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North Africa

North Africa Collection

History Archive - North Africa Collection

North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Morocco in the west, to Egypt's Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east. Others[Like whom?] have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region that was known by the French during colonial times as "Afrique du Nord" and is known by Arabs as the Maghreb ("West", The western part of Arab World).

The most commonly accepted definition includes Algeria, Sudan, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt, the 6 countries that shape the top North of the African continent. Meanwhile, "North Africa", particularly when used in the term North Africa and the Middle East, often refers only to the countries of the Maghreb and Libya. Egypt, being also part of the Middle East, is often considered separately, due to being both North African and Middle Eastern at the same time.

North Africa includes a number of Spanish and Portuguese possessions, Plazas de soberania, Ceuta and Melilla and the Canary Islands and Madeira.[2] The countries of North Africa share a common ethnic, cultural and linguistic identity that is unique to this region. Northwest Africa has been inhabited by Berbers since the beginning of recorded history, while the eastern part of North Africa has been home to the Egyptians.

Between the A.D. 600s and 1000s, Arabs from the Middle East swept across the region in a wave of Muslim conquest. These peoples, physically quite similar, formed a single population in many areas, as Berbers and Egyptians merged into Arabic and Muslim culture. This process of Arabization and Islamization has defined the cultural landscape of North Africa ever since.

Geography

North Africa has three main geographic features: the Sahara desert in the south, the Atlas Mountains in the west, and the Nile River and delta in the east. The Atlas Mountains extend across much of northern Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. These mountains are part of the fold mountain system that also runs through much of Southern Europe. They recede to the south and east, becoming a steppe landscape before meeting the Sahara desert, which covers more than 75 percent of the region. The tallest peaks are in the High Atlas range in south-central Morocco, which has many snow-capped peaks.

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South of the Atlas Mountains is the dry and barren expanse of the Sahara desert, which is the largest sand desert in the world. In places the desert is cut by irregular watercourses called wadis-streams that flow only after rainfalls but are usually dry. The Sahara’s major landforms include ergs, large seas of sand that sometimes form into huge dunes; the hammada, a level rocky plateau without soil or sand; and the reg, a level plain of gravel or small stones. The Sahara covers the southern part of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, and most of Libya. Only two regions of Libya are outside the desert: Tripolitania in the northwest and Cyrenaica in the northeast. Most of Egypt is also desert, with the exception of the Nile River and the irrigated land along its banks. The Nile Valley forms a narrow fertile thread that runs along the length of the country.

Sheltered valleys in the Atlas Mountains, the Nile Valley and Delta, and the Mediterranean coast are the main sources of fertile farming land. A wide variety of valuable crops including cereals, rice and cotton, and woods such as cedar and cork, are grown. Typical Mediterranean crops, such as olives, figs, dates and citrus fruits, also thrive in these areas. The Nile Valley is particularly fertile, and most of the population in Egypt live close to the river. Elsewhere, irrigation is essential to improve crop yields on the desert margins.

People and Customs

The inhabitants of North Africa are roughly divided in a manner corresponding to the principal geographic regions of North Africa: the Maghreb, the Nile valley, and the Sahel. The Maghreb or western North Africa on the whole is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers since at least 10,000 B.C.,[19] while the eastern part of North Africa or the Nile Valley has mainly been home to the Egyptians.

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Ancient Egyptians record extensive contact in their Western desert with people that appear to have been Berber or proto-Berber. As the Tassili n'Ajjer and other rock art findings in the Sahara have shown, the Sahara also hosted various populations before its rapid desertification in 3500 B.C and even today continues to host small populations of nomadic trans-Saharan peoples.

The people of the Maghreb and the Sahara regions speak Berber languages and several varieties of Arabic and almost exclusively follow Islam. The Arabic and Berber languages are distantly related, both being members of the Afroasiatic language family. The Tuareg Berber languages are notably more conservative than those of the coastal cities.

Over the years, Berbers have been influenced by contact with other cultures: Greeks, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Europeans and Africans. The cultures of the Maghreb and the Sahara therefore combine indigenous Berber, Arab and elements from neighboring parts of Africa and beyond. In the Sahara, the distinction between sedentary oasis inhabitants and nomadic Bedouins and Tuaregs is particularly marked.

The diverse peoples of North Africa are usually categorized along ethno-linguistic lines. In the Maghreb, where Arab and Berber identities are often integrated, these lines can be blurred. Some Berber-speaking North Africans may identify as "Arab" depending on the social and political circumstances, although substantial numbers of Berbers (or Amazighen) have retained a distinct cultural identity which in the 20th century has been expressed as a clear ethnic identification with Berber history and language.

Arabic-speaking Northwest Africans, regardless of ethnic background, often identify with Arab history and culture and may share a common vision with other Arabs. This, however, may or may not exclude pride in and identification with Berber and/or other parts of their heritage. Berber political and cultural activists for their part, often referred to as Berberists, may view all Northwest Africans as principally Berber, whether they are primarily Berber- or Arabic-speaking.

Egyptians over the centuries have shifted their language from Egyptian (in its late form, varieties of Coptic) to modern Egyptian Arabic while retaining a sense of national identity that has historically set them apart from other people in the region. Most Egyptians are Sunni Muslim, although there is a significant minority of Coptic Christians.

Available Books

Book Title Date
North Africa - The Cruelties of the Algerine Pirates The Cruelties of the Algerine Pirates 1816
North Africa - A Narrative of Travels in Northern Africa A Narrative of Travels in Northern Africa 1821
North Africa - Narrative of a Ten Years Residence at Tripoli in Africa Narrative of a Ten Years Residence at Tripoli in Africa 1816
North Africa - Algiers: Being a Complete Picture of the Barbary States Algiers: Being a Complete Picture of the Barbary States 1817
North Africa - Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 1 Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 1 1809
North Africa - Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 2 Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 2 1809
North Africa - Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 3 Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 3 1809
North Africa - Twenty-Four Views Taken in St. Helena, the Cape, India, Ceylon, Abyssinia, and Egypt Twenty-Four Views Taken in St. Helena, the Cape, India, Ceylon, Abyssinia, and Egypt 1809
North Africa - A Voyage to Abyssinia A Voyage to Abyssinia 1814
North Africa - Picturesque Views in Spain and Morocco Vol. 1 Picturesque Views in Spain and Morocco Vol. 1 1838
North Africa - Picturesque Views in Spain and Morocco Vol. 2 Picturesque Views in Spain and Morocco Vol. 2 1838
North Africa - The Holy Land : Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Vols. 1 & 2 The Holy Land : Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Vols. 1 & 2 1855
North Africa - The Holy Land : Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Vols. 3 & 4 The Holy Land : Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Vols. 3 & 4 1855
North Africa - The Holy Land : Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Vols. 5 & 6 The Holy Land : Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Vols. 5 & 6 1855
North Africa - Proceedings of the Expedition to Explore the Northern Coast of Africa Proceedings of the Expedition to Explore the Northern Coast of Africa 1828
North Africa - Story of the Barbary Corsairs Story of the Barbary Corsairs 1890
North Africa - Vanished Cities of Northern Africa Vanished Cities of Northern Africa 1900
North Africa - Narrative of a Residence in Algiers Narrative of a Residence in Algiers 1818
North Africa - Morocco, Painted and Described Morocco, Painted and Described 1904
North Africa - Algeria and Tunis, Painted and Described Algeria and Tunis, Painted and Described 1906
North Africa - In the Track of Moors In the Track of Moors 1905
North Africa - Notes in North Africa Notes in North Africa 1862
North Africa - Costumes, Moeurs et Usages des Algeriens Costumes, Moeurs et Usages des Algeriens 1837
North Africa - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
North Africa - The Present State of the Empire of Morocco Vol. 1 The Present State of the Empire of Morocco Vol. 1 1788
North Africa - The Present State of the Empire of Morocco Vol. 2 The Present State of the Empire of Morocco Vol. 2 1788
North Africa - Alger : Vues Dessinées d'Après Nature Alger : Vues Dessinées d'Après Nature 1840
North Africa - Tunis, Kairouan & Carthage Tunis, Kairouan & Carthage 1908
North Africa - Tunis et ses Environs Tunis et ses Environs 1892

Images

Image Name
Aqueduc de Mustapha Pacha
Dromos, or First Court of the Temple of Karnak
Pagodas at Mahabalipuram
Hadjar Silsilis or the Rock of the Chain
Interior of the Temple of Esne, in Upper Egypt
Halte dans les forêts de Khroumirie (sur la frontière de l'Algérie)
Priest at Jidda
Stone of Unction - Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Arc de triomphe d'Aphrodisium
The Snake Charmer
Les tailleurs - Atelier de l'amine si el Bechir
Sousse (Hadrumetum)
A Goatherd
Ground Plan of Ruins near Dioclesian's Column
The Immersion of the Pilgrims in the Jordan
Bab-el-Fellah
The Carthage Aqueduct
Marchand de gâteaux
Courtyard of the Bardo, Algiers
The Greek Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre
Tombeau romain de Médiocéra, prés du Zaghouan
Hall of the Ambassadors, The Alhambra
Constantine 1837
Interior of the Mosque of the Sultan El Ghoree
Ayto Debib and Guebra Mehedin
Arab Soldier
Toledo - A Street Scene
Sunset at Kairowan
General View of Tyre
St. Jean d'Acre, from the Land
Chancel of the Church of St. Helena, Bethlehem
The Mosque of Omar, on the Ancient Site of the Temple
In the Covered Souks of Kairouan
Street in Marrakesh
Cafe du Kasbah,Tunis
Back Cover
Friday at the Cemetery, Algiers
Souk el Attarin, Tunis
Approach to the Fortress of Ibrim
Petit marchand d'eau
Ground Plan of Carli Cave
Part 2nd, Chart of the Red Sea
The Manner of Passing a River Between Point de Galle & Columbo
Affûteur de faucilles
On the Road to Argan Forest
View near the Village of Asceriah in Abyssinia
La Résidence d'été, à la Marsa
A Blacksmith's Shop
An Old Street, Algiers
The Vegetable Market, Kairouan
Bab-Alleoui
Interior of Carli Cave
Mosque of the Sultan Kaitbey, Cairo
The Entrance to the Citadel of Jerusalem
Descent Upon the Valley of the Jordan
A Geometrical Survey of the City of Alexandria
Chanteuses juives
Tunis from the Olive Woods
Fortress of Akaba, Arabia Petraea
On the Road to the Sok el Abeed
A Group in the Slave-Market of Cairo
The Island of Philae by Sunset
The Minaret of the Great Mosque of Tangiers
Koubba of Sidi Noumann, Bouzareah
Jerusalem from the North
Convent of St. Catherine, Mount Sinai, Principal Court
The Arch Across the Ravine, Petra
Porte d'un petit café
The Mid-day Halt
Axoro Tishai at Adowe
Shooting Hyenas on the Purple Mountains near El Greshe
A Typical Street, Tunis
Boutique de marchands d'étoffes de la rue Kachachine
The Minarets of the Bab Zuweyleh, and Entrance to the Mosque of the Metalis, Cairo
The Desert Near Biskra
La Mosquée de Bab-al-Djazira et la rue El-Bechir
Sketch Map of Algeria and Tunis
An Arcade in the Generalife, Granada
General View of Cairo from the West
Wilderness of Engedi, near the Convent of St. Saba
Back Cover
The King's Seat at Axum
Pompey's Pillar, Alexandria
Calcutta
Tibboo Woman in Full Dress
The Pool of Bethesda
Greek Inscription Found at Axum
View from Under the Portico of the Great Temple of Dendera
Stone Pines, Algiers
The Christian and Mahometan Chapels on Mount Sinai
Waterfall at Sevasummoodra
Map of the Regencies of Tripoly and Tunis
Title Page
Ancient Watch-Tower, Approach to Petra
Arabes au café
Ancient Towers at Bhaugulpore

Maps

Map Name
The Holy Land : Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Vols. 5 & 6 - Map of the Valley of the Nile  (1855)
Narrative of a Ten Years Residence at Tripoli in Africa - Map of the Regencies of Tripoly and Tunis (1816)
A Narrative of Travels in Northern Africa - Map of a Route through the Regency of Tripoli and Kingdom of Fezzan (1821)
Costumes, Moeurs et Usages des Algeriens - Carte de la Regence D'Alger (1837)
The Holy Land : Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Vols. 3 & 4 - Map to Illustrate Mr. Robert's Route (1855)
Algiers: Being a Complete Picture of the Barbary States - Map of Barbary (1817)

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