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Mediterranean

Mediterranean Collection

History Archive - Mediterranean Collection

The Mediterranean Sea was the central superhighway of transport, trade and cultural exchange between diverse peoples encompassing three continents: Western Asia, North Africa, and Southern Europe. The history of the cultures and people of the Mediterranean Basin is important for understanding the origin and development of the Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Canaanite, Phoenician, Hebrew, Carthaginian, Greek, Persian, Thracian, Etruscan, Iberian, Roman, Byzantine, Bulgarian, Arab, Ottoman, Christian and Islamic cultures.

Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilizations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states and the Phoenicians. The Greeks expanded throughout the Black Sea and south through the Red Sea. The Phoenicians spread through the western Mediterranean reaching North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. From the 6th century BC up to including the 5th century BC, many of the significant Mediterranean peoples were under Persian rule, making them dominate the Mediterranean during these years. Both the Phoenicians and some of the Greek city states in Asia Minor provided the naval forces of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Persian dominance ended after the Greco-Persian War in the 5th century BC and Persia was crippled by Macedonia in the 4th century BC.

Spread throughout the Mediterranean region are the ruins and remains of these vast empires as well as the modern day cultures who inhabit them. Many pictorial works were about various structures and scenery seen by travelers along the way that were the remnants of these great civilizations. While covering disparate areas around the Mediterranean Sea the architecture and other cultural aspects are very similar.

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Persian Empire

From the 6th century BC up to including the first half of the 4th century BC, many of the significant Mediterranean peoples came under Achaemenid Persian rule, making them dominate the Mediterranean during all these years. The empire, founded by Cyrus the Great, would include Macedonia, Thrace, modern day Bulgaria, Egypt, Anatolia, the Phoenician lands, the Levant, and many other basin regions of the Mediterranean later on. Darius the Great (Darius I) is to be credited as the first Achaemenid king to invest in a Persian fleet.

Even by then no true "imperial navy" had existed either in Greece or Egypt. Persia would become the first empire, under Darius, to inaugurate and deploy the first regular imperial navy. Both the Phoenicians and the Greeks provided the bulk of the naval forces of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, alongside the Cypriots and Egyptians. Full Persian dominance in the Mediterranean ended after the Greco-Persian War in the 5th century BC, and Persia eventually lost all her influence in the Mediterranean in the late 4th century BC following Alexander's conquests.

Hellenistic Period

In the northernmost part of ancient Greece, in the ancient kingdom of Macedonia, technological and organizational skills were forged with a long history of cavalry warfare. Under Alexander the Great, this force turned east, and in a series of decisive battles, it routed the Persian forces and took over as the dominant empire of the Mediterranean. Their Macedonia empire included present-day Greece, Bulgaria, Egypt, the Phoenician lands and many other basin regions of the Mediterranean and Asia Minor. The major centers of the Mediterranean at the time became part of Alexander's empire as a result. His empire quickly disintegrated, and the Middle East, Egypt, and Greece were soon again independent. Alexander's conquests spread Greek knowledge and ideas throughout the region.

Rome and Carthage

These eastern powers soon began to be overshadowed by those farther west. In North Africa, the former Phoenician colony of Carthage rose to dominate its surroundings with an empire that contained many of the former Phoenician holdings. However, it was a city on the Italian Peninsula, Rome, that would eventually dominate the entire Mediterranean basin. Spreading first through Italy, Rome defeated Carthage in the Punic Wars, despite Hannibal's famous efforts against Rome in the Second Punic War.

After the Third Punic War, Rome then became the leading force in the Mediterranean region. The Romans soon spread east, taking Greece, and the Greek heritage played an important role in the Roman Empire. By this point the coastal trading cultures were thoroughly dominant over the inland river valleys that had once been the heart of the great powers. Egyptian power moved from the Nile cities to the coastal ones, especially Alexandria. Mesopotamia became a fringe border region between the Roman Empire and the Persians.

When Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Mediterranean sea began to be called Mare Nostrum (Latin: "Our Sea") by the Romans. Their empire was centered on this sea and all the area was full of commerce and naval development. For the first time in history, an entire sea (the Mediterranean) was free of piracy. For several centuries, the Mediterranean was a "Roman Lake", surrounded on all sides by the empire. The empire began to crumble, however, in the fifth century and Rome collapsed after AD 476.

References:

Couper, Alastair (2015). The Geography of Sea Transport. Routledge. p. 33-37. ISBN 978-1-317-35150-4. Archived from the original on 2018-09-13. Retrieved 2018-09-20.

Kaveh Farrokh (2007). Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. Osprey Publishing. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-84603-108-3.

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Book Title Date
Roman Empire - A Selection of Views in Egypt, Palestine, Rhodes, Italy, Minorca, and Gibraltar A Selection of Views in Egypt, Palestine, Rhodes, Italy, Minorca, and Gibraltar 1822
Roman Empire - Grecian Remains in Italy Grecian Remains in Italy 1812
Roman Empire - Picturesque Tour from Geneva to Milan Picturesque Tour from Geneva to Milan 1820
Roman Empire - Views in Greece Views in Greece 1821
Roman Empire - A Select Collection of Views and Ruins in Rome A Select Collection of Views and Ruins in Rome 1815
Roman Empire - Italian Scenery Italian Scenery 1806
Roman Empire - Temple Ante-Diluvien dit des Geants Temple Ante-Diluvien dit des Geants 1830
Roman Empire - Campi Phlegraei Vol. 1 Campi Phlegraei Vol. 1 1776
Roman Empire - Campi Phlegraei Vol. 2 Campi Phlegraei Vol. 2 1776
Roman Empire - Campi Phlegraei Vol. 3 Campi Phlegraei Vol. 3 1779
Roman Empire - Le Jupiter Olympien Le Jupiter Olympien 1815
Roman Empire - The Ruins of Paestum, otherwise Posidonia The Ruins of Paestum, otherwise Posidonia 1768
Roman Empire - A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece Vol. 1 A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece Vol. 1 1819
Roman Empire - A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece Vol. 2 A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece Vol. 2 1819
Roman Empire - Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains 1834
Roman Empire - Vues et Descriptions de Constructions Cyclopeennes ou Pelasgiques Vues et Descriptions de Constructions Cyclopeennes ou Pelasgiques 1834
Roman Empire - The Naples Riviera The Naples Riviera 1908
Roman Empire - The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Restored The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Restored 1862
Roman Empire - A Restoration of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus A Restoration of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus 1909
Roman Empire - Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic 1849
Roman Empire - A Tour Through Sicily A Tour Through Sicily 1819
Roman Empire - Memoir Descriptive of the Resources, Inhabitants, and Hydrography, of Sicily Memoir Descriptive of the Resources, Inhabitants, and Hydrography, of Sicily 1824
Roman Empire - Views of Pompeii Views of Pompeii 1828
Roman Empire - An Artist in Corfu An Artist in Corfu 1911
Roman Empire - An Artist in the Riviera An Artist in the Riviera 1915
Roman Empire - Ravenna, a Study Ravenna, a Study 1913
Roman Empire - Sketches on the Old Road Through France to Florence Sketches on the Old Road Through France to Florence 1904
Roman Empire - Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 1 Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 1 1806
Roman Empire - Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 2 Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 2 1806
Roman Empire - Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 3 Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 3 1806
Roman Empire - A Wanderer in Venice A Wanderer in Venice 1914
Roman Empire - Lamia's Winter-Quarters Lamia's Winter-Quarters 1907
Roman Empire - Troy and its Remains Troy and its Remains 1875
Roman Empire - Mycenae : A Narrative of Researches and Discoveries Mycenae : A Narrative of Researches and Discoveries 1878
Roman Empire - The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described 1912
Roman Empire - Ilios : The City and Country of the Trojans Ilios : The City and Country of the Trojans 1880
Roman Empire - Troja : Results of the Latest Researches and Discoveries Troja : Results of the Latest Researches and Discoveries 1884
Roman Empire - Tiryns. The Prehistoric Palace of the Kings Tiryns. The Prehistoric Palace of the Kings 1885
Roman Empire - Rome, Painted and Described Rome, Painted and Described 1905
Roman Empire - Saracenic and Norman Remains Saracenic and Norman Remains 1840
Roman Empire - Naples, Painted and Described Naples, Painted and Described 1904
Roman Empire - Pompeii, Painted and Described Pompeii, Painted and Described 1910
Roman Empire - Il Canal Grande di Venezia Il Canal Grande di Venezia 1831
Roman Empire - La Piazza di San Marco in Venezia La Piazza di San Marco in Venezia 1831
Roman Empire - A Ramble in Malta and Sicily A Ramble in Malta and Sicily 1842
Roman Empire - Sicily, Painted and Described Sicily, Painted and Described 1911
Roman Empire - Liber Insularum Arcipelagi Liber Insularum Arcipelagi 1470
Roman Empire - L'antica Roma, Ovvero, Descrizione Storica e Pittorica L'antica Roma, Ovvero, Descrizione Storica e Pittorica 1825
Roman Empire - Monaco and Monte Carlo Monaco and Monte Carlo 1912
Roman Empire - A Picturesque Tour of Italy Vol. 1 A Picturesque Tour of Italy Vol. 1 1820
Roman Empire - A Picturesque Tour of Italy Vol. 2 A Picturesque Tour of Italy Vol. 2 1820
Roman Empire - Malta, Painted and Described Malta, Painted and Described 1910
Roman Empire - Itinerare auf der Insel Lesbos Itinerare auf der Insel Lesbos 1895
Roman Empire - Greece Painted and Described Greece Painted and Described 1906
Roman Empire - Florence & Some Tuscan Cities Painted and Described Florence & Some Tuscan Cities Painted and Described 1905
Roman Empire - Venice Venice 1907
Roman Empire - The Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire 1910
Roman Empire - Naples and the Campagna Felice Naples and the Campagna Felice 1815
Roman Empire - Buried Herculaneum Buried Herculaneum 1908
Roman Empire - Views of the Remains of Ancient Buildings in Rome Views of the Remains of Ancient Buildings in Rome 1844
Roman Empire - Rambles in the Islands of Corsica and Sardinia Rambles in the Islands of Corsica and Sardinia 1861
Roman Empire - Search for Winter Sunbeams in the Riviera, Corsica, Algiers, and Spain Search for Winter Sunbeams in the Riviera, Corsica, Algiers, and Spain 1870
Roman Empire - The Riviera Painted & Described The Riviera Painted & Described 1907
Roman Empire - Rambles on the Riviera Rambles on the Riviera 1906
Roman Empire - Die Riviera: Wanderziele und Winterasyle Die Riviera: Wanderziele und Winterasyle 1884
Roman Empire - Venetia and Northern Italy Venetia and Northern Italy 1908
Roman Empire - Rome and It's Story Rome and It's Story 1904
Roman Empire - Italian Villas and Their Gardens Italian Villas and Their Gardens 1905
Roman Empire - Along the Rivieras of France & Italy Along the Rivieras of France & Italy 1908
Roman Empire - Lectures on Roman Husbandry Lectures on Roman Husbandry 1857
Roman Empire - L'antique Rome, ou, Description Historique et Pittoresque L'antique Rome, ou, Description Historique et Pittoresque 1796
Roman Empire - A Pilgrimage to Italy A Pilgrimage to Italy 1899
Roman Empire - Pompei Pompei 1840
Roman Empire - Cyprus: It's Resources and Capabilities Cyprus: It's Resources and Capabilities 1878
Roman Empire - British Cyprus British Cyprus 1897
Roman Empire - Cyprus: It's History, It's Present Resources and Future Prospects Cyprus: It's History, It's Present Resources and Future Prospects 1878
Roman Empire - The Salonika Front The Salonika Front 1920
Roman Empire - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
Roman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 1820
Roman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 1820
Roman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 1820
Roman Empire - The Palace of Minos Vol. 1 The Palace of Minos Vol. 1 1921
Roman Empire - The Palace of Minos Vol. 2, Pt. 1 The Palace of Minos Vol. 2, Pt. 1 1928
Roman Empire - The Palace of Minos Vol. 2, Pt. 2 The Palace of Minos Vol. 2, Pt. 2 1928
Roman Empire - The Palace of Minos Vol. 3 The Palace of Minos Vol. 3 1930
Roman Empire - The Palace of Minos Vol. 4, Pt. 1 The Palace of Minos Vol. 4, Pt. 1 1935
Roman Empire - The Palace of Minos Vol. 4, Pt. 2 The Palace of Minos Vol. 4, Pt. 2 1935
Roman Empire - A Voyage up the Mediterranean in His Majesty's Ship the Swiftsure A Voyage up the Mediterranean in His Majesty's Ship the Swiftsure 1802
Roman Empire - Six Views of Gibraltar and its Neighbourhood Six Views of Gibraltar and its Neighbourhood 1825
Roman Empire - Select Views of the Rock and Fortress of Gibraltar Select Views of the Rock and Fortress of Gibraltar 1846
Roman Empire - A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 1 A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 1 1815
Roman Empire - A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 2 A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 2 1815
Roman Empire - Six Views of Gibraltar Six Views of Gibraltar 1828
Roman Empire - The War in Italy The War in Italy 1859
Roman Empire - Travels through Sicily, and the Lipari Islands Travels through Sicily, and the Lipari Islands 1827
Roman Empire - Travels and Researches in Crete Travels and Researches in Crete 1865
Roman Empire - Der Golf von Neapel Der Golf von Neapel 1877
Roman Empire - Sketches of Vesuvius Sketches of Vesuvius 1832
Roman Empire - Journal of the Late Campaign in Egypt Journal of the Late Campaign in Egypt 1803
Roman Empire - Unprotected Females in Sicily, Calabria, and on the Top of Mount Aetna Unprotected Females in Sicily, Calabria, and on the Top of Mount Aetna 1859
Roman Empire - Gleanings from Piccadilly to Pera Gleanings from Piccadilly to Pera 1854
Roman Empire - Panoramic View of Corfu Panoramic View of Corfu 1836
Roman Empire - Sketches of Corsica Sketches of Corsica 1825
Roman Empire - The Sea-Kings of Crete The Sea-Kings of Crete 1910
Roman Empire - Liber Insularum Cycladum Liber Insularum Cycladum 1422
Roman Empire - The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots 1801
Roman Empire - Life in Asiatic Turkey Life in Asiatic Turkey 1879
Roman Empire - Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum 1721
Roman Empire - A Wanderer in Florence A Wanderer in Florence 1912

Images

Image Name
Villa d'Este, Tivoli
Crowded Shipping in the Basin at Viareggio
Library of the House of Domitian on the Palatine
The Temple of Concord
La Roquette, in the Var Valley
A Capriote Fisherman's Wife
Entrance of the Valley of Dovedo
Fontvieille, The Industrial Quarter
View of a Bridge over the Cherasca
Primo Frontispizio
View of the Gallery of Issel
House of the Vettii
Latin Gate
One of the Gates of Gortys
Exterior View of the Great Gate of Messene
Tomb of Nero
Orateur romain
A Garden at Cadenabbia, Lago di Como
Little Gleaner in the Campagna
View 13
The Bosphorus and Castle of Europe, Constantinople
Seconde vue des Souterrains, appelés Catacombes près les Bains de Cleopatre
Villa Pliniana, Lago di Como
Pl. XXI. Trône de Déméter et de Despoina a Acacesium, restitué, etc.
Mariage des romains
Cittadino postulante un impiego
Evening at the Piazzale Michelangelo, Looking West
View of the site of the Monastery of the Simplon and of Mount Rosa
The Kastalian Spring
A Study of the Old Houses in Borgo S. Jacopo, from Fiore the Arno, looking West
Head of a Youth
A Capital in the Church of San Vitale, Ravenna
The Great Temple of the Mysteries, Eleusis
Porta San Paolo
Front Cover
Candidat romain
A View Near Gondo
Columns of the Temple of Olympian Zeus from the North-West
Feast of Corpus Christi
Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
Coast Near Trapani and Island of Aigousa, Scene of the Roman Naval Victory, 242 B.C.
View 10
North-east View of the Cathedral, Cefalu
Cahors, Pont Valentre (1265-1383), from the East
Cavaliere Astato
Subterraneous Gate at Alatrium
Back Cover
Arch of Constantine
Cavaliere Arciere
Title Page
Monte Carlo and Monaco from the Mentone Road
View of Forio, Island of Ischia
View from the Herculaneum Gate
Console all'armata
Back Cover
View in the Environs of Taormina
The Pynx at Athens
David. Michelangelo, in the Accademia
The "Mercato Nuovo," in 1884
Regina dei Sacrificj
Tribuno Militare
Frombadore
The Madonna del Granduca. Raphael, in the Pitti
Woman of Scio
On the Shore, Alassio
Amphitheatre
The Theatre and Street of Tombs, Syracuse
The Coliseum [I]
S. Salvatore
The "Cavetto di S. Michele," near Rapallo
Title Page
House Interior at Gorgop
Map of Greece and the Archipelago
The Birth of Venus. Botticelli, in the Uffizi
The Temple of Athena on the Island of Aegina
Ground Plan of the Castle of Mout
Remains of the Temple of Jupiter Stator
Santa Caterina, Lago Maggiore
Romolo-Numa-Augusto
The Villa Crawford, Sorrento
Bronze Statue of Marcus Aurelius on the Capitol
Grand pontife
In the Borrigo Valley, Mentone
Section of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
Hermitage at Albano
Lake of Albano (1st View)
Back Cover
Silk Brocade
Censeur romain
Treasury of Mynias at Orchomenos in Boetia
Rock Pines in the Grounds of the Villa Floridiana, on the Vomero, Naples
Eastern Roman Sovereigns from A.D. 395
The Emperor Claudius (marble)
Valley of the Liscia, Sardinia
Village of Portaria
Pl. XVII. Autorités a l'appui de la restitution du trône du Jupiter

Maps

Map Name
A Tour Through Sicily - Sicily Reduced from a Map Published by Authority at Naples in the Year 1810 (1819)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Map of the Country, Islands, &c in the Vicinity of Naples (1815)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - Map of Asia Minor Shewing the District Visited by Revd E. J. Davis (1879)
Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic - Outlines of the Coast of the Adriatic from Istria to Albania (1849)
A Pilgrimage to Italy - Italy (1899)
Cyprus: It's Resources and Capabilities - Cypres by E. G. Ravenstein (1878)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Map of the Island of Capri in the Gulf of Naples (1815)
Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic - Plan of Spalato (1849)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 - Map of the Countries on the East Coast of the Mediterranean Sea (1820)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - A Sketch Map to Illustrate Revd E. J. Davis' Journey's in Cilicia &c. (1879)
Rambles in the Islands of Corsica and Sardinia - Corsica and Sardinia (1861)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 - Map of Greece and the Archipelago (1820)

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