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Orient

Orient Collection

History Archive - Orient Collection

The Orient is a historical term for the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world, in relation to Europe. It is the antonym of Occident, the Western World. In English, it is largely a metonym for, and coterminous with, the continent of Asia, loosely classified into the Near East, Middle East and Far East: the geographical and ethno-cultural regions now known as West Asia, South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia. Originally, the term Orient was used to designate the Near East, and later its meaning evolved and expanded, designating also the Middle East or the Far East.

Territorialization of the Roman term Orient occurred during the reign of emperor Diocletian (284-305), when the Diocese of the Orient (Latin: Dioecesis Orientis) was formed. Later in the 4th century, the Praetorian prefecture of the Orient (Latin: Praefectura Praetorio Orientis) was also formed, including most of the Eastern Roman Empire, from the Thrace eastwards; its easternmost part was the original Diocese of the Orient, corresponding roughly to the region of Syria.

Over time, the common understanding of "the Orient" has continually shifted eastwards, as European people traveled farther into Asia. It finally reached the Pacific Ocean, in what Westerners came to call "the Far East". These shifts in time and identification sometimes confuse the scope (historical and geographic) of Oriental Studies. Yet there remain contexts where "the Orient" and "Oriental" have kept their older meanings (e.g., "Oriental spices" typically are from the regions extending from the Middle East to sub-continental India to Indo-China). Travelers may again take the Orient Express train from Paris to its terminus in the European part of Istanbul, a route established in the early 20th century.

In European historiography, the meaning of "the Orient" changed in scope several times. Originally, the term referred to Egypt, the Levant, and adjoining areas.[5] as far west as Morocco. During the 1800s, India, and to a lesser extent China, began to displace the Levant as the primary subject of Orientalist research. By the mid-20th century, Western scholars generally considered "the Orient" as just East Asia, Southeast Asia, and eastern Central Asia. As recently as the early 20th century, the term "Orient" often continued to be used in ways that included North Africa. Today, the term primarily evokes images of China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Mongolia, and peninsular Southeast Asia. "The Orient" being largely a cultural term, large parts of Asia—Siberia most notably—were excluded from the scholarly notion of "the Orient".

Since the 19th century, "orientalist" has been the traditional term for a scholar of Oriental studies; however, the use in English of "Orientalism" to describe academic "Oriental studies" is rare: the Oxford English Dictionary cites only one such usage, by Lord Byron in 1812. Orientalism is more widely used to refer to the works of the many 19th-century artists who specialized in "Oriental" subjects, often drawing on their travels to North Africa and Western Asia. Artists as well as scholars were already described as "Orientalists" in the 19th century. In 1978, Palestinian-American scholar Edward Said published his influential and controversial book, Orientalism; he used the term to describe a pervasive Western tradition, both academic and artistic, of prejudiced outsider interpretations of the Arab and Muslim worlds, shaped by the attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries

Available Books

Images

Image Name
The White Elephant
Intérieur de la Grotte du Nam Hou
Map of China
Palace of the Sultan Baz Bahadoor, and Pavilion of Roop Muttee, his Queen
Tour Centrale et Gour Superieure d'Angcor Wat
Carte Itineraire No. 2
Panorama Pris Entre Mekong Kou et Houey-Ly Tcheaou
One of the Birman Gilt War Boats, captured by Capt. Chads, R.N. in his successful expedition against Tanthabeen Stockade
View of the Great Dagon Pagoda at Rangoon and Scenery adjacent to the Westward of the Great Road
A Looto Seree
A Foreign Trader
A Nantch Girl, or Singing Girl [IV]
Title Page
Lac et Ville de Che-Pin
Title Page
Marche de Luang Prabang
Rangoon. The position of part of the Army previous to attacking the Stockades on the 8th of July 1824
Simoda
The Storming of the Fort of Syriam by a combined force of Sailors, and European & Native Troops, on the 5th August 1824
Orchidees-Epiphytes
Tonjon
Courses de Pirogues a Bassac
Carte Itineraire No. 9
The Marble Mausoleum of the Sultan Hoossain Shah Ghuree
Back Cover
The Woosung River
A lady at her toilet (from a Japanese drawing)
Title Page
A Winter scene in Japan (from a Japanese drawing)
Reception Tent of the Imperial Commissioners, Takoo
The Duke Charged by an Elephant
Front Cover
Angcor Thom : Phimanacas (Ruines du Palais des Rois d'Angcor)
A Nantch, or Singing Girl [I]
A Nantch Girl, or Singing Girl [II]
Title Page
Route from Bangkok to Kiang-Tsen
Forits - Exposition de 1889
Rochers a l'Embouchure du Nam Hou
Ningpo River
Laotiens des Possessions Birmanes
Book Display
Scene upon the Terrace of the Great Dagon Pagoda at Rangoon looking towards the North
Le Fleuve du Tong-King et la Ville de Yuen-Kiang
Vue de Stung Treng et de l'Embouchure du se Cong
Carte Generale de l'Indo-Chine
Fete dans une Pagode de Nong Kay
A Chinese and a Hottentot
Vue Prise Entre Tchao-Tong et la Kouan
Populations Mixtes du Sud du Yun-Nan
Carte Itineraire No. 3
Habitation Laotienne
River Pei-ho or Tien-sin-hoa form the Entrance to Tien-sin
Coin Quest de la Chute de Don Isom
Title Page
Monuments Khmers - Ruines du Mont Bakheng
Back Cover
Adam's Peak from the Duke's Pavilion
Fetes de Bassac : Illumination du Fleuve
Sepoy, or Native Soldier
The Attack upon the Stockades near Rangoon by Sir Archibald Campbell, K.C.B. on the 28th May 1824
Front View of the Ruined Mosque, the
The Storming of the Lesser Stockade at Kemmendine near Rangoon on the 10th of June 1824
Musician, playing on the Saringee
Dak, Wala, or Postman
Moonshee, or Interpreter
Bhugteea, Dancing Boy
Ruines de Vien Chain : - Tat Luong
Cage (Selle) d'Elephant de Guerre
Fuqeer, or Begging Friar
Signing of the Treaty of Teintsin
Map of the Yang-Tse-Kiang or Ta-Kiang
A Native Lady in her Palkee
Populations Mixtes des Royaumes de Xieng Tong et de Xieng Hong
Tea Gardens near Yedo (Interior)
Monuments Khmers - Angcor Wat - Edifice Central
Musician, with a Khole or Drum
A Rice Mill
A Surcar, or Agent
Pagode Royale a Luang Prabang
Musician, playing on the Cymbals
Front Cover
"Temple of Supreme Felicity". Residence of the Allied Missions at Tientsin
Portrait of Van-ta-Gin
Ville de Pou-Eul
A Burmese Woman
Capture of the Peiho Forts. 30th May 1858
Front Cover
Book Display
Scene upon the Terrace of the Great Dagon Pagoda at Rangoon taken near the Great Bell
Reception-Room in Alfred House
A Mussulman
Ruines de Vien Chain : - Wat Pha Keo
A Gardener
A Theweda or Angel
Ruines du Baion (Monument aux 42 Tours)

Maps

Map Name
Temples and Elephants - Route from Bangkok to Kiang-Tsen (1884)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 6 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Generale de l'Indo-Chine (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 1 - Carte des Rapides de Khong (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 3 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 10 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 2 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 5 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 8 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 9 (1873)
Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission Vol. 2 - Empire of Japan (1859)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 7 (1873)
Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission Vol. 2 - Map of the Yang-Tse-Kiang or Ta-Kiang (1859)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 4 (1873)
Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission Vol. 2 - Map of the City of Yedo and Vicinity (1859)
Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission Vol. 1 - Map of China (1859)

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