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Near East

Near East Collection

History Archive - Near East Collection

The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa). Despite having varying definitions within different academic circles, the term was originally applied to the maximum extent of the Ottoman Empire.

In about the middle of the 19th century Near East came into use to describe that part of the east closest to Europe. The term Far East appeared contemporaneously meaning Japan, China, Korea, Indonesia and Vietnam. Near East applied to what had been mainly known as the Levant, which was in the jurisdiction of the Ottoman Porte, or government. Those who used the term had little choice about its meaning. They could not set foot on most of the shores of the southern and central Mediterranean from the Gulf of Sidra to Albania without permits from the Ottoman Empire.

Some regions beyond the Ottoman Porte were included. One was North Africa west of Egypt. It was occupied by piratical kingdoms of the Barbary Coast, de facto-independent since the 18th century, formerly part of the empire at its apogee. Iran was included because it could not easily be reached except through the Ottoman Empire or neighboring Russia. In the 1890s the term tended to focus on the conflicts in the Balkan states and Armenia. The demise of "the sick man of Europe" left considerable confusion as to what was to be meant by "Near East". It is now generally used only in historical contexts, to describe the countries of Western Asia from the Mediterranean to (or including) Iran. There is, in short, no universally-understood fixed inventory of nations, languages or historical assets defined to be in it.

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At the beginning of the 19th century the Ottoman Empire included all of the Balkan Peninsula south to the southern edge of the Hungarian Plain, but by 1914 had lost all of it except Constantinople and Eastern Thrace to the rise of nationalist Balkan states, which saw the independence of Greece, Serbia, the Danubian Principalities and Bulgaria. Up until 1912, the Ottomans retained a band of territory including Albania, Macedonia and Southern Thrace, which were lost in the two Balkan Wars of 1912-13.

The Ottoman Empire, believed to be about to collapse, was portrayed in the press as the "sick man of Europe". The Balkan states, with the partial exception of Bosnia and Albania, were primarily Christian, as was the majority of Lebanon. Starting in 1894, the Ottomans struck at the Armenians on the explicit grounds that they were a non-Muslim people and as such were a potential threat to the Muslim empire within which they resided.

The Hamidian Massacres aroused the indignation of the entire Christian world. In the United States the now aging Julia Ward Howe, author of the Battle Hymn of the Republic, leaped into the war of words and joined the Red Cross. Relations of minorities within the Ottoman Empire and the disposition of former Ottoman lands became known as the "Eastern Question", as the Ottomans were on the east of Europe.

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Book Title Date
Ctesiphon - Views in Egypt Views in Egypt 1801
Ctesiphon - Views in Palestine Views in Palestine 1804
Ctesiphon - Views in the Ottoman Dominions Views in the Ottoman Dominions 1810
Ctesiphon - Views in the Ottoman Empire Views in the Ottoman Empire 1803
Ctesiphon - Picturesque Scenery in the Holy Land and Syria Picturesque Scenery in the Holy Land and Syria 1823
Ctesiphon - Voyage des Souverains du Canal du Suez Voyage des Souverains du Canal du Suez 1870
Ctesiphon - Voyage Pittoresque a Travers l'Isthme de Suez Voyage Pittoresque a Travers l'Isthme de Suez 1870
Ctesiphon - Voyage dans le Levant Voyage dans le Levant 1819
Ctesiphon - Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 2 Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 2 1839
Ctesiphon - Egyptian Sepulchres and Syrian Shrines Vol. 1 Egyptian Sepulchres and Syrian Shrines Vol. 1 1862
Ctesiphon - Egyptian Sepulchres and Syrian Shrines Vol. 2 Egyptian Sepulchres and Syrian Shrines Vol. 2 1862
Ctesiphon - A Journey from London to Persepolis A Journey from London to Persepolis 1865
Ctesiphon - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 1820
Ctesiphon - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 1820
Ctesiphon - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 1820
Ctesiphon - Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 1 Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor Vol. 1 1839
Ctesiphon - The River Jordan : Pictorial and Descriptive The River Jordan : Pictorial and Descriptive 1858
Ctesiphon - Palestine, Past and Present. Pictorial and Descriptive Palestine, Past and Present. Pictorial and Descriptive 1890
Ctesiphon - Palestine Illustrated Palestine Illustrated 1888
Ctesiphon - Out-of-Doors in the Holy Land Out-of-Doors in the Holy Land 1908
Ctesiphon - Under the Syrian Sun Vol. 1 Under the Syrian Sun Vol. 1 1907
Ctesiphon - Under the Syrian Sun Vol. 2 Under the Syrian Sun Vol. 2 1907
Ctesiphon - Sketches Between the Persian Gulf and Black Sea Sketches Between the Persian Gulf and Black Sea 1852
Ctesiphon - Voyage a Athenes et a Constantinopole Voyage a Athenes et a Constantinopole 1825
Ctesiphon - Voyage en Perse Vol. 1 Voyage en Perse Vol. 1 1825
Ctesiphon - Voyage en Perse Vol. 2 Voyage en Perse Vol. 2 1825
Ctesiphon - Elbicei atika : Musee des Anciens Costumes Turcs de Constantinople Elbicei atika : Musee des Anciens Costumes Turcs de Constantinople 1855
Ctesiphon - Recueil de Cent Estampes Representant Differentes Nations du Levant Recueil de Cent Estampes Representant Differentes Nations du Levant 1714
Ctesiphon - Scenes in the East Scenes in the East 1870
Ctesiphon - History of the Recent Discoveries at Cyrene History of the Recent Discoveries at Cyrene 1864
Ctesiphon - Voyage a l'Oasis de Syouah Voyage a l'Oasis de Syouah 1823
Ctesiphon - The Land of Midian (Revisited) Vol. 1 The Land of Midian (Revisited) Vol. 1 1879
Ctesiphon - The Land of Midian (Revisited) Vol. 2 The Land of Midian (Revisited) Vol. 2 1879
Ctesiphon - The Ruins of Palmyra The Ruins of Palmyra 1753
Ctesiphon - Les Ruines de Palmyre Les Ruines de Palmyre 1753
Ctesiphon - The Ruins of Balbec The Ruins of Balbec 1757
Ctesiphon - Les Ruines de Balbec Les Ruines de Balbec 1757
Ctesiphon - Travels in Georgia, Persia, Armenia, Ancient Babylonia Vol. 1 Travels in Georgia, Persia, Armenia, Ancient Babylonia Vol. 1 1822
Ctesiphon - Travels in Georgia, Persia, Armenia, Ancient Babylonia Vol. 2 Travels in Georgia, Persia, Armenia, Ancient Babylonia Vol. 2 1822
Ctesiphon - Incidents of Travel in Egypt, Arabia Petraea, and the Holy Land Incidents of Travel in Egypt, Arabia Petraea, and the Holy Land 1839
Ctesiphon - Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 1 Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 1 1823
Ctesiphon - Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 2 Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly Vol. 2 1823
Ctesiphon - Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly [Atlas] Histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly [Atlas] 1823
Ctesiphon - Views in India, China, and on the Shores of the Red Sea Views in India, China, and on the Shores of the Red Sea 1835
Ctesiphon - Constantinople Ancient and Modern Constantinople Ancient and Modern 1797
Ctesiphon - A Description of some Ancient Monuments in Lydia and Phyrgia A Description of some Ancient Monuments in Lydia and Phyrgia 1842
Ctesiphon - The Principal Ruins of Asia Minor The Principal Ruins of Asia Minor 1865
Ctesiphon - The Military Costume of Turkey The Military Costume of Turkey 1818
Ctesiphon - The Costume of Turkey The Costume of Turkey 1802
Ctesiphon - The Present State of the Ottoman Empire The Present State of the Ottoman Empire 1668
Ctesiphon - The Home of Fadeless Splendour or, Palestine of Today The Home of Fadeless Splendour or, Palestine of Today 1921
Ctesiphon - The Tomb of Alexander The Tomb of Alexander 1805
Ctesiphon - Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 1 Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 1 1809
Ctesiphon - Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 2 Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 2 1809
Ctesiphon - Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 3 Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 3 1809
Ctesiphon - The Dead Sea, a New Route to India Vol. 1 The Dead Sea, a New Route to India Vol. 1 1855
Ctesiphon - The Dead Sea, a New Route to India Vol. 2 The Dead Sea, a New Route to India Vol. 2 1855
Ctesiphon - The Holy Land : Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Vols. 1 & 2 The Holy Land : Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Vols. 1 & 2 1855
Ctesiphon - The Holy Land : Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Vols. 3 & 4 The Holy Land : Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Vols. 3 & 4 1855
Ctesiphon - The Holy Land : Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Vols. 5 & 6 The Holy Land : Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Vols. 5 & 6 1855
Ctesiphon - Damascus and Palmyra Vol. 1 Damascus and Palmyra Vol. 1 1838
Ctesiphon - Damascus and Palmyra Vol. 2 Damascus and Palmyra Vol. 2 1838
Ctesiphon - Below the Cataracts Below the Cataracts 1907
Ctesiphon - Byzantine Architecture Byzantine Architecture 1864
Ctesiphon - Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 1915
Ctesiphon - The Rob Roy on the Jordan The Rob Roy on the Jordan 1869
Ctesiphon - Narrative of the United States' Expedition to the River Jordan and the Dead Sea Narrative of the United States' Expedition to the River Jordan and the Dead Sea 1849
Ctesiphon - Interesting Views in Turkey Interesting Views in Turkey 1819
Ctesiphon - The Banks of the Nile The Banks of the Nile 1913
Ctesiphon - Exploration Archeologique de la Galatie et de la Bithynie Vol. 2 Exploration Archeologique de la Galatie et de la Bithynie Vol. 2 1862
Ctesiphon - Travels in European Turkey Vol. 1 Travels in European Turkey Vol. 1 1851
Ctesiphon - Travels in European Turkey Vol. 2 Travels in European Turkey Vol. 2 1851
Ctesiphon - The Holy Land, Painted and Described The Holy Land, Painted and Described 1902
Ctesiphon - A Relation of a Journey Begun An: Dom: 1610 A Relation of a Journey Begun An: Dom: 1610 1621
Ctesiphon - Sandys Travels Sandys Travels 1673
Ctesiphon - L'Egypte et la Syrie, ou, Moeurs, Usages, Costumes Vol. 1 L'Egypte et la Syrie, ou, Moeurs, Usages, Costumes Vol. 1 1814
Ctesiphon - L'Egypte et la Syrie, ou, Moeurs, Usages, Costumes Vol. 2 L'Egypte et la Syrie, ou, Moeurs, Usages, Costumes Vol. 2 1814
Ctesiphon - L'Egypte et la Syrie, ou, Moeurs, Usages, Costumes Vol. 3 L'Egypte et la Syrie, ou, Moeurs, Usages, Costumes Vol. 3 1814
Ctesiphon - L'Egypte et la Syrie, ou, Moeurs, Usages, Costumes Vol. 4 L'Egypte et la Syrie, ou, Moeurs, Usages, Costumes Vol. 4 1814
Ctesiphon - L'Egypte et la Syrie, ou, Moeurs, Usages, Costumes Vol. 5 L'Egypte et la Syrie, ou, Moeurs, Usages, Costumes Vol. 5 1814
Ctesiphon - L'Egypte et la Syrie, ou, Moeurs, Usages, Costumes Vol. 6 L'Egypte et la Syrie, ou, Moeurs, Usages, Costumes Vol. 6 1814
Ctesiphon - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 1 Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 1 1815
Ctesiphon - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 2 Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 2 1815
Ctesiphon - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 3 Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Vol. 3 1815
Ctesiphon - Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Atlas Promenades Pittoresques dans Constantinople Atlas 1817
Ctesiphon - Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 1 Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 1 1819
Ctesiphon - Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 2 Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et des Rives du Bosphore Vol. 2 1819
Ctesiphon - Egypt, Painted and Described Egypt, Painted and Described 1902
Ctesiphon - Das Wieder Erstehende Babylon Das Wieder Erstehende Babylon 1913
Ctesiphon - The Excavations at Babylon The Excavations at Babylon 1914
Ctesiphon - Visit to Alexandria, Damascus, and Jerusalem Visit to Alexandria, Damascus, and Jerusalem 1835
Ctesiphon - History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 1 History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 1 1900
Ctesiphon - History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 2 History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 2 1900
Ctesiphon - History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 3 History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 3 1900
Ctesiphon - History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 4 History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 4 1900
Ctesiphon - History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 5 History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 5 1900
Ctesiphon - Constantinople Painted and Described Constantinople Painted and Described 1906
Ctesiphon - History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 6 History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 6 1900
Ctesiphon - History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 7 History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 7 1900
Ctesiphon - History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 8 History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 8 1900
Ctesiphon - History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 9 History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 9 1900
Ctesiphon - History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 10 History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 10 1904
Ctesiphon - History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 11 History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 11 1904
Ctesiphon - History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 12 History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 12 1904
Ctesiphon - History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 13 History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. 13 1904
Ctesiphon - A Pilgrimage to the Temples and Tombs of Egypt, Nubia, and Palestine A Pilgrimage to the Temples and Tombs of Egypt, Nubia, and Palestine 1846
Ctesiphon - The Dardanelles : Colour Sketches from Gallipoli The Dardanelles : Colour Sketches from Gallipoli 1915
Ctesiphon - An Artist in Egypt An Artist in Egypt 1912
Ctesiphon - Egyptian Birds Egyptian Birds 1909
Ctesiphon - Letters from the Holy land Letters from the Holy land 1906
Ctesiphon - Clouds in the East Clouds in the East 1876
Ctesiphon - Under the Flag of the Orient Under the Flag of the Orient 1897
Ctesiphon - A Journey Through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor A Journey Through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor 1812
Ctesiphon - A Second Journey Through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor A Second Journey Through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor 1818
Ctesiphon - From Damascus to Palmyra From Damascus to Palmyra 1908
Ctesiphon - Antiquities of the Orient Unveiled Antiquities of the Orient Unveiled 1873
Ctesiphon - Antiquities of the Orient Unveiled Antiquities of the Orient Unveiled 1875
Ctesiphon - The Redemption of Egypt The Redemption of Egypt 1899
Ctesiphon - A Pilgrimage to Egypt A Pilgrimage to Egypt 1897
Ctesiphon - A Visit to the Suez Canal A Visit to the Suez Canal 1866
Ctesiphon - The Land of Israel The Land of Israel 1865
Ctesiphon - The Land of Israel The Land of Israel 1876
Ctesiphon - Four Months in a Dahabeeh Four Months in a Dahabeeh 1863
Ctesiphon - Voyage de l'Arabie Pétrée Voyage de l'Arabie Pétrée 1830
Ctesiphon - Ninive et l'Assyrie Vol. 1 Ninive et l'Assyrie Vol. 1 1870
Ctesiphon - Ninive et l'Assyrie Vol. 2 Ninive et l'Assyrie Vol. 2 1870
Ctesiphon - Ninive et l'Assyrie Vol. 3 Ninive et l'Assyrie Vol. 3 1867
Ctesiphon - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
Ctesiphon - Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries 1820
Ctesiphon - Plates Illustrative of the Researches and Operations of G. Belzoni Plates Illustrative of the Researches and Operations of G. Belzoni 1820
Ctesiphon - Six New Plates Illustrative of the Researches and Operations Six New Plates Illustrative of the Researches and Operations 1822
Ctesiphon - The Antiquities, Natural History, Ruins, and Other Curiosities of Egypt The Antiquities, Natural History, Ruins, and Other Curiosities of Egypt 1780
Ctesiphon - Voyage a l'Oasis de Thebes Voyage a l'Oasis de Thebes 1821
Ctesiphon - Egypt: Descriptive, Historical, and Picturesque Vol. 1 Egypt: Descriptive, Historical, and Picturesque Vol. 1 1881
Ctesiphon - Egypt: Descriptive, Historical, and Picturesque Vol. 2 Egypt: Descriptive, Historical, and Picturesque Vol. 2 1881
Ctesiphon - The Near East; Dalmatia, Greece and Constantinople The Near East; Dalmatia, Greece and Constantinople 1913
Ctesiphon - The Oriental Album The Oriental Album 1862
Ctesiphon - Sketches in the East Drawn on Stone Sketches in the East Drawn on Stone 1856
Ctesiphon - Anatolica Anatolica 1874
Ctesiphon - Travels in Lycia, Milyas, and the Cibyratis Vol. 1 Travels in Lycia, Milyas, and the Cibyratis Vol. 1 1847
Ctesiphon - Travels in Lycia, Milyas, and the Cibyratis Vol. 2 Travels in Lycia, Milyas, and the Cibyratis Vol. 2 1847

Images

Image Name
Sunset in the Lebanon - Djebel Baruk
Dame persan en Scpapkin de Brocard
Two Fragments (Catacomb No. 1) and Fragments (Catacomb No. 2)
The Temple of Jupiter, Baalbek, Another View
Chart of Port Mornington
Temple of the Sun and Colonnade, Palmyra
Courde des montagnes du Hekary
The Remains of Hierapolis
Pera
Large Tomb on the Face of the Western Hill of Cyrene
Piccolo Bent
Title Page
La danse de l'almeh a Beny-Soueyf
No. 13. Grande place de l'Hippodrome, à Constantinople
Ancient Archway and Cavern in the Balkan Mountains
Church of the Monastery of Etchmiadzin
View from an old Cemetery
Damietta
Thebes
Georgian Costumes
Gerizim and Shechem
Shrine of the Nativity, Bethlehem
Prison of the Seven Towers
Vue de la mer Morte
Chapel of Mount Calvary
The Bab-Zuweyla
Dead Sea Shore under Sebbeh (Masada)
Fortress of Akaba, Arabia Petraea
Title Page - Volume 1
Turban Bearer to the Grand Signior
La Princesse Helene S
Excavations on the Mound at Nimroud
Jerusalem - South Wall of the Temple Area, from the Valley of Hinnom, at Sunset
Le Khedive
Cyrene - Plan of a Tomb in the Northern Necropolis [III]
Mosque of Shahzadeh Djamesi
Druse Girl
A Fruit Stall
Chapelle du Saint-Sepulcre
Christian Church of St. George at Lud, Ancient Lydda
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Longitudinal and Transverse Sections
Caramanian Soldier
Map of the Mediterranean, and Turkish Empire
Cufic Tomb-Stone at Dhalac [I]
Femme nestoriene
Bethany
XXV. Vue de Fanaraki et des Cyanees
Subterranean Church of Bethlehem
From the tombs of the kings at Thebes, discovered by G. Belzoni
Turkish Well, Stamboul
Porte de l'Ecce Homo a Jerusalem
Shells Falling on the Base Camp at Helles
Golden Horn from the British Hospital, Galata
The Jordan at Paneas
Tombs of the Kings, Nakchi Rustum
Facsimile of Greek Letter [II]
View from the Factory at Mocha
Ruins between Ramah & Jerusalem
Interior of the Chief's House at the Kurdish Village of Espindar
Suleimaniyeh at Sunrise
Darb-el-Gamamiz, Cairo
The White Mountain (Jebel El-Abyaz)
The Island of Tortosa
Subterranean Chamber, near the Pyramids at Geeza
The Sphinx
Le Parthenon
Ancient Temples at Agrigentum
Title Page - Volume 6 (Vignette: Scene in a Street in Cairo)
Studies of Syrian Peasant Women
Albanian Guard
Officer of Turkish Artillery
The Mountains of Judaea, near Jericho
A Corner in the Market-Place
Galata Tower from the Bridge
The Dome of the Rock (Mosque of Omar) as seen from the Porch on the North Side of the Mosque of El Aksa
A Desert Road. From a Photograph
The Ruins of Ephesus
Interior of the Mosque of the Sultan El Ghoree
Submarine E2 Returning from the Sea of Marmora
Court of the Great Mosque, Damascus
Modern Palestine
David's Gate, Mount Zion
Water Melon Seller
Monkey Pass near Kurkh on the Road to Gombet Li
Cavalcade au desert
View from the Ras's-House at Antalow
Effende, homme de Loy dans son Etude
Front Cover
Zombarek dechargeant sa piece sur un chameau
The Water Palace, Mandoo
Street Scene, Top-Khaneh
Cana of Galilee
Janissary No. 1
The Holy Rock beneath the Dome of the Mosque of Omar
Monuments near Tortosa No. 2
Un Mamlouk

Maps

Map Name
Palestine Illustrated - The City of Jerusalem (Modern) (1888)
The Land of Israel - The Dead Sea to Illustrate the Routes and Observations of the Rev'd H. B. Tristram (1865)
Voyage a l'Oasis de Syouah - Carte de l'Oasis de Syouah (1823)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 - Map of Greece and the Archipelago (1820)
The Land of Midian (Revisited) Vol. 2 - Map of the Land of Midian (1879)
History of the Recent Discoveries at Cyrene - Cyrenaica Corrected from the Surveys of Capt's Smyth, Beechy and Spratt (1864)
Voyage en Perse Vol. 2 - Carte de la Perse Pour le Voyage du Colonel G Dourville 1819 (1825)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 - Map of the Countries on the East Coast of the Mediterranean Sea (1820)
Palestine Illustrated - The Central Ridge of Palestine (1888)
A Visit to the Suez Canal - Sketch Map of the Suez Canal (1866)
The Dead Sea, a New Route to India Vol. 1 - Map of Palestine with Portions of Syria (1855)
The Land of Israel - Routes in the Holy Land by the Rev'd H. B. Tristram (1865)
The Holy Land : Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Vols. 3 & 4 - Map to Illustrate Mr. Robert's Route (1855)
A Pilgrimage to Egypt - Sketch Map of Lower Egypt (1897)
A Pilgrimage to Egypt - Egypt Map (1897)
Palestine Illustrated - Modern Palestine (1888)
The Holy Land : Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Vols. 5 & 6 - Map of the Valley of the Nile  (1855)

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