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New Zealand

New Zealand Collection

History Archive - New Zealand Collection

NEW ZEALAND, a dominion of the British empire, consisting of a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, two large islands, called North and South (or Middle) Islands, and a third of comparatively insignificant size, Stewart Island; length of the group, N. to S., about 1,000 miles; area, 104,471 square miles. Pop. (1918) estimated 1,106,677, besides about 45,000 Maoris. Capital, Wellington, in North Island; other chief cities: Dunedin, Auckland, Christchurch.

New Zealand lies in the Pacific about 1,200 miles southeast of Australia and is the largest island in that ocean. It was discovered by Tasman in 1642. Captain Cook took possession for England in 1769. Settlement began about 1820. It is a British colony, with a local government extending to 1852. There are two principal islands, known as North Island and Middle Island, beside South or Stewart Island and some small outlying islets. The total area is estimated at 104,751 square miles, with a population (1911) of 1,009,244, exclusive of aborigines who chiefly are Maoris (62,184 in number). There were 2,570 Chinese.

New Zealand was discovered by Tasman in 1642, but little was known of it till the visits of Cook in 1769 and 1774. The first permanent settlement was made by missionaries in 1815. In 1833, a resident was appointed, with limited powers, and subordinate to the government of New South Wales. In 1840 New Zealand was erected into a colony; in 1841 it was formally separated from New South Wales and placed under its own independent governor; and in 1852 it received a constitution and responsible government. In 1865 the seat of government was removed from Auckland to Wellington. In 1873 the public works policy was inaugurated, and large loans were raised for immigration, harbors, railways, roads, etc. In 1876 the provinces were abolished; the colony was divided into 63 counties, and all government centralized at Wellington.

New Zealand furnished over 100,000 men in the World War. Of these nearly 15,000 were killed. The total casualties were over 52,000. New Zealand troops distinguished themselves wherever they were engaged and took an especially prominent part in the operations in the Dardanelles, where, with the Australian troops, they were called Anzacs. Conscription was introduced in 1916.

The chief town is Auckland, with a population, including suburbs, of 102,676. Wellington (70,729) is the seat of government. The other towns of note are Christchurch (80,193) and Dunedin (64,237). Of volcanic origin, New Zealand has chains of high mountains, hot geyser springs and other natural features of bold and varied character, incident to its eruptive origin. It has a temperate climate favorable to the growth of rich, succulent grasses and the rearing of sheep and cattle. Its area under crop in 1911 exceeded 16,000,000 acres, while 17,000,000 remained under forest, and 9,000,000 were barren mountain tops, lakes and worthless country.

Large amounts of capital are invested not only in agriculture and mining, but in meat-freezing and preserving, in tanning, wool scouring and factories for butter and cheese. Besides the wool crop and the farm and dairy products, there is a large annual export of tallow, hides, skins and leather, together with gold, valued at $10,000,000 for the yearly output. Progress was long retarded by wars with the Maoris, a magnificent race of barbarians.

There are two houses of parliament, the members of both of which are paid. In the popular chamber sit four Maori members, representing native districts under the Maori representative act. There is no state church, nor is any state aid given to any religion.

Education. The school system is administered by an educational department under a minister, assisted by education boards and school committees. The University of New Zealand is solely an examining body, awarding scholarships to be held by students at affiliated colleges. These are Otago University at Dunedin, with 35 professors; Canterbury College at Christchurch, with 18 professors; Auckland University College, with 14 professors; and Victoria College, Wellington, with nine professors, including lectures at each.

All are endowed with land, and have over 1,500 students in attendance. Public schools numbered 2,096, teachers 4,408 and pupils 156,324. There were 318 private schools with 18,981 pupils; three schools of mines; four normal schools; five central schools of art; 11 industrial schools; and 100 Maori schools. Most of the railways belong to the state and yield a good annual revenue; the gross mileage in both islands is 2,604 miles. In the chief towns there are tramways worked by cables, steam motors or electricity. New Zealand in 1899 offered a military force to the imperial government for service in South Africa. It is world-famous for its experiments in statesmanship and the nationalization of industry.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pg. 1339

Available Books

Images

Image Name
House of Hiwikau, mother of Te Heuneu, and Falls of Ko Waihi, at Te Rapa, Tanpo Lake
Lake Waikare-Moana
Rangihaeata's Pah; with the Island of Mana and the opposite shores of Cook's Straits
A woman and her sons, of Nga Ti Toa Tribe. Cook's Strait
Ornamental Carvings in Wood (7 figs)
Residences of the Revd C. L. Reay and the Revd H. F. Buu near Nelson
Mount Sefton
Toea, daughter of Te Awaitaia, chief of Waingaroa with an attendant boy, carrying water
Wahine's Canoe Race on the Waikato
Horomona Maruhau or Blind Solomon
The Cecil and Walter Peak
Scene in New Zealand Forest near Porirua
A Bush Section on Greenland, Otago (Fox Lodge)
Auckland
A group at Te Aro Pah, Port Nicholson
Maketu House, Otawhao Pah. Built by Puatia to commemorate the taking of Maketu
e Amotutu. A young chief of Nga-Ti-Pou Tribe
The Islands of New Zealand
The Southern Part of the Province of Auckland
Lake and Mount Tarawera
The Champagne Cauldron
Honi Heki and Patuone
Back Cover
Weapons & Implements of War Warriors prepaing for a fight (9 figs)
A Tangui, or Meeting of Friends, Mount Egmont in the Distance
Nga Toenga, daughter of the Barrier Island Chief
Nikau Palms
Lake Taupo
The Buller River near Hawk's Craig
Muriwhenua
Ko Nga Waka Te Karaka, (or Clark), the Christian Chief of the Nga-ti-Wacroa Tribe, Waikato and Wakauenuku, his attendant boy
Front Cover
Rangitakina. A chief of the Bay of Plenty, on the East Coast
Throwing the Spear, the mode of Salutation
The Return of the War Canoe
The Glaciers on Mount Cook and Mount Tasman
A Pataka
On M'Kinnon's Pass
Tara or Irirangi, principal chief of the Nga Ti Tai Tribe
Tu Kaitote, the Pah of Te Whero Whero, on the Waikato, Taupiri Mountains in the distance
Back Cover
The Waikato at Ngaruawahia
Mount Egmont
Mount Cook
Morning on the Wanganui River
Title Page - Volume 2
In the Hooker Valley
Evening on Lake Roto-rua
Te Tarata on the Lake Rotomahana
E Rua, E Pari and E Hoki, women of Ngatitoa Tribe, Cook's Strait
Te-Wenga
Children on the Banks of the Waipa
Ko Paora Matutaera (Paul Marshali)
Taupo Pah
Lake Taupo, North Island
Wairua Falls
Motupoi Pah and Roto-Aire Lake. Tongariro in the distance
Te Maro, a boy of Waikato
Illustrated Title Page
Canoe Hurdle Race
Motueka Valley near Nelson South Island
A Maori Chieftainess
The Southern Alps
Ngeungeu and her son James Maxwell
Bream Head, Whangarei Heads
Ko Tariu. a chief of Taupo, with his wife
Auckland
Wellington
The Rees Valley and Richardson Range
Tarei-po-Kiore
Huka Falls
On the Bealey River
Native Tombs (5 figs)
Te Mutu, chief of the Shutai, with his sons; Patuoni and Te Kuri Hokianga
Okoaro Cottage of J. Stephensen Smith Esqre, New Plymouth
Okahumoko Bay, Whangaroa
At the Head of Lake Wakatipu
Planting Potatoes
Book Display
Mitre Peak
Native Swing
White Cliffs, Buller River
Taranaki or Mount Egmont, War Canoe. (Early Morning)
Below the Junction of the Buller and Inangahua Rivers
The Otira Gorge
Ko Tauwaki, a chief of the Tukanu, Ko Teonionga, a boy of Te Rapa. Taupo Lake
Coromandel
Map of New Zealand
Te Heuheu & Hiwikaw Tanpo / Te Kawaw & his nephew Orakai
Te Werowero, or Potatau. The principal chief of all Waikato
Implements & Domestic Economy (14 figs)
Title Page
George Thomas, a half caste boy. Nephew of Rauparaha
Weeping over a Deceased Chief
Ornamental Canoe Heads, Paddles etc (7 figs)
Lawyer's Head

Maps

Map Name
New Zealand; or Zealandia - The Islands of New Zealand (1857)
New Zealand : Its Physical Geography, Geology, and Natural History - New Zealand (1867)
New Zealand : Its Physical Geography, Geology, and Natural History - The Southern Part of the Province of Auckland (1867)

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