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Orient

Orient Collection

History Archive - Orient Collection

The Orient is a historical term for the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world, in relation to Europe. It is the antonym of Occident, the Western World. In English, it is largely a metonym for, and coterminous with, the continent of Asia, loosely classified into the Near East, Middle East and Far East: the geographical and ethno-cultural regions now known as West Asia, South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia. Originally, the term Orient was used to designate the Near East, and later its meaning evolved and expanded, designating also the Middle East or the Far East.

Territorialization of the Roman term Orient occurred during the reign of emperor Diocletian (284-305), when the Diocese of the Orient (Latin: Dioecesis Orientis) was formed. Later in the 4th century, the Praetorian prefecture of the Orient (Latin: Praefectura Praetorio Orientis) was also formed, including most of the Eastern Roman Empire, from the Thrace eastwards; its easternmost part was the original Diocese of the Orient, corresponding roughly to the region of Syria.

Over time, the common understanding of "the Orient" has continually shifted eastwards, as European people traveled farther into Asia. It finally reached the Pacific Ocean, in what Westerners came to call "the Far East". These shifts in time and identification sometimes confuse the scope (historical and geographic) of Oriental Studies. Yet there remain contexts where "the Orient" and "Oriental" have kept their older meanings (e.g., "Oriental spices" typically are from the regions extending from the Middle East to sub-continental India to Indo-China). Travelers may again take the Orient Express train from Paris to its terminus in the European part of Istanbul, a route established in the early 20th century.

In European historiography, the meaning of "the Orient" changed in scope several times. Originally, the term referred to Egypt, the Levant, and adjoining areas.[5] as far west as Morocco. During the 1800s, India, and to a lesser extent China, began to displace the Levant as the primary subject of Orientalist research. By the mid-20th century, Western scholars generally considered "the Orient" as just East Asia, Southeast Asia, and eastern Central Asia. As recently as the early 20th century, the term "Orient" often continued to be used in ways that included North Africa. Today, the term primarily evokes images of China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Mongolia, and peninsular Southeast Asia. "The Orient" being largely a cultural term, large parts of Asia—Siberia most notably—were excluded from the scholarly notion of "the Orient".

Since the 19th century, "orientalist" has been the traditional term for a scholar of Oriental studies; however, the use in English of "Orientalism" to describe academic "Oriental studies" is rare: the Oxford English Dictionary cites only one such usage, by Lord Byron in 1812. Orientalism is more widely used to refer to the works of the many 19th-century artists who specialized in "Oriental" subjects, often drawing on their travels to North Africa and Western Asia. Artists as well as scholars were already described as "Orientalists" in the 19th century. In 1978, Palestinian-American scholar Edward Said published his influential and controversial book, Orientalism; he used the term to describe a pervasive Western tradition, both academic and artistic, of prejudiced outsider interpretations of the Arab and Muslim worlds, shaped by the attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries

Available Books

Images

Image Name
A Nantch Girl, or Singing Girl [IV]
Marche de Luang Prabang
Rangoon. The Storming of one of the principal Stockades on its inside on the 8th of July 1824
Chob-dar, or Mace bearer
A Nantch Girl, or Singing Girl [III]
Reception-Room in Alfred House
Tat no a Muong Long
Populations Mixtes du Nord du Yun-Nan
Nagasaki
Populations Mixtes du Sud du Yun-Nan
A Winter scene in Japan (from a Japanese drawing)
Hoqqu-burdar, or Pipe-bearer
Route from Bangkok to Kiang-Tsen
Front Cover
Title Page
A Nantch Girl, or Singing Girl [II]
A Burmese Woman
Monuments Khmers - Angcor Wat - Elevation de la Facade Quest
Woman preparing Thread for the Loom
Campement dans le Lit du Mekong pres d'un Rapide (Keng Chan)
Front Cover
The Woosung River
Ruines du Baion (Monument aux 42 Tours)
La Ville de Ta Kouan
Palace of the Sultan Baz Bahadoor, and Pavilion of Roop Muttee, his Queen
A Ryot, or Ploughman
The Gold Temple of the principal Idol Guadma, taken from its front being the Eastern face of the Great Dagon Pagoda at Rangoon
Native of Bengal, selling Sweetmeats
The White Elephant
Musician playing on the Tumboora
Types du Laos Birman et du Yun-Nan
The Modern Village of Mandoo, and the Ancient Mosque the
Portique de la Pagode de Se-Mao
Back Cover
Khidmutgar, or Waiter
Monuments Khmers - Angcor Wat - Edifice Central
Back Cover
Populations Mixtes des Royaumes de Xieng Tong et de Xieng Hong
Map of the Yang-Tse-Kiang or Ta-Kiang
Suntoo-burdar, or Running Footman
Panorama du Groupe d'Iles de Khong (Pris du Sommet de Phou Hin Khong)
Monuments Khmers - Ruines du Mont Bakheng
Title Page
Carte Itineraire No. 2
Intérieur de la Grotte du Nam Hou
Title Page
Bhugteea, Dancing Boy
Back Cover
Ville de Luang Prabang
Cage (Selle) d'Elephant de Guerre
Dwelling of a Mandarin or Officer of State
Barburdar, or Steward
Bihishtee, or Water Carrier
The attempt of the Birmans to retake the Stockades of Dalla on the night of the 6th September 1824
The Marble Mausoleum of the Sultan Hoossain Shah Ghuree
Carte Itineraire No. 1 - Carte des Rapides de Khong
The Duke Charged by an Elephant
Book Display
Colonnade de l'Entree Quest et Vue Generale d'Angcor Wat
Carte Itineraire No. 4
Barburdar, or Fan-bearer
The attack of the Dalla Stockade by the Combined Forces, on the 4th September 1824
Dace or Ayah - A Nurse
A Nakhan
A Nantch, or Singing Girl [I]
"Temple of Supreme Felicity". Residence of the Allied Missions at Tientsin
Back Cover
A Native of Rank on an Elephant
Title Page
Marche de Muong Long
Vue de Stung Treng et de l'Embouchure du se Cong
Ruines de Vien Chain : - Tat Luong
Rangoon. The position of part of the Army previous to attacking the Stockades on the 8th of July 1824
A Theweda or Angel
Courses de Pirogues a Bassac
Habitation Laotienne
A Foreign Trader
Back Cover
Title Page
Choakee-dar, or Watchman
Lac et Ville de Che-Pin
Alfred House
Vue Prise Entre Tchao-Tong et la Kouan
Ruines de Vien Chain : - Wat Pha Keo
Scene from the Upper Terrace of the Great Pagoda at Rangoon, to the South East
Title Page
The Attack of the Stockades at Pagoda Point, on the Rangoon River by Sir Archibald Campbell, K.C.B. 8th July 1924
Le Fleuve du Tong-King et la Ville de Yuen-Kiang
Back Cover
The Delhi Gate
Examen des Bacheliers Militaires a Siu-Tcheaou Fou
Carte Itineraire No. 9
Scene upon the Terrace of the Great Dagon Pagoda at Rangoon taken near the Great Bell
The Storming of the Lesser Stockade at Kemmendine near Rangoon on the 10th of June 1824
A Burmese Man
Dood-h-wala, or Milkman

Maps

Map Name
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 2 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 6 (1873)
Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission Vol. 2 - Map of the Yang-Tse-Kiang or Ta-Kiang (1859)
Temples and Elephants - Route from Bangkok to Kiang-Tsen (1884)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 5 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Generale de l'Indo-Chine (1873)
Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission Vol. 1 - Map of China (1859)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 4 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 1 - Carte des Rapides de Khong (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 3 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 10 (1873)
Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission Vol. 2 - Empire of Japan (1859)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 7 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 9 (1873)
Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine [Atlas-Vol. 2] - Carte Itineraire No. 8 (1873)
Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission Vol. 2 - Map of the City of Yedo and Vicinity (1859)

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