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Orient

Orient Collection

History Archive - Orient Collection

The Orient is a historical term for the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world, in relation to Europe. It is the antonym of Occident, the Western World. In English, it is largely a metonym for, and coterminous with, the continent of Asia, loosely classified into the Near East, Middle East and Far East: the geographical and ethno-cultural regions now known as West Asia, South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia. Originally, the term Orient was used to designate the Near East, and later its meaning evolved and expanded, designating also the Middle East or the Far East.

Territorialization of the Roman term Orient occurred during the reign of emperor Diocletian (284-305), when the Diocese of the Orient (Latin: Dioecesis Orientis) was formed. Later in the 4th century, the Praetorian prefecture of the Orient (Latin: Praefectura Praetorio Orientis) was also formed, including most of the Eastern Roman Empire, from the Thrace eastwards; its easternmost part was the original Diocese of the Orient, corresponding roughly to the region of Syria.

Over time, the common understanding of "the Orient" has continually shifted eastwards, as European people traveled farther into Asia. It finally reached the Pacific Ocean, in what Westerners came to call "the Far East". These shifts in time and identification sometimes confuse the scope (historical and geographic) of Oriental Studies. Yet there remain contexts where "the Orient" and "Oriental" have kept their older meanings (e.g., "Oriental spices" typically are from the regions extending from the Middle East to sub-continental India to Indo-China). Travelers may again take the Orient Express train from Paris to its terminus in the European part of Istanbul, a route established in the early 20th century.

In European historiography, the meaning of "the Orient" changed in scope several times. Originally, the term referred to Egypt, the Levant, and adjoining areas.[5] as far west as Morocco. During the 1800s, India, and to a lesser extent China, began to displace the Levant as the primary subject of Orientalist research. By the mid-20th century, Western scholars generally considered "the Orient" as just East Asia, Southeast Asia, and eastern Central Asia. As recently as the early 20th century, the term "Orient" often continued to be used in ways that included North Africa. Today, the term primarily evokes images of China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Mongolia, and peninsular Southeast Asia. "The Orient" being largely a cultural term, large parts of Asia—Siberia most notably—were excluded from the scholarly notion of "the Orient".

Since the 19th century, "orientalist" has been the traditional term for a scholar of Oriental studies; however, the use in English of "Orientalism" to describe academic "Oriental studies" is rare: the Oxford English Dictionary cites only one such usage, by Lord Byron in 1812. Orientalism is more widely used to refer to the works of the many 19th-century artists who specialized in "Oriental" subjects, often drawing on their travels to North Africa and Western Asia. Artists as well as scholars were already described as "Orientalists" in the 19th century. In 1978, Palestinian-American scholar Edward Said published his influential and controversial book, Orientalism; he used the term to describe a pervasive Western tradition, both academic and artistic, of prejudiced outsider interpretations of the Arab and Muslim worlds, shaped by the attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries

Available Books

Images

Image Name
Marche de Luang Prabang
Bangy-Wala, Porter
Le Fleuve du Tong-King et la Ville de Yuen-Kiang
View of the landing at Rangoon of part of the Combined Forces from Bengal and Madras, under the Orders of Sir Archibald Campbell, K.C.B. on the 11th May 1824
Orchidees-Epiphytes
Simoda
The Modern Village of Mandoo, and the Ancient Mosque the
Fuqeer, or Enthusiast
Monuments Khmers - Environs d'Angcor
The Woosung River
Monuments Khmers - Angcor Wat - Elevation de la Facade Quest
Hoqqu-burdar, or Pipe-bearer
Cremation d'un Riche Laotien
Scene from the Upper Terrace of the Great Pagoda at Rangoon, to the South East
Dwelling of a Mandarin or Officer of State
Populations Mixtes du Sud du Yun-Nan
Back Cover
Populations Mixtes du Sud du Yun-Nan
Monuments Khmers - Angcor Wat Details
Inside View of the Gold Temple on the Terrace of the Great Dagon Pagoda at Rangoon
Musician, with a Khole or Drum
Vue Prise Entre Tchao-Tong et la Kouan
Construction of the Arch of a Chinese Bridge
Dak, Wala, or Postman
Scene upon the Eastern Road from Rangoon looking towards the South
Laos - Plan d'une Pirogue
Musician, playing on the Cymbals
Front Cover
A street in the aristocratic quater of Yedo (from a Japanese drawing)
Adam's Peak from the Duke's Pavilion
Costumes du Royaume de Ta-Ly
Front View of the Ruined Mosque, the
Back Cover
A Burmese Man
Monuments Khmers - Angcor Thom
Map of the Yang-Tse-Kiang or Ta-Kiang
Japanese Funeral
Carte Itineraire No. 3
The Conflagration of Dalla on the Tangoon River
Bihishtee, or Water Carrier
Front Cover
Musician, playing on the Saringee
River Pei-ho or Tien-sin-hoa form the Entrance to Tien-sin
A Winter scene in Japan (from a Japanese drawing)
The Delhi Gate
Lac et Ville de Che-Pin
Carte Itineraire No. 7
A Trooper
Monuments Khmers - Angcor Wat Details [II]
View in the Eastern Side of the Imperial Park at Gehol
The Jahaz Mahal
Reception-Room in Alfred House
Title Page
The Combined Forces under Brig. Cotton, C.B. and Captains Alexander, C.B. & Chads, R.N. passing the Fortress of Donabue to effect a junction with Sir Archibald Campbell, on the 27th March 1825
Panorama Pris Entre Houey-Li Tcheou et Che-Lang-Ko
Title Page
Carte Itineraire No. 1 - Carte des Rapides de Khong
Habitation Laotienne
Bhugteea, Dancing Boy
Capture of the Peiho Forts. 30th May 1858
Choakee-dar, or Watchman
Rangoon. The Storming of one of the principal Stockades on its inside on the 8th of July 1824
Nagasaki
Carte Itineraire No. 5
The Gold Temple of the principal Idol Guadma, taken from its front being the Eastern face of the Great Dagon Pagoda at Rangoon
Ruines du Baion (Monument aux 42 Tours)
Dace or Ayah - A Nurse
Cage (Selle) d'Elephant de Guerre
Une des Faces de la Pyramide de Peunom
Fetes de Bassac : Illumination du Fleuve
Une Porte d'Angcor Thom
Interior of the Kraal
Scene upon the Terrace of the Great Dagon Pagoda at Rangoon looking towards the North
One of the Birman Gilt War Boats, captured by Capt. Chads, R.N. in his successful expedition against Tanthabeen Stockade
A Rice Mill
Fuqeer, or Begging Friar
Fuqeer, or Beggar
The White Elephant
Tea Gardens near Yedo (Interior)
Front Cover
Populations Mixtes des Royaumes de Xieng Tong et de Xieng Hong
Sepoy, or Native Soldier
Back Cover
Panorama Pris Entre Mekong Kou et Houey-Ly Tcheaou
Dood-h-wala, or Milkman
Monuments Khmers - Ruines du Mont Bakheng
Back Cover
View of the Great Dagon Pagoda at Rangoon and Scenery adjacent to the Westward of the Great Road
A Brahmin
Title Page
Book Display
Barburdar, or Fan-bearer
Barburdar, or Steward
Tat no a Muong Long
Tea Gardens near Yedo (Exterior)
Front Cover

Maps

Map Name
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 10 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 4 (1873)
Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission Vol. 1 - Map of China (1859)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 9 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 5 (1873)
Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission Vol. 2 - Map of the City of Yedo and Vicinity (1859)
Temples and Elephants - Route from Bangkok to Kiang-Tsen (1884)
Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission Vol. 2 - Empire of Japan (1859)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 1 - Carte des Rapides de Khong (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 8 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 7 (1873)
Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission Vol. 2 - Map of the Yang-Tse-Kiang or Ta-Kiang (1859)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Generale de l'Indo-Chine (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 3 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 6 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 2 (1873)

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