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Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica Collection

History Archive - Mesoamerica Collection

Mesoamerica is a historical region and cultural area in North America. It extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within this region pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas. In the 16th century, European diseases like smallpox and measles caused the deaths of upwards of 90% of the indigenous people. It is one of five areas in the world where ancient civilization arose independently, and the second in the Americas along with Norte Chico (Caral-Supe) in present-day Peru, in the northern coastal region.

As a cultural area, Mesoamerica is defined by a mosaic of cultural traits developed and shared by its indigenous cultures. Beginning as early as 7000 BCE, the domestication of cacao, maize, beans, tomato, avocado, vanilla, squash and chili, as well as the turkey and dog, caused a transition from paleo-Indian hunter-gatherer tribal grouping to the organization of sedentary agricultural villages. In the subsequent Formative period, agriculture and cultural traits such as a complex mythological and religious tradition, a vigesimal numeric system, a complex calendric system, a tradition of ball playing, and a distinct architectural style, were diffused through the area. Also in this period, villages began to become socially stratified and develop into chiefdoms with the development of large ceremonial centers, interconnected by a network of trade routes for the exchange of luxury goods, such as obsidian, jade, cacao, cinnabar, Spondylus shells, hematite, and ceramics. While Mesoamerican civilization did know of the wheel and basic metallurgy, neither of these technologies became culturally important.

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Among the earliest complex civilizations was the Olmec culture, which inhabited the Gulf Coast of Mexico and extended inland and southwards across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Frequent contact and cultural interchange between the early Olmec and other cultures in Chiapas, Guatemala and Oaxaca laid the basis for the Mesoamerican cultural area. All this was facilitated by considerable regional communications in ancient Mesoamerica, especially along the Pacific coast.

This formative period saw the spread of distinct religious and symbolic traditions, as well as artistic and architectural complexes. In the subsequent Preclassic period, complex urban polities began to develop among the Maya, with the rise of centers such as El Mirador, Calakmul and Tikal, and the Zapotec at Monte Alban. During this period, the first true Mesoamerican writing systems were developed in the Epi-Olmec and the Zapotec cultures, and the Mesoamerican writing tradition reached its height in the Classic Maya hieroglyphic script.

Mesoamerica is one of only three regions of the world where writing is known to have independently developed (the others being ancient Sumer and China). In Central Mexico, the height of the Classic period saw the ascendancy of the city of Teotihuacan, which formed a military and commercial empire whose political influence stretched south into the Maya area and northward. Upon the collapse of Teotihuacan around 600 AD, competition between several important political centers in central Mexico, such as Xochicalco and Cholula, ensued.

At this time during the Epi-Classic period, the Nahua peoples began moving south into Mesoamerica from the North, and became politically and culturally dominant in central Mexico, as they displaced speakers of Oto-Manguean languages. During the early post-Classic period, Central Mexico was dominated by the Toltec culture, Oaxaca by the Mixtec, and the lowland Maya area had important centers at Chichen Itza and Mayapan. Towards the end of the post-Classic period, the Aztecs of Central Mexico built a tributary empire covering most of central Mesoamerica.

The distinct Mesoamerican cultural tradition ended with the Spanish conquest in the 16th century. Over the next centuries, Mesoamerican indigenous cultures were gradually subjected to Spanish colonial rule. Aspects of the Mesoamerican cultural heritage still survive among the indigenous peoples who inhabit Mesoamerica, many of whom continue to speak their ancestral languages, and maintain many practices harking back to their Mesoamerican roots.

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Book Title Date
Palenque - Views of Ancient Monuments in Central America Views of Ancient Monuments in Central America 1844
Palenque - Mitla. A Narrative of Incidents Mitla. A Narrative of Incidents 1858
Palenque - Coleccion de las Antiguedades Mexicanas Coleccion de las Antiguedades Mexicanas 1827
Palenque - Description of the Ruins of an Ancient City Description of the Ruins of an Ancient City 1822
Palenque - Antiquites Mexicaines Antiquites Mexicaines 1844
Palenque - Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 1 Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 1 1831
Palenque - Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 2 Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 2 1831
Palenque - Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 3 Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 3 1831
Palenque - Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 4 Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 4 1831
Palenque - Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 5 Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 5 1831
Palenque - Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 6 Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 6 1831
Palenque - Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 7 Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 7 1831
Palenque - Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 8 Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 8 1848
Palenque - Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 9 Antiquities of Mexico Vol. 9 1848
Palenque - Voyage Pittoresque et Archeologique dans la Province d'Yucatan Voyage Pittoresque et Archeologique dans la Province d'Yucatan 1838
Palenque - Guillermo Dupaix Papers Guillermo Dupaix Papers 1804
Palenque - Mexico To-Day Mexico To-Day 1883
Palenque - The Indian Races of North and South America The Indian Races of North and South America 1853
Palenque - Viaje Pintoresco y Arqueolojico de la Republica Mejicana Viaje Pintoresco y Arqueolojico de la Republica Mejicana 1840
Palenque - Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique 1813
Palenque - Six Months Residence and Travels in Mexico Six Months Residence and Travels in Mexico 1824
Palenque - Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 1 Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 1 1820
Palenque - Prince Izon; a Romance of the Grand Canyon Prince Izon; a Romance of the Grand Canyon 1910
Palenque - Nombres Geograficos de Mexico [Atlas] Nombres Geograficos de Mexico [Atlas] 1885
Palenque - Incidents of Travel in Central America Vol. 1 Incidents of Travel in Central America Vol. 1 1841
Palenque - Incidents of Travel in Central America Vol. 2 Incidents of Travel in Central America Vol. 2 1841
Palenque - Historical Researches on the Conquest of Peru, Mexico Historical Researches on the Conquest of Peru, Mexico 1827
Palenque - Nicaragua, its People, Scenery, Monuments Vol. 1 Nicaragua, its People, Scenery, Monuments Vol. 1 1852
Palenque - Nicaragua, its People, Scenery, Monuments Vol. 2 Nicaragua, its People, Scenery, Monuments Vol. 2 1852
Palenque - Biologia Centrali-Americana Vol. 1 Biologia Centrali-Americana Vol. 1 1889
Palenque - Biologia Centrali-Americana Vol. 2 Biologia Centrali-Americana Vol. 2 1889
Palenque - Biologia Centrali-Americana Vol. 3 Biologia Centrali-Americana Vol. 3 1889
Palenque - Biologia Centrali-Americana Atlas Vol. 1 Biologia Centrali-Americana Atlas Vol. 1 1889
Palenque - Biologia Centrali-Americana Atlas Vol. 2 Biologia Centrali-Americana Atlas Vol. 2 1889
Palenque - Biologia Centrali-Americana Atlas Vol. 3 Biologia Centrali-Americana Atlas Vol. 3 1889
Palenque - Biologia Centrali-Americana Atlas Vol. 4 Biologia Centrali-Americana Atlas Vol. 4 1889
Palenque - The History of Ancient Mexico Vol. 1 The History of Ancient Mexico Vol. 1 1832
Palenque - The History of Ancient Mexico Vol. 2 The History of Ancient Mexico Vol. 2 1832
Palenque - Central American and West Indian Archaeology Central American and West Indian Archaeology 1916
Palenque - History of the Spanish Conquest of Yucatan and of the Itzas History of the Spanish Conquest of Yucatan and of the Itzas 1917
Palenque - Ruines du Mexique et Types Mexicains Ruines du Mexique et Types Mexicains 1862
Palenque - Cites et Ruines Americaines Cites et Ruines Americaines 1863
Palenque - The Ancient Cities of the New World The Ancient Cities of the New World 1885
Palenque - Les Anciennes Villes du Nouveau Monde Les Anciennes Villes du Nouveau Monde 1883
Palenque - Monuments anciens du Mexique Monuments anciens du Mexique 1866
Palenque - Archives de la Commission Scientifique du Mexique Vol. 1 Archives de la Commission Scientifique du Mexique Vol. 1 1865
Palenque - Archives de la Commission Scientifique du Mexique Vol. 2 Archives de la Commission Scientifique du Mexique Vol. 2 1865
Palenque - Archives de la Commission Scientifique du Mexique Vol. 3 Archives de la Commission Scientifique du Mexique Vol. 3 1865
Palenque - La Poblacion del Valle de Teotihuacan Vol 1 La Poblacion del Valle de Teotihuacan Vol 1 1922
Palenque - La Poblacion del Valle de Teotihuacan Vol 2 La Poblacion del Valle de Teotihuacan Vol 2 1922
Palenque - La Poblacion del Valle de Teotihuacan Vol 3 La Poblacion del Valle de Teotihuacan Vol 3 1922
Palenque - The Goldsmith's Art in Ancient Mexico The Goldsmith's Art in Ancient Mexico 1920
Palenque - Voyage Pittoresque et Archeologique du Mexique Voyage Pittoresque et Archeologique du Mexique 1836
Palenque - Histoire de la Nation Mexicaine depuis le Depart d'Aztlan Histoire de la Nation Mexicaine depuis le Depart d'Aztlan 1893
Palenque - Huehuetlapallan, Amerika's Grosse Urstadt Huehuetlapallan, Amerika's Grosse Urstadt 1823
Palenque - Codex Nuttall Codex Nuttall 1902
Palenque - Ancient Tombs of Palenque Ancient Tombs of Palenque 1896
Palenque - Archaeological Researches in Yucatan Archaeological Researches in Yucatan 1904
Palenque - Cave of Loltun, Yucatan Cave of Loltun, Yucatan 1879
Palenque - Ruins of Xkichmook, Yucatan Ruins of Xkichmook, Yucatan 1898
Palenque - The Home of a Forgotten Race The Home of a Forgotten Race 1914
Palenque - The Chultunes of Labna, Yucatan The Chultunes of Labna, Yucatan 1897
Palenque - Explorations in the Department of Peten Explorations in the Department of Peten 1911
Palenque - Explorations of the Upper Usumatsintla and Adjacent Region Explorations of the Upper Usumatsintla and Adjacent Region 1908
Palenque - Researches in the Central Portion of the Usumatsintla Valley Researches in the Central Portion of the Usumatsintla Valley 1901
Palenque - Prehistoric Ruins of Copan, Hondura Prehistoric Ruins of Copan, Hondura 1896
Palenque - The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel 1913
Palenque - The Serpent Motive in the Ancient Art of Central America and Mexico The Serpent Motive in the Ancient Art of Central America and Mexico 1905
Palenque - Observations on the Uses of the Mounds of the West Observations on the Uses of the Mounds of the West 1847
Palenque - Observations on the Chalchihuitl of Mexico and Central America Observations on the Chalchihuitl of Mexico and Central America 1869
Palenque - A Trip to Mexico A Trip to Mexico 1880
Palenque - Rambles in Yucatan Rambles in Yucatan 1843
Palenque - Maya Architecture Maya Architecture 1926
Palenque - Onomatologia geografica de Morelos Onomatologia geografica de Morelos 1888
Palenque - Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana y Islas de Tierra Firme Vol. 1 Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana y Islas de Tierra Firme Vol. 1 1867
Palenque - Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana y Islas de Tierra Firme Vol. 2 Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana y Islas de Tierra Firme Vol. 2 1880
Palenque - Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana y Islas de Tierra Firme Atlas Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana y Islas de Tierra Firme Atlas 1880
Palenque - Coleccion General de Laminas de los Antiguos Monumentos de Nueva Espana Coleccion General de Laminas de los Antiguos Monumentos de Nueva Espana 1820
Palenque - An Inquiry into the Origin of the Antiquities of America An Inquiry into the Origin of the Antiquities of America 1839
Palenque - Descripcion Historica y Cronologica de las dos Piedras Descripcion Historica y Cronologica de las dos Piedras 1792

Images

Image Name
Plate VII
Le village de Chelaski dans le detroit d'Johnston
MSS-hieroglyphique representant la Deessee Cihuacohuatl
Interior Of Casa No. III. Palenque
Pt. XX - Vue pittoresque du Temple de la Croix, prise de la porte d'entree du palais; on voit au pied de la pyramide l'habitation que je m'y etais construite
Back Cover
2ème Expedition - Planche XXX
Plaza Mayor de Guanajuato
General View of Palenque
Trat: 1 - Lamina 12
Monument de Xochiacalco
Trat: 3 - Lamina 6
Gente de Tierra Caliente entre Papantla y Misantla
Tercer Viage - Lamina 48
1er Expedition - Planche XXXII
Segundo Viage - Lamina 5
Tercer Viage - Lamina 15
The Benificiating Hacienda of Loretto Pachuca
Tercer Viage - Lamina 6
Back Cover
3ème Expedition - Planche XXVII
Map of Mexico
Segundo Viage - Lamina 54
Front Cover
Vues de la grande place de Mexico
Peintures hieroglyphiques de la Raccolta di Mendoza [I]
Segundo Viage - Lamina 40
Pt. XXVII - Sanctuaire de l'edifice dit le Temple du Soleil
Fragmens de peintures hieroglyphiques tires du Codes Telleriano-Remensis [I]
L'Amerique representee sous des figures allegoriques
2ème Expedition - Planche XXXX
Interieur de la maison de l'Inca, au Canar
Planche Supplémentaire - IX
Front Cover
Book Display III
Habillemens des habitans du Canada No. 3
Plate II
Vue du Chimborazo et du Carguairazo
2ème Expedition - Planche XXXVII
Primer Viage - Lamina 14
Plate VIII
3ème Expedition - Planche XLIV
3ème Expedition - Planche XXXXVII
Aztec Jar from Teotihuacan (10 inches high)
Clay heads found in great quantities on the sites of ancient Aztec cities (I)
City of Mexico
Instrumentos de Musica
On the Parapet - Topeltzin's Magic
Back Cover
Title Page - Tome I
Pt. XLV - Modele d'une terre cuite peinte, representeant un temple
1er Expedition - Planche XII
1er Expedition - Planche XIX
3ème Expedition - Planche V
Pt. XXXIII, Fig. 1 - Elevation exterieure de l'edifice

Pt. XXXIII, Fig. 2 - Elevation interieure montrant les deux tables de cotte galerie

Pt. XXXIII, Fig. 3 - Plan par terre du temple aux trois tables

Pt. XXXIII, Fig. 4 -
Pt. VI - Plan de la distribution des edifices de Palenque
Plate XIV
Sommet de la montagne des Organos d'Actopan
1er Expedition - Planche XIV
Naturels de Sithanak et d'Unalaschka
Pt. XVLIII - Quetzalcohuatl en pierre, du Musee de Mexico
Apendice - Lamina 16
Trat: 1 - Lamina 26
2ème Expedition - Planche XXVIII
Plate XXXVI
Armes des Mexicaines
Lamina V
2ème Expedition - Planche XI
2ème Expedition - Planche XXXV
1er Expedition - Planche VIII
1er Expedition - Planche XX
Trat: 1 - Lamina 11
Buste d'une pretress azteque [II]
Gateway at Labnah
1er Expedition - Planche XVIII
Tercer Viage - Lamina 2
Bahia de Acapulco
Aztec Calendar Wheel
2ème Expedition - Planche XXXXIII
Carte geografique de L'Amerique
Pt. XIII, Fig. 2 - Relief du pilier exterieur ouest
Southern extremity of Puebla de los Angelos from thE S.E.
Back Cover
Book Display I
3ème Expedition - Planche III
Coffre de Perote
Ynga-Chungana, pres du Canar
Segundo Viage - Lamina 25
2ème Expedition - Planche LIX
Village des Indiens de la Floride
Apendice - Lamina 5
Arc lumineux de Chelaski dans le detroit d'Johnston
Tercer Viage - Lamina 29
Pt. XLII - Bas-relief
Plate V
Pt. XXXI et XXXII - Relief en pierre de l'edifice dit Temple du Soleil, tous deux mutiles [I]

Maps

Map Name
Six Months Residence and Travels in Mexico - A Plan of the City of Mexico by Lt. Col. Don Diego Garcia - AD 1793 (1824)
Voyage Pittoresque et Archeologique dans la Province d'Yucatan - Carte de la Province de Yucatan (1838)
Six Months Residence and Travels in Mexico - Ancient Mexico from the original map made by order of Montezuma for Cortes (1824)
Historical Researches on the Conquest of Peru, Mexico - The World on Mercator's Projection (1827)
Historical Researches on the Conquest of Peru, Mexico - Anahuac in the Year 1521 Containing the Empire of Mexico (1827)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 1 - Carte geografique de L'Amerique (1820)
Monuments anciens du Mexique - Carte de Yucatan, dressee par M. de Waldeck (1866)
Views of Ancient Monuments in Central America - Outline Map of Central America (1844)

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