Palestine 1804
Ottoman Empire - Views in the Ottoman Dominions Views in the Ottoman Dominions 1810
Ottoman Empire - Views in the Ottoman Empire Views in the Ottoman Empire 1803
Ottoman Empire - Voyage des Souverains du Canal du Suez Voyage des Souverains du Canal du Suez 1870
Ottoman Empire - Voyage a Athenes et a Constantinopole Voyage a Athenes et a Constantinopole 1825
Ottoman Empire - Elbicei atika : Musee des Anciens Costumes Turcs de Constantinople Elbicei atika : Musee des Anciens Costumes Turcs de Constantinople 1855
Ottoman Empire - Recueil de Cent Estampes Representant Differentes Nations du Levant Recueil de Cent Estampes Representant Differentes Nations du Levant 1714
Ottoman Empire - Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 1 Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 1 1823
Ottoman Empire - Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 2 Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 2 1823
Ottoman Empire - Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly [Atlas] Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly [Atlas] 1823
Ottoman Empire - Interesting Views in Turkey Interesting Views in Turkey 1819
Ottoman Empire - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 1 Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 1 1815
Ottoman Empire - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 2 Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 2 1815
Ottoman Empire - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 3 Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 3 1815
Ottoman Empire - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Atlas Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Atlas 1817
Ottoman Empire - Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 1 Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 1 1819
Ottoman Empire - Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 2 Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 2 1819
Ottoman Empire - Constantinople Painted and Described Constantinople Painted and Described 1906
Ottoman Empire - The Dardanelles : Colour Sketches from Gallipoli The Dardanelles : Colour Sketches from Gallipoli 1915
Ottoman Empire - Clouds in the East Clouds in the East 1876
Ottoman Empire - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
Ottoman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 1820
Ottoman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 1820
Ottoman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 1820
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 1 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 1 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 2 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 2 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 3 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 3 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 4 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 4 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 5 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 5 1821
Ottoman Empire - The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 6 The World in Miniature: Turkey Vol. 6 1821
Ottoman Empire - Turkey, Russia, the Black Sea, and Circassia Turkey, Russia, the Black Sea, and Circassia 1854
Ottoman Empire - The Oriental Album The Oriental Album 1862
Ottoman Empire - Life in Asiatic Turkey Life in Asiatic Turkey 1879
Ottoman Empire - Anatolica Anatolica 1874

Images

Image Name
No. 47. Vue du grand Bend, dans la forêt de Belgrade
XVIII. Vue de la vallee de Dolma Baktche
The Solimanie, or Mosque of Sultan Soliman
Title Page
Le Grand Seigneur en habit de Ceremonies
The Source of the Attrek, Kara-Kazan
No. 28. Palais de Beschik-Tasch, séjour habituel du Grand-Seigneur pendant l'été
View of Constantinople
View near Bucharest
Stamboul Beggar
Two Janissaries in their Dress of Ceremony
The Acropolis at Sardis
Bal au Palais Dismailia
Officers of the Grand Signior
Ancient Archway and Cavern in the Balkan Mountains
Caramanian Soldier
Greek Church of Saint Theodore, Pergamus
The Gygean Lake, and Place of a Thousand Tombs
Market at Scutari
Vue de l'Acropolis
A Lady of Cairo
Ruins of an ancient Temple near Corinth
Fille de Bulgarie
II. Vue de la Porte Dorée
Principal Entrance of the Harbour of Cacamo
Speciments of Turkish Drawings [II]
A Dancing Girl
Back Cover
Vue du Palais de Mohammed-Aly sur la Place de l'Ezbekyeh au Kaire prise a l'Epoque de l'Inondation
Saka ou Porteur d'eau par les rues
Title Page
Mameluke of the Grand Seignior
Metropolitan Church of Magnesia
No. 39. Prairie de Buyuk-Déré, sur la rive européenne du Bosphore, à quatre lieues de Constantinople
L'Acropolis Vu de la Maison du Consul de France Mr Fauvel
Mameluke of Egypt
No. 14. Vue générale du port de Constantinople, prise des hauteurs d'Eyoub
Habillement des principaux Barbaresques
The Ajemi Café at Adana
A Spahi
Illustrated Title Page
No. 25. Vue de la ville de Scutari, prise à Péra
V. Vue de Fener-Bakcthé et de la campagne de Chalcédoin
An Arabian Summer House upon antique fragments on the Canal of Menouf
The Fort and Town of Silivria
Title Page
Vendeur de Caffe par les rues
Principal Square in Grand Cairo, with Murad Bey's Palace
Women of Caramania
A Female Bedouin of the Desert, with her Child
No. 11. Intérieur d'un salon du palais de la sultane Hadidgé, sœur de Sélim III
Tomb of Jeremiah
No. 33. Troisième vue du Bosphore, prise à Kandilly
No. 30. Kiosque de Bebek, pavillon destiné aux conférences des ministres de la Porte Ottomane avec ceux des puissances étrangères, sur la rive européenne du Bosphore
Novi ou Fille Grecque dans la ceremonie du Mariage
Bostangi
Rhodes
Market in the Court of the Mosque of Sultan Ahmed I.
Title Page
Piccolo Bent
Turkish and Armenian Ladies (abroad)
H.M.S. Theseus
XIV. Vue d'Anadoli Hissar
A Dervise
Capidgi - Bachi ou Maitre des Ceremonies
Entrance to a Sepulchral Chamber near the Sphinx
Pompey's Pillar
Temple of Solomon
Cemetery at Eyoub
Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem
Janissary No. 1
No. 6. Vue générale de Constantinople, prise de la montagne de Boulgourlou, au-dessus de Scutari
Mosque of Mahmoud II. at Tophana
Karaman, Kara Dagh in the Distance
No. 40. Vue de la partie occidentale du village de Buyuk-Déré, sur la rive européenne du Bosphore
Cathedral at Tortosa
A colossal Sarcophagus at Cacamo in Caramania
The Great Cemetery of Scutari
Une Athenienne
A Street in Smyrna
Front Cover
The Medâk or Eastern Story-Teller
Architecte Armenien
Caravanseraï at Guzel-Hissar, on the Meander
Street Scene, Top-Khaneh
Vue du Palais et du Serail de Mohammed-Aly a Alexandre
Un Grec Logothete de Livadie
Un Boucher Albanis a Athenes
Dervich, ou Moine Turc qui tourne par devotion
Bulgare
Armenian Bride
Halt of Caravaniers at a Seraï
Plan du Nouveau Canal d'Alexandrie dit Mahmoudyeh
Interior of S. Sophia
Back Cover
View on the Aluta

Maps

Map Name
Life in Asiatic Turkey - Map of Asia Minor Shewing the District Visited by Revd E. J. Davis (1879)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 - Map of the Countries on the East Coast of the Mediterranean Sea (1820)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - A Sketch Map to Illustrate Revd E. J. Davis' Journey's in Cilicia &c. (1879)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 - Map of Greece and the Archipelago (1820)
A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey - Map of the Western Half of the Hellespontine Phrygia (1813)
A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey - Map of Albania (1813)

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