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New Zealand

New Zealand Collection

History Archive - New Zealand Collection

NEW ZEALAND, a dominion of the British empire, consisting of a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, two large islands, called North and South (or Middle) Islands, and a third of comparatively insignificant size, Stewart Island; length of the group, N. to S., about 1,000 miles; area, 104,471 square miles. Pop. (1918) estimated 1,106,677, besides about 45,000 Maoris. Capital, Wellington, in North Island; other chief cities: Dunedin, Auckland, Christchurch.

New Zealand lies in the Pacific about 1,200 miles southeast of Australia and is the largest island in that ocean. It was discovered by Tasman in 1642. Captain Cook took possession for England in 1769. Settlement began about 1820. It is a British colony, with a local government extending to 1852. There are two principal islands, known as North Island and Middle Island, beside South or Stewart Island and some small outlying islets. The total area is estimated at 104,751 square miles, with a population (1911) of 1,009,244, exclusive of aborigines who chiefly are Maoris (62,184 in number). There were 2,570 Chinese.

New Zealand was discovered by Tasman in 1642, but little was known of it till the visits of Cook in 1769 and 1774. The first permanent settlement was made by missionaries in 1815. In 1833, a resident was appointed, with limited powers, and subordinate to the government of New South Wales. In 1840 New Zealand was erected into a colony; in 1841 it was formally separated from New South Wales and placed under its own independent governor; and in 1852 it received a constitution and responsible government. In 1865 the seat of government was removed from Auckland to Wellington. In 1873 the public works policy was inaugurated, and large loans were raised for immigration, harbors, railways, roads, etc. In 1876 the provinces were abolished; the colony was divided into 63 counties, and all government centralized at Wellington.

New Zealand furnished over 100,000 men in the World War. Of these nearly 15,000 were killed. The total casualties were over 52,000. New Zealand troops distinguished themselves wherever they were engaged and took an especially prominent part in the operations in the Dardanelles, where, with the Australian troops, they were called Anzacs. Conscription was introduced in 1916.

The chief town is Auckland, with a population, including suburbs, of 102,676. Wellington (70,729) is the seat of government. The other towns of note are Christchurch (80,193) and Dunedin (64,237). Of volcanic origin, New Zealand has chains of high mountains, hot geyser springs and other natural features of bold and varied character, incident to its eruptive origin. It has a temperate climate favorable to the growth of rich, succulent grasses and the rearing of sheep and cattle. Its area under crop in 1911 exceeded 16,000,000 acres, while 17,000,000 remained under forest, and 9,000,000 were barren mountain tops, lakes and worthless country.

Large amounts of capital are invested not only in agriculture and mining, but in meat-freezing and preserving, in tanning, wool scouring and factories for butter and cheese. Besides the wool crop and the farm and dairy products, there is a large annual export of tallow, hides, skins and leather, together with gold, valued at $10,000,000 for the yearly output. Progress was long retarded by wars with the Maoris, a magnificent race of barbarians.

There are two houses of parliament, the members of both of which are paid. In the popular chamber sit four Maori members, representing native districts under the Maori representative act. There is no state church, nor is any state aid given to any religion.

Education. The school system is administered by an educational department under a minister, assisted by education boards and school committees. The University of New Zealand is solely an examining body, awarding scholarships to be held by students at affiliated colleges. These are Otago University at Dunedin, with 35 professors; Canterbury College at Christchurch, with 18 professors; Auckland University College, with 14 professors; and Victoria College, Wellington, with nine professors, including lectures at each.

All are endowed with land, and have over 1,500 students in attendance. Public schools numbered 2,096, teachers 4,408 and pupils 156,324. There were 318 private schools with 18,981 pupils; three schools of mines; four normal schools; five central schools of art; 11 industrial schools; and 100 Maori schools. Most of the railways belong to the state and yield a good annual revenue; the gross mileage in both islands is 2,604 miles. In the chief towns there are tramways worked by cables, steam motors or electricity. New Zealand in 1899 offered a military force to the imperial government for service in South Africa. It is world-famous for its experiments in statesmanship and the nationalization of industry.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pg. 1339

Available Books

Images

Image Name
Motueka Valley near Nelson South Island
Hongi Hongi
Wahine's Canoe Race on the Waikato
Port Lyttleton, Canterbury
E Rua, E Pari and E Hoki, women of Ngatitoa Tribe, Cook's Strait
Roperta of Kawhia
Wairoa Geyser
Taupo Pah
To Ngaporutu, and his wife, Rihe, at Wakatumutu
Honi Heki and Patuone
Rangihaeata's Pah; with the Island of Mana and the opposite shores of Cook's Straits
A group at Te Aro Pah, Port Nicholson
Mungakahu, chief of Motupoi, and his wife Ko Mari
Children on the Banks of the Waipa
Cathedral Peaks
Ko Nga Waka Te Karaka, (or Clark), the Christian Chief of the Nga-ti-Wacroa Tribe, Waikato and Wakauenuku, his attendant boy
Residences of the Revd C. L. Reay and the Revd H. F. Buu near Nelson
Poahu and E Koti; two lads of Poverty Bay
Toea, daughter of Te Awaitaia, chief of Waingaroa with an attendant boy, carrying water
Nikau Palms
"Te Hongi"
Title Page - Volume 2
The Wairau Gorge
Carved House, Ohinemutu
Auckland
Throwing the Spear, the mode of Salutation
Mount Egmont
A Maori Chieftainess
A Maori Village
Te Maro, a boy of Waikato
On the Clinton River
Below the Junction of the Buller and Inangahua Rivers
e Amotutu. A young chief of Nga-Ti-Pou Tribe
Lake Taupo, North Island
Map of New Zealand
Coromandel
E Tohi. A young woman of Barrier Island
Among the Kauri
On the Upper Wanganui
Te Tarata on the Lake Rotomahana
Back Cover
Children of Te Pakaru, the chief of Kawhia
Ko Paora Matutaera (Paul Marshali)
Manapouri
The Southern Part of the Province of Auckland
Front Cover
Domestic Sketches (5 figs)
Auckland
Cooking in a Hot Spring
Front Cover
Tarei-po-Kiore
The Southern Alps
Dunedin
Ngongotaha Mountain
Cottage of a Small Farmer, New Plymouth
Tu Kaitote, the Pah of Te Whero Whero, on the Waikato, Taupiri Mountains in the distance
At the Head of Lake Wakatipu
Natives of Port Nicholson (4 figs)
Volcano of Tongariro with Motupoi Pah, from Roto-Aire Lake
Okoaro Cottage of J. Stephensen Smith Esqre, New Plymouth
Title Page - Volume 1
Te Waru. Principal chief of the Nga Ti Apakura Tribe / Te Pakuru. Principal chief of the Nga Ti Manapoto Tribe
Taranaki or Mount Egmont, War Canoe. (Early Morning)
Te Awaitaia and Te Moanaroa: Waingaroa
Okahumoko Bay, Whangaroa
Native Tombs (5 figs)
Te Heuheu & Hiwikaw Tanpo / Te Kawaw & his nephew Orakai
On the Pelorus River
Nga Toenga, daughter of the Barrier Island Chief
Lake and Mount Tarawera
In a Hot Pool
Ko Tauwaki, a chief of the Tukanu, Ko Teonionga, a boy of Te Rapa. Taupo Lake
Weapons & Implements of War Warriors prepaing for a fight (9 figs)
Canoe Hurdle Race
Forest in the Papakura District, near Auckland
Ngawhea, of the Te Mohoa, a chief of the Ngatimaniapoto Tribe & Nga Miho 'Wife of Rangituataea'
E Wai and Kahoki. Nieces of Rauparaka
Ornamental Canoe Heads, Paddles etc (7 figs)
Morning on the Wanganui River
Christchurch
Title Page
War Dance, before the Pah of Oinemutu near Roturua Lake
Back Cover
Typical Portraits of the New Zealanders (6 figs)
On M'Kinnon's Pass
The Islands of New Zealand
Paratene Maioha, a chief of Waingaroa. Wearing the Parawal, or Dog's skin Robe
Implements & Domestic Economy (14 figs)
Illustrated Title Page
George Thomas, a half caste boy. Nephew of Rauparaha
Diamond Lake
Ornamental Carvings in Wood (7 figs)
Kahawai
The Buller River near Hawk's Craig
At the Foot of Lake Te-Anau
"The Dragon's Mouth"

Maps

Map Name
New Zealand : Its Physical Geography, Geology, and Natural History - The Southern Part of the Province of Auckland (1867)
New Zealand; or Zealandia - The Islands of New Zealand (1857)
New Zealand : Its Physical Geography, Geology, and Natural History - New Zealand (1867)

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