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Mexico

Mexico Collection

History Archive - Mexico Collection

Mexico is a nation that lies between the United States and Guatemala, in North America. It is as large as Great Britain, France, Germany and Austria together, and is 2,000 miles long and from 130 to 1,000 wide. (Area 767,005 sq. miles.) Lying between the Gulf and the Pacific, it has a coast-line of 6,000 miles and numerous ports on both coasts. The peninsulas of Yucatan and Lower California belong to it.

Mexico was discovered for the Europeans when the Spaniards under Cortez landed at Vera Cruz in 1519, and the story of the latter's conquest of Mexico is one of the romances of history. In 1540 all the American territory belonging to Spain, including Mexico, was united under the name of New Spain, and governed by viceroys appointed by the home government.

The policy of the government, however, hindered the development of the country. Mexico was looked upon simply as a mine to be worked for the benefit of Spain. The natives were distributed as slaves on the plantations, and trade with any country but Spain was forbidden under penalty of death. In spite of this policy, however, it was one of the richest and most prosperous of the Spanish colonies.

After three centuries of submission the spirit of discontent, which had been growing during the wars of Spain with France under Napoleon, broke out in rebellion in 1810, under the leadership of a country priest named Hidalgo. In 1821 the last of a series of 57 Spanish viceroys, O'Donoju, surrendered the capital. General Iturbide was proclaimed emperor in 1822, but General Santa Anna raised the standard of the republic, and Iturbide was banished to Italy, and shot the next year when he attempted to return. From that time on the history of Mexico is one of civil war until 1876. Fifty-two presidents or dictators, one emperor and a regent ruled the country in that time.

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Mesoamerica

The early history of Mexico, as learnt from its monuments and picture-writings, includes two periods — that of the Toltecs and the Aztecs. The Toltecs are thought to have reached the country about the 8th century; they cultivated the land, introduced corn and cotton, made roads and built temples, cities and monuments whose ruins still prove their skill. To their invention are thought to belong the Mexican hieroglyphics, or system of writing by pictures, and the Mexican calendar. They are believed to have been driven south by famine and pestilence to Guatemala and Yucatan in the 11th century. After an interval, about the end of the 12th century, the Aztecs entered the land and founded, about 1325, the city of Mexico. They were a less cultivated race than the Toltecs, but more so than the North American tribes, though they are considered now as belonging to the same family. (See Mesoamerica collection)

Later History

Texas secured its independence in 1836, and in 1845 became a part of the United States. The boundary line was unsettled, and a dispute over a strip of land brought on war with the United States, with its battles of Monterey, Palo Alto, Cerro Gordo, Buena Vista and Chapultepec, ending with the taking of the City of Mexico by the Americans under General Scott. Peace was concluded in 1848, Mexico ceding to the United States half a million square miles of her territory. In 1861, under the presidency of Juarez, the country was again involved in war with the allied troops of England, France and Spain, partly as the result of some of the internal changes made by Juarez, such as the separation of church and state and the confiscation of church property, and partly because of acts of injustice to foreigners during this period of disorder.

The difficulties were regulated by a treaty, to which the French commander, however, did not agree. Spain and England withdrew their forces, but France declared war, and entered the City of Mexico in 1863. The crown was offered to Archduke Maximilian of Austria, who was declared emperor. After the withdrawal of the French troops from the country, owing to the remonstrance of the United States based on the principle of the Monroe doctrine, the republican troops under Juarez defeated the army of the emperor, who was taken and shot in 1867. Juarez remained president until his death in 1872, when Tejada succeeded; and in 1876, after another revolution, Porfirio Diaz, the ablest of Mexican rulers, became president.

He was re-elected continuously, his eighth term beginning Dec. 1, 1910. Early in 1911 a revolution resulted in the resignation of Diaz and the election of Francisco Madero, who, in turn, was deposed, and General Victoriana Huerta, one of the leaders in both revolutions, made provisional president. Madero was shot dead in the streets of Mexico on the night of February 22, 1913, while being transferred from one prison to another. The people of Mexico, numbering in 1911 15,063,207, are over one-third Indians, embracing 35 tribes, living in communities in villages; the Mestizos, the half-breeds, with a mixture of Spanish and Indian blood, who form about one half the population; and the higher class, which is largely Spanish.

Government of Mexico

In the early 1900s Mexico was a federative republic. The constitution, originally promulgated on Feb. 5, 1857, and subsequently amended, declares that the Mexican Republic is established under the representative, democratic and federal form of government, composed of states free and sovereign in everything relating to their internal administration, but united in one single federation. The Supreme Government is divided into three coördinate branches: Legislative, Executive and Judicial. The legislative power of the nation is vested in a general Congress, consisting of two Chambers, the Deputies and the Senate. The executive power is lodged in a single individual known as the "President of the United Mexican States," whose term of office is four years. By an amendment to the Constitution, under date of Dec. 20, 1900, he may be re-elected indefinitely. The judicial power is vested in the supreme court and the district and circuit courts.

The territory of the United Mexican States is divided into 1 Federal District, 27 States and 2 Territories, whose organization is almost identical with that of the American Union. The States, as before indicated, are free and sovereign in all matters pertaining to their internal administration, their government being vested in three heads, namely: State government, State legislature and State judicial power. The States and Territories are, for convenience, classified as follows, according to their situation:

Central States. Federal District, Aguascalientes, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, México, Morelos, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosi, Tlaxcala and Zacatecas.

Northern States: Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Sonora.

Gulf States: Campeche, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Vera Cruz, Yucatán and Territorio de Quintana Roo.

Pacific States: Baja California, Colima, Chiapas, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán, Oaxaca, Sinaloa and Tepic.

Territories: Tepic and Baja (Lower) California.

Economy of Mexico

In the early 20th century the principal exports of Mexico were silver, gold, copper, henequen, coffee, rubber, hides, guayule, cattle, chick peas, chicle and sugar. They largely imported: Machinery, iron, steel, textiles and manufactures, lumber, coal, iron, vegetable oils, coke, grain, wines, liquors, paper and textile fibers. Exports for (1911-12) totaled $148,994,564; while imports totaled $91,331,155.

There are 24 ports on the Gulf and 31 on the Pacific. Many of the former have steamship lines direct to the Gulf ports of the United States and Europe. In 1911 there were 1,545 miles of railway open. Many brilliant pictorial works have been created regarding the railroads in Mexico during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Mexico has not been a manufacturing country, but with the extension of railroads and the influx of foreign capital and enterprising men a decided impulse has been given to manufacturing industries. One hundred and fourteen cotton mills were in operation in 1904. There also are numerous woolen-mills, and silk-weaving is rapidly increasing. Sugar-mills and flour-mills are many, but do not supply the local demands. Iron-foundries are numerous and profitable, but have been hindered by lack of transportation facilities.

Pottery is made in many places, the cities of Guadalajara, Zacatecas, Guanajuato and Puebla being centers of the industry. Other industries are cotton-seed mills, tanneries, manufactures of glassware, hardware, drawn work and feather work. A noteworthy industry is the exporting of hides and skins. Mexico occupies the fourth rank among nations of the earth in this particular branch, the annual export amounting to more than $6,000,000 Mexican silver. The government is doing all in its power to foster home manufacture and has offered great inducements to those who will establish upon Mexican soil enterprises which will utilize its great resources. As a result the country is now making great strides in the industrial and manufacturing field. Smelting and reduction works, waterworks and electric plants are springing up throughout the country.

The capital invested in Mexico by United States companies, firms and individuals, has been stated to be in round numbers $1,000,000,000 gold, and a large part of this investment has been made within a few years. Of the total 70 per cent. is invested in railroads, the rest in mining and agriculture. United States firms have recently built many electric light and power plants, waterworks plants, telephone systems and similar plants. English capitalists have also invested heavily in Mexican enterprises, particularly in connection with the development of the oil fields.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pg 1214-1217

Available Books

Book Title Date
Mexico - Mexico To-Day Mexico To-Day 1883
Mexico - Viaje Pintoresco y Arqueolojico de la Republica Mejicana Viaje Pintoresco y Arqueolojico de la Republica Mejicana 1840
Mexico - Mexico y sus Alrededories Mexico y sus Alrededories 1869
Mexico - Six Months Residence and Travels in Mexico Six Months Residence and Travels in Mexico 1824
Mexico - Album del Ferro-Carril Mexicano Album del Ferro-Carril Mexicano 1877
Mexico - History of the Conquest of Mexico Vol. 1 History of the Conquest of Mexico Vol. 1 1843
Mexico - History of the Conquest of Mexico Vol. 2 History of the Conquest of Mexico Vol. 2 1843
Mexico - History of the Conquest of Mexico Vol. 3 History of the Conquest of Mexico Vol. 3 1843
Mexico - Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 1 Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 1 1820
Mexico - Costumes Civils, Militaires et Religieux du Mexique Costumes Civils, Militaires et Religieux du Mexique 1828
Mexico - The War between the United States and Mexico The War between the United States and Mexico 1851
Mexico - Atlas Pintoresco e Historico De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos Atlas Pintoresco e Historico De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos 1885
Mexico - Mexico a Traves de los Siglos Vol. 1 Mexico a Traves de los Siglos Vol. 1 1888
Mexico - Mexico a Traves de los Siglos Vol. 2 Mexico a Traves de los Siglos Vol. 2 1888
Mexico - Mexico a Traves de los Siglos Vol. 3 Mexico a Traves de los Siglos Vol. 3 1888
Mexico - Mexico a Traves de los Siglos Vol. 4 Mexico a Traves de los Siglos Vol. 4 1888
Mexico - Mexico a Traves de los Siglos Vol. 5 Mexico a Traves de los Siglos Vol. 5 1888
Mexico - Voyage Pittoresque et Archeologique du Mexique Voyage Pittoresque et Archeologique du Mexique 1836
Mexico - The Goldsmith's Art in Ancient Mexico The Goldsmith's Art in Ancient Mexico 1920
Mexico - A Trip to Mexico A Trip to Mexico 1880
Mexico - The Mexican War and its Warriors The Mexican War and its Warriors 1850
Mexico - Pictorial History of Mexico and the Mexican War Pictorial History of Mexico and the Mexican War 1850
Mexico - Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique 1813
Mexico - Coleccion General de Laminas de los Antiguos Monumentos de Nueva Espana Coleccion General de Laminas de los Antiguos Monumentos de Nueva Espana 1820
Mexico - History of the Mexican Railway History of the Mexican Railway 1876
Mexico - Histoire Veridique de la Conquete de la Nouvelle-Espagne Histoire Veridique de la Conquete de la Nouvelle-Espagne 1877
Mexico - Historia Verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva Espana Historia Verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva Espana 1632
Mexico - Memoirs, of the Conquistador Bernal Diaz del Castillo Vol. 1 Memoirs, of the Conquistador Bernal Diaz del Castillo Vol. 1 1844
Mexico - Memoirs, of the Conquistador Bernal Diaz del Castillo Vol. 2 Memoirs, of the Conquistador Bernal Diaz del Castillo Vol. 2 1844
Mexico - Historia de la Conquista de Mexico Vol. 1 Historia de la Conquista de Mexico Vol. 1 1844
Mexico - Historia de la Conquista de Mexico Vol. 2 Historia de la Conquista de Mexico Vol. 2 1844
Mexico - Historia de la Conquista de Mexico Vol. 3 Historia de la Conquista de Mexico Vol. 3 1844
Mexico - Descripcion Historica y Cronologica de las dos Piedras Descripcion Historica y Cronologica de las dos Piedras 1792
Mexico - Album Pintoresco de la Republica Mexicana Album Pintoresco de la Republica Mexicana 1850
Mexico - Atlas Geografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos Atlas Geografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos 1897

Images

Image Name
Tercer Viage - Lamina 49
Back Cover
La Fuente del Salto del Agua
Segundo Viage - Lamina 8
Maniere de voyage des Dames au Mexique
Title Page
Les Aleuts
Grupo de la Piedra de Sacrificio de Tamano Medio Natural
Volcan de Pichincha
Habillement des Esquimaux
Marchand de Volailles / Marchand de Graisses / Marchande de Bonbons
Catedral de Mexico
Title Page
Vue du Corazon
Segundo Viage - Lamina 45
La Piramide de Papantala
Jardin de la Plaza de Armas
Molino de Belen Lomas de Santa Fe Tacubaya
Outline Drawing on Aztec Sacrificial Stone
Vue du Potomac prise du haut du Vernon
Veracruz
[Untitled View]
Garde civique d'Alvarado, descendant
Obsidian Knives and Arrow Head
Molino del Rey - Attack upon the Molino
Front Cover
Plan de las Ruinas de la Quemada cerca de villa nueva
Buste d'une pretress azteque [I]
Officier de Dragons. Nouveau Costume
Las Cadenas en Una Noche de Luna
Tercer Viage - Lamina 46
Costumes des Indiens de Mechoacan [II]
Segundo Viage - Lamina 40
Title Page
Segundo Viage - Lamina 20
Puente del Atoyac
Les ruines de Miguitlan ou Mitla [I]
Mexican Indians returning from market
Plaza de San Agustin de las Cuevas Ciudad de Tlalpam (II)
Portrait de Motezuma II et de Cortes
Broken Statues at Tula
Trajes Mexicanos Soldados del sur 1855
Bombardment of Vera Cruz
Segundo Viage - Lamina 53
Back Cover
Forest on Fire, Alabama
Leurs habillemens
Segundo Viage - Lamina 31
Ecrivain public, sur la grand place a Mexico
Estacion de Orizaba
Regolo ou Cacique accompagne de ses femmes
Segundo Viage - Lamina 52
Segundo Viage - Lamina 54
Valle de Mexico (tomado desde el cerro del Risco)
Tercer Viage - Lamina 48
Tercer Viage - Lamina 47
Panorama de Puebla (tomado desde el fuerte Guadalupe)
Bishop Riley's Protestant Church, Calle San Francisco
Segundo Viage - Lamina 4
Portrait de Washington
Passage de la montagne de Quindiu, dans la Cordillere des Andes
Vue du Chimborazo et du Carguairazo
Carta Orografica
Segundo Viage - Lamina 7
Front Cover
Templo Antiguo de los Totonacos en Tusapan
Sacrifice gladiatoire
Fabrique d'indigo
Vue de la place du marche a Philadelphie
El Sagrario de Mexico
L'Exterieur et l'interieur d'une maison d'Unalaschka [I]
Fragmens de peintures hieroglyphiques tires du Codes Telleriano-Remensis [I]
Front Cover
Back Cover
Dispute de deux Indiennes
Tercer Viage - Lamina 22
Divers autres jeux
Vue de la cataracte du fer a cheval etc
Illustrated Title Page
Atrio del Convento de San Francisco 1860 (II)
[Untitled Mesoamerican Statues]
Tercer Viage
Puente de la Soledad. Tomado desde el Hospital
Segundo Viage - Lamina 41
Piramide de Cholula
Tercer Viage - Lamina 3
Fragment d'un calendrier chretien tire des manuscrits azteques conserves a la bibliotheque royale de Berlin
The Aztec Calendar Stone
Interior del Templo A II del Plan de las Ruinas de la Quemada
Instruccion Publica
Segundo Viage - Lamina 2
Clay heads found in great quantities on the sites of ancient Aztec cities (IV)
Fragmens de peintures hieroglyphiques, deposes a la bibliotheque royale de Berlin
Pyramid of the Sun or of San de Teotihuacan
Orizaba (desde el puente de Paso del Toro)
Segundo Viage - Lamina 21

Maps

Map Name
Album del Ferro-Carril Mexicano - Plano Orografico de la Zona Recorrida por el Ferro-Carril Mexicano de Veracruz a Mexico (1877)
Atlas Pintoresco e Historico De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos - Carta Orografica (1885)
Atlas Pintoresco e Historico De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos - Carta Eclesiastica (1885)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 1 - Carte geografique de L'Amerique (1820)
Atlas Pintoresco e Historico De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos - Vias de Comunicacion y Movimiento Maritimo (1885)
Six Months Residence and Travels in Mexico - A Plan of the City of Mexico by Lt. Col. Don Diego Garcia - AD 1793 (1824)
Atlas Pintoresco e Historico De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos - Instruccion Publica (1885)
Atlas Pintoresco e Historico De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos - Carta Agricola (1885)
Atlas Pintoresco e Historico De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos - Carta Politica (1885)
Atlas Pintoresco e Historico De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos - Carta Historica y Arqueologica (1885)
Atlas Pintoresco e Historico De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos - Valle De Mexico (1885)
Atlas Pintoresco e Historico De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos - Carta Etnografica (1885)
Atlas Pintoresco e Historico De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos - Carta Minera (1885)
Atlas Pintoresco e Historico De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos - Mexico y Sus Cercanias (1885)
Six Months Residence and Travels in Mexico - Ancient Mexico from the original map made by order of Montezuma for Cortes (1824)
Atlas Pintoresco e Historico De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos - Carta Hydrografica (1885)
Atlas Pintoresco e Historico De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos - Reyno de la Nueva Expana a Principios del Siglo XIX (1885)

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