History Archive Icon

History Archive

Mediterranean

Mediterranean Collection

History Archive - Mediterranean Collection

The Mediterranean Sea was the central superhighway of transport, trade and cultural exchange between diverse peoples encompassing three continents: Western Asia, North Africa, and Southern Europe. The history of the cultures and people of the Mediterranean Basin is important for understanding the origin and development of the Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Canaanite, Phoenician, Hebrew, Carthaginian, Greek, Persian, Thracian, Etruscan, Iberian, Roman, Byzantine, Bulgarian, Arab, Ottoman, Christian and Islamic cultures.

Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilizations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states and the Phoenicians. The Greeks expanded throughout the Black Sea and south through the Red Sea. The Phoenicians spread through the western Mediterranean reaching North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. From the 6th century BC up to including the 5th century BC, many of the significant Mediterranean peoples were under Persian rule, making them dominate the Mediterranean during these years. Both the Phoenicians and some of the Greek city states in Asia Minor provided the naval forces of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Persian dominance ended after the Greco-Persian War in the 5th century BC and Persia was crippled by Macedonia in the 4th century BC.

Spread throughout the Mediterranean region are the ruins and remains of these vast empires as well as the modern day cultures who inhabit them. Many pictorial works were about various structures and scenery seen by travelers along the way that were the remnants of these great civilizations. While covering disparate areas around the Mediterranean Sea the architecture and other cultural aspects are very similar.

+ Read More

Persian Empire

From the 6th century BC up to including the first half of the 4th century BC, many of the significant Mediterranean peoples came under Achaemenid Persian rule, making them dominate the Mediterranean during all these years. The empire, founded by Cyrus the Great, would include Macedonia, Thrace, modern day Bulgaria, Egypt, Anatolia, the Phoenician lands, the Levant, and many other basin regions of the Mediterranean later on. Darius the Great (Darius I) is to be credited as the first Achaemenid king to invest in a Persian fleet.

Even by then no true "imperial navy" had existed either in Greece or Egypt. Persia would become the first empire, under Darius, to inaugurate and deploy the first regular imperial navy. Both the Phoenicians and the Greeks provided the bulk of the naval forces of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, alongside the Cypriots and Egyptians. Full Persian dominance in the Mediterranean ended after the Greco-Persian War in the 5th century BC, and Persia eventually lost all her influence in the Mediterranean in the late 4th century BC following Alexander's conquests.

Hellenistic Period

In the northernmost part of ancient Greece, in the ancient kingdom of Macedonia, technological and organizational skills were forged with a long history of cavalry warfare. Under Alexander the Great, this force turned east, and in a series of decisive battles, it routed the Persian forces and took over as the dominant empire of the Mediterranean. Their Macedonia empire included present-day Greece, Bulgaria, Egypt, the Phoenician lands and many other basin regions of the Mediterranean and Asia Minor. The major centers of the Mediterranean at the time became part of Alexander's empire as a result. His empire quickly disintegrated, and the Middle East, Egypt, and Greece were soon again independent. Alexander's conquests spread Greek knowledge and ideas throughout the region.

Rome and Carthage

These eastern powers soon began to be overshadowed by those farther west. In North Africa, the former Phoenician colony of Carthage rose to dominate its surroundings with an empire that contained many of the former Phoenician holdings. However, it was a city on the Italian Peninsula, Rome, that would eventually dominate the entire Mediterranean basin. Spreading first through Italy, Rome defeated Carthage in the Punic Wars, despite Hannibal's famous efforts against Rome in the Second Punic War.

After the Third Punic War, Rome then became the leading force in the Mediterranean region. The Romans soon spread east, taking Greece, and the Greek heritage played an important role in the Roman Empire. By this point the coastal trading cultures were thoroughly dominant over the inland river valleys that had once been the heart of the great powers. Egyptian power moved from the Nile cities to the coastal ones, especially Alexandria. Mesopotamia became a fringe border region between the Roman Empire and the Persians.

When Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Mediterranean sea began to be called Mare Nostrum (Latin: "Our Sea") by the Romans. Their empire was centered on this sea and all the area was full of commerce and naval development. For the first time in history, an entire sea (the Mediterranean) was free of piracy. For several centuries, the Mediterranean was a "Roman Lake", surrounded on all sides by the empire. The empire began to crumble, however, in the fifth century and Rome collapsed after AD 476.

References:

Couper, Alastair (2015). The Geography of Sea Transport. Routledge. p. 33-37. ISBN 978-1-317-35150-4. Archived from the original on 2018-09-13. Retrieved 2018-09-20.

Kaveh Farrokh (2007). Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. Osprey Publishing. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-84603-108-3.

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Book Title Date
Roman Empire - A Selection of Views in Egypt, Palestine, Rhodes, Italy, Minorca, and Gibraltar A Selection of Views in Egypt, Palestine, Rhodes, Italy, Minorca, and Gibraltar 1822
Roman Empire - Grecian Remains in Italy Grecian Remains in Italy 1812
Roman Empire - Picturesque Tour from Geneva to Milan Picturesque Tour from Geneva to Milan 1820
Roman Empire - Views in Greece Views in Greece 1821
Roman Empire - A Select Collection of Views and Ruins in Rome A Select Collection of Views and Ruins in Rome 1815
Roman Empire - Italian Scenery Italian Scenery 1806
Roman Empire - Temple Ante-Diluvien dit des Geants Temple Ante-Diluvien dit des Geants 1830
Roman Empire - Campi Phlegraei Vol. 1 Campi Phlegraei Vol. 1 1776
Roman Empire - Campi Phlegraei Vol. 2 Campi Phlegraei Vol. 2 1776
Roman Empire - Campi Phlegraei Vol. 3 Campi Phlegraei Vol. 3 1779
Roman Empire - Le Jupiter Olympien Le Jupiter Olympien 1815
Roman Empire - The Ruins of Paestum, otherwise Posidonia The Ruins of Paestum, otherwise Posidonia 1768
Roman Empire - A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece Vol. 1 A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece Vol. 1 1819
Roman Empire - A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece Vol. 2 A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece Vol. 2 1819
Roman Empire - Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains 1834
Roman Empire - Vues et Descriptions de Constructions Cyclopeennes ou Pelasgiques Vues et Descriptions de Constructions Cyclopeennes ou Pelasgiques 1834
Roman Empire - The Naples Riviera The Naples Riviera 1908
Roman Empire - The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Restored The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Restored 1862
Roman Empire - A Restoration of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus A Restoration of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus 1909
Roman Empire - Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic 1849
Roman Empire - A Tour Through Sicily A Tour Through Sicily 1819
Roman Empire - Memoir Descriptive of the Resources, Inhabitants, and Hydrography, of Sicily Memoir Descriptive of the Resources, Inhabitants, and Hydrography, of Sicily 1824
Roman Empire - Views of Pompeii Views of Pompeii 1828
Roman Empire - An Artist in Corfu An Artist in Corfu 1911
Roman Empire - An Artist in the Riviera An Artist in the Riviera 1915
Roman Empire - Ravenna, a Study Ravenna, a Study 1913
Roman Empire - Sketches on the Old Road Through France to Florence Sketches on the Old Road Through France to Florence 1904
Roman Empire - Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 1 Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 1 1806
Roman Empire - Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 2 Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 2 1806
Roman Empire - Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 3 Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 3 1806
Roman Empire - A Wanderer in Venice A Wanderer in Venice 1914
Roman Empire - Lamia's Winter-Quarters Lamia's Winter-Quarters 1907
Roman Empire - Troy and its Remains Troy and its Remains 1875
Roman Empire - Mycenae : A Narrative of Researches and Discoveries Mycenae : A Narrative of Researches and Discoveries 1878
Roman Empire - The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described 1912
Roman Empire - Ilios : The City and Country of the Trojans Ilios : The City and Country of the Trojans 1880
Roman Empire - Troja : Results of the Latest Researches and Discoveries Troja : Results of the Latest Researches and Discoveries 1884
Roman Empire - Tiryns. The Prehistoric Palace of the Kings Tiryns. The Prehistoric Palace of the Kings 1885
Roman Empire - Rome, Painted and Described Rome, Painted and Described 1905
Roman Empire - Saracenic and Norman Remains Saracenic and Norman Remains 1840
Roman Empire - Naples, Painted and Described Naples, Painted and Described 1904
Roman Empire - Pompeii, Painted and Described Pompeii, Painted and Described 1910
Roman Empire - Il Canal Grande di Venezia Il Canal Grande di Venezia 1831
Roman Empire - La Piazza di San Marco in Venezia La Piazza di San Marco in Venezia 1831
Roman Empire - A Ramble in Malta and Sicily A Ramble in Malta and Sicily 1842
Roman Empire - Sicily, Painted and Described Sicily, Painted and Described 1911
Roman Empire - Liber Insularum Arcipelagi Liber Insularum Arcipelagi 1470
Roman Empire - L'antica Roma, Ovvero, Descrizione Storica e Pittorica L'antica Roma, Ovvero, Descrizione Storica e Pittorica 1825
Roman Empire - Monaco and Monte Carlo Monaco and Monte Carlo 1912
Roman Empire - A Picturesque Tour of Italy Vol. 1 A Picturesque Tour of Italy Vol. 1 1820
Roman Empire - A Picturesque Tour of Italy Vol. 2 A Picturesque Tour of Italy Vol. 2 1820
Roman Empire - Malta, Painted and Described Malta, Painted and Described 1910
Roman Empire - Itinerare auf der Insel Lesbos Itinerare auf der Insel Lesbos 1895
Roman Empire - Greece Painted and Described Greece Painted and Described 1906
Roman Empire - Florence & Some Tuscan Cities Painted and Described Florence & Some Tuscan Cities Painted and Described 1905
Roman Empire - Venice Venice 1907
Roman Empire - The Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire 1910
Roman Empire - Naples and the Campagna Felice Naples and the Campagna Felice 1815
Roman Empire - Buried Herculaneum Buried Herculaneum 1908
Roman Empire - Views of the Remains of Ancient Buildings in Rome Views of the Remains of Ancient Buildings in Rome 1844
Roman Empire - Rambles in the Islands of Corsica and Sardinia Rambles in the Islands of Corsica and Sardinia 1861
Roman Empire - Search for Winter Sunbeams in the Riviera, Corsica, Algiers, and Spain Search for Winter Sunbeams in the Riviera, Corsica, Algiers, and Spain 1870
Roman Empire - The Riviera Painted & Described The Riviera Painted & Described 1907
Roman Empire - Rambles on the Riviera Rambles on the Riviera 1906
Roman Empire - Die Riviera: Wanderziele und Winterasyle Die Riviera: Wanderziele und Winterasyle 1884
Roman Empire - Venetia and Northern Italy Venetia and Northern Italy 1908
Roman Empire - Rome and It's Story Rome and It's Story 1904
Roman Empire - Italian Villas and Their Gardens Italian Villas and Their Gardens 1905
Roman Empire - Along the Rivieras of France & Italy Along the Rivieras of France & Italy 1908
Roman Empire - Lectures on Roman Husbandry Lectures on Roman Husbandry 1857
Roman Empire - L'antique Rome, ou, Description Historique et Pittoresque L'antique Rome, ou, Description Historique et Pittoresque 1796
Roman Empire - A Pilgrimage to Italy A Pilgrimage to Italy 1899
Roman Empire - Pompei Pompei 1840
Roman Empire - Cyprus: It's Resources and Capabilities Cyprus: It's Resources and Capabilities 1878
Roman Empire - British Cyprus British Cyprus 1897
Roman Empire - Cyprus: It's History, It's Present Resources and Future Prospects Cyprus: It's History, It's Present Resources and Future Prospects 1878
Roman Empire - The Salonika Front The Salonika Front 1920
Roman Empire - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
Roman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 1820
Roman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 1820
Roman Empire - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 1820
Roman Empire - The Palace of Minos Vol. 1 The Palace of Minos Vol. 1 1921
Roman Empire - The Palace of Minos Vol. 2, Pt. 1 The Palace of Minos Vol. 2, Pt. 1 1928
Roman Empire - The Palace of Minos Vol. 2, Pt. 2 The Palace of Minos Vol. 2, Pt. 2 1928
Roman Empire - The Palace of Minos Vol. 3 The Palace of Minos Vol. 3 1930
Roman Empire - The Palace of Minos Vol. 4, Pt. 1 The Palace of Minos Vol. 4, Pt. 1 1935
Roman Empire - The Palace of Minos Vol. 4, Pt. 2 The Palace of Minos Vol. 4, Pt. 2 1935
Roman Empire - A Voyage up the Mediterranean in His Majesty's Ship the Swiftsure A Voyage up the Mediterranean in His Majesty's Ship the Swiftsure 1802
Roman Empire - Six Views of Gibraltar and its Neighbourhood Six Views of Gibraltar and its Neighbourhood 1825
Roman Empire - Select Views of the Rock and Fortress of Gibraltar Select Views of the Rock and Fortress of Gibraltar 1846
Roman Empire - A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 1 A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 1 1815
Roman Empire - A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 2 A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 2 1815
Roman Empire - Six Views of Gibraltar Six Views of Gibraltar 1828
Roman Empire - The War in Italy The War in Italy 1859
Roman Empire - Travels through Sicily, and the Lipari Islands Travels through Sicily, and the Lipari Islands 1827
Roman Empire - Travels and Researches in Crete Travels and Researches in Crete 1865
Roman Empire - Der Golf von Neapel Der Golf von Neapel 1877
Roman Empire - Sketches of Vesuvius Sketches of Vesuvius 1832
Roman Empire - Journal of the Late Campaign in Egypt Journal of the Late Campaign in Egypt 1803
Roman Empire - Unprotected Females in Sicily, Calabria, and on the Top of Mount Aetna Unprotected Females in Sicily, Calabria, and on the Top of Mount Aetna 1859
Roman Empire - Gleanings from Piccadilly to Pera Gleanings from Piccadilly to Pera 1854
Roman Empire - Panoramic View of Corfu Panoramic View of Corfu 1836
Roman Empire - Sketches of Corsica Sketches of Corsica 1825
Roman Empire - The Sea-Kings of Crete The Sea-Kings of Crete 1910
Roman Empire - Liber Insularum Cycladum Liber Insularum Cycladum 1422
Roman Empire - The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots 1801
Roman Empire - Life in Asiatic Turkey Life in Asiatic Turkey 1879
Roman Empire - Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum 1721
Roman Empire - A Wanderer in Florence A Wanderer in Florence 1912

Images

Image Name
Temple of Mars Ultor
Title Page
Vallombrosa, Abbey
Citoyen romain
Part of the Old Town, San Remo
The City of Florence from the Piazzale Michelangelo, San Miniato
Suez No. 2
View of the Rock of Gibraltar from Sandy Bay
The Old Castle, Levanto
Entrance to Athens
On the Old Road from France to Florence
Travelling in Sicily
Eastern Roman Sovereigns from A.D. 395
The Acropolis from the Site of the Temple of Olympian Zeus
Sunset over Monte Oliveto
Genoa, from the Corso Magenta
Catania & Etna from Biscari Garden
The Old Town, Cannes
House of Caius Sallust
Street Scene, the Marina, Naples
At S. Michele, Rapallo
A Fruit-Seller, Naples
A Subterraneous Gate at Signia
Clock Tower of Sorrento
Inscription on a rock about half-way between Tchifteh Khan and the silver mines of Bulghar Maden
On the Shore, Alassio
General View of Cefalu.
On the Shore, Bordighera - Early Morning
Taorminum
Hospital "del Ceppo," Pistoia
Monaco in the Early Part of the Eighteenth Century
A Study of Tuscan Olive Gardens
Dance of the Derwisches (II)
Larissa
The Arch of Dolabella
The Piazza, Pietra Santa, near Viareggio
Consoli
The Victoria Battery
Title Page
Types of the Papal Troops
A Fountain in a Popular Quarter, Valletta
Monte Carlo, from Monaco - Early Morning
Ruins of an Ancient City in Doris
View of the Ear of Dionysius
Temple of Concord at Girgenti
Scylla, on the Coast of Calabria
Madonna and Child. Verrocchio, in the Bargello
Chapel of San Lorenzo Loricato at S. Benedict's, Subiaco
Perpignan, Gateway in the Fortifications
Port Bathy and Capital of Ithaca
Plan VII. The House of the Papyri
Roche detachee de l'isle de Gozo; appelle Pierre du General
Athens. The Monument of Agrippa and the Pinacotheca
Walls at the Villa of Cassius near Tivoli
View of Arona
Front Cover
Spine
Pl. IV. Le coffre de Cypsélus, vu par un des petits côtés
A Venetian Bridge
A Street in Casamicciola, Ischia
Dragomir Village
The Grand Canal from the Steps of S. Maria della Salute
Map of the Island of Capri in the Gulf of Naples
The Procession of the Festa di San Giovanni, Valletta
Another Gate at Signia
Title Page
Santa Croce, near Alassio
The Carrara Mountains from the Sea-coast
Gate of the Lions at Mycenae
Distant view of Etna, from the Sea, opposite Catania
The Temple of Hercules
Front Cover
S. Peter's from the Pincian Gardens
The Old Church, Mentone
The Stabian Baths
Back Cover
The Condamine, Monaco Harbour and the Palace
Monument to Count Ugo. Mino da Fiesole, in the Badia
The Great Western Portal of the Cathedral of Monreale.
Menaggio, Lago di Como
Theatre of Marcellus
Monte Carlo and Monaco from the Mentone Road
Front Cover
Il Punto di di Como Bellagio, Lago di Como
A Tinker
The Capuchin Selva in the Latomia
Exterior view of the Porta San Pietro at Alatri
Title Page
Gladiatori-retiarj
The Temple of Concord
Photographic Copy of the Monaco Death-rate
Villa d'Este, Tivoli
The Castle and Town of Ischia
British-Serbian Hospital and Serbian Camp, Mikra (Oct. 2, 1916)
The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
Scottish Women's Hospital, Mikra (1916)

Maps

Map Name
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Map of the Island of Capri in the Gulf of Naples (1815)
Rambles in the Islands of Corsica and Sardinia - Corsica and Sardinia (1861)
Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic - Plan of Spalato (1849)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 - Map of Greece and the Archipelago (1820)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Map of the Country, Islands, &c in the Vicinity of Naples (1815)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 - Map of the Countries on the East Coast of the Mediterranean Sea (1820)
Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic - Outlines of the Coast of the Adriatic from Istria to Albania (1849)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - A Sketch Map to Illustrate Revd E. J. Davis' Journey's in Cilicia &c. (1879)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - Map of Asia Minor Shewing the District Visited by Revd E. J. Davis (1879)
A Tour Through Sicily - Sicily Reduced from a Map Published by Authority at Naples in the Year 1810 (1819)
Cyprus: It's Resources and Capabilities - Cypres by E. G. Ravenstein (1878)
A Pilgrimage to Italy - Italy (1899)

Regions

View All Regions
History of Humanity - History Archive Logo
History of Humanity - History Mysteries Logo
History of Humanity - Ancient Mesopotamia Logo
History of Humanity - Egypt History Logo
History of Humanity - Persian Empire Logo
History of Humanity - Greek History Logo
History of Humanity - Alexander the Great Logo
History of Humanity - Roman History Logo
History of Humanity - Punic Wars Logo
History of Humanity - Golden Age of Piracy Logo
History of Humanity - Revolutionary War Logo
History of Humanity - Mafia History Logo