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Kashmir Collection

History Archive - Kashmir Collection

Kashmir, or Cashmere, a native state of India, including much of the Himalayan mountain system to the north of the Punjab.

It has been fabled in song for its beauty (e.g. in Moore’s Lalla Rookh), and is the chief health resort for Europeans in India, while politically it is important as guarding one of the approaches to India on the north-west frontier. The proper name of the state is Jammu and Kashmir

Kashmir is bounded on the north by some petty hills chiefships and by the Karakoram mountains; on the east by Tibet; and on the south and west by the Punjab and North-West Frontier provinces. The remainder of the state consists of uninhabited mountains, and its only really important possessions are the districts of Jammu and Kashmir.

Its territories in the early 20th century comprised the provinces of Jammu (including the jagir of Punch), Kashmir, Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit; the Shin states of Yaghistan, of which the most important are Chilas, Darel and Tangir, are nominally subordinate to it, and the two former paid a tribute of gold dust.


Jammu, or Jummoo, the capital of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India, on the river Tavi (Ta-wi), a tributary of the Chenab. Pop. (1901), 36,130. The town and palace stand upon the right bank of the river; the fort overhangs the left bank at an elevation of 150 ft. above the stream. The lofty whitened walls of the palace and citadel present a striking appearance from the surrounding country.

Extensive pleasure grounds and ruins of great size attest the former prosperity of the city when it was the seat of a Rajput dynasty whose dominions extended into the plains and included the modern district of Sialkot. It was afterwards conquered by the Sikhs, and formed part of Ranjit Singh’s dominions. After his death it was acquired by Gulab Singh as the nucleus of his dominions, to which the British added Kashmir in 1846. It is connected with Sialkot in the Punjab by a railway 16 m. long. In 1898 the town was devastated by a fire, which destroyed most of the public offices.

The state of Jammu proper, as opposed to Kashmir, consists of a submontane tract, forming the upper basin of the Chenab. Pop. (1901), 1,521,307, showing an increase of 5% in the decade. A land settlement has recently been introduced under British supervision.


In the time of Asoka, about 245 B.C., one of the Indian Buddhist missions was sent to Kashmir and Gandhara. After his death Brahmanism revived. Then in the time of the three Kushan princes, Huvish?a, Jushka and Kanishka, who ruled over Kashmir about the beginning of the Christian era, Buddhism was to a great extent restored, though for several centuries the two religions existed together in Kashmir, Hinduism predominating. Yet Kashmir, when Buddhism was gradually losing its hold, continued to send Buddhist teachers to other lands. In this Hindu-Buddhist period, and chiefly between the 5th and 10th centuries of the Christian era, were erected the Hindu temples in Kashmir.

In the 6th and 7th centuries Kashmir was visited by some of the Chinese Buddhist pilgrims to India. The country is called Shie-mi in the narrative of To Yeng and Sung Yun (578). One of the Chinese travellers of the next century was for a time an elephant-tamer to the king of Kashmir. Hsüan Tsang spent two years (631-633) in Kashmir (Kia-chí-mí-lo). He entered by Baramula and left by the Pir Panjal pass. He describes the hill-girt valley, and the abundance of flowers and fruits, and he mentions the tradition about the lake. He found in Kashmir many Buddhists as well as Hindus. In the following century the kings of Kashmir appear to have paid homage and tribute to China, though this is not alluded to in the Kashmir chronicle. Hindu kings continued to reign till about 1294, when Udiana Deva was put to death by his Mahommedan vizier, Amir Shah, who ascended the throne under the name of Shams-ud-din.

Of the Mahommedan rulers mentioned in the Sanskrit chronicles, one, who reigned about the close of the 14th century, has made his name prominent by his active opposition to the Hindu religion, and his destruction of temples. This was Sikandar, known as But-shikan, or the "idol-breaker." It was in his time that India was invaded by Timur, to whom Sikandar made submission and paid tribute. The country fell into the hands of the Moguls in 1588. In the time of Alamgir it passed to Ahmad Shah Durani, on his third invasion of India (1756); and from that time it remained in the hands of Afghans till it was wrested from them by Ranjit Singh, the Sikh monarch of the Punjab, in 1819. Eight Hindu and Sikh governors under Ranjit Singh and his successors were followed by two Mahommedans similarly appointed, the second of whom, Shekh Imam-ud-din, was in charge when the battles of the first Sikh war 1846 brought about new relations between the British Government and the Sikhs.

Gulab Singh, a Dogra Rajput, had from a humble position been raised to high office by Ranjit Singh, who conferred on him the small principality of Jammu. On the final defeat of the Sikhs at Sobraon (February 1846), Gulab Singh was called to take a leading part in arranging conditions of peace. The treaty of Lahore (March 9, 1846) sets forth that, the British Government having demanded, in addition to a certain assignment of territory, a payment of a crore and a half of rupees (1, 1/2 millions sterling), and the Sikh government being unable to pay the whole, the maharaja (Dhulip Singh) cedes, as equivalent for one crore, the hill country belonging to the Punjab between the Beas and the Indus, including Kashmir and Hazara. The governor-general, Sir Henry Hardinge, considered it expedient to make over Kashmir to the Jammu chief, securing his friendship while the British government was administering the Punjab on behalf of the young maharaja.

Gulab Singh was well prepared to make up the payment in default of which Kashmir was ceded to the British; and so, in consideration of his services in restoring peace, his independent sovereignty of the country made over to him was recognized, and he was admitted to a separate treaty. Gulab Singh had already, after several extensions of territory east and west of Jammu, conquered Ladakh (a Buddhist country, and till then subject to Lhasa), and had then annexed Skardo, which was under independent Mahommedan rulers. He had thus by degrees half encircled Kashmir, and by this last addition his possessions attained nearly their present form and extent. Gulab Singh died in 1857, and was succeeded by his son, Ranbir Singh, who died in 1885. The next ruler, Maharaja Partab Singh, G.C.S.I. (b. 1850), immediately on his accession inaugurated the settlement reforms already described. His rule was remarkable for the reassertion of the Kashmir sovereignty over Gilgit (q.v.). Kashmir imperial service troops participated in the Black Mountain expedition of 1891, the Hunza Nagar operations of 1891, and the Tirah campaign of 1897–1898. The total revenue of the state is about £666,000.

See Drew, Jammu and Kashmir (1875); M. A. Stein, Kalhana’s Rajatarangini (1900); W. R. Lawrence, The Valley of Kashmir (1895); Colonel A. Durand, The Making of a Frontier (1899); R. Lydekker, “The Geology of the Kashmir and Chamba Territories,” Records of the Geological Survey of India, vol. xxii. (1883); J. Duke, Kashmir Handbook (1903).


Thomas Hungerford Holdich, Kashmir, 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 15. pgs. 686-689.

Jammu, 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 15. pg. 149.

Available Books


Image Name
Index Map of Routes
Temple Decoration, Himalayas
Shalhnar Gardens
Gorge of the Sind Valley at Guggangir
Exterior of a Buddhist Temple at Penyangchi
A Ladaki in Summer Costume
Mouth of the Sind Valley
The Peaks and Glaciers of the Sasser Pass in Nuba Tibet [II]
Sketch of the Panorama from the Takht-i-Sulaiman
Above the Fifth Bridge, Srinagar
The Ruins of Martand
The Chorkonda Glacier in Balti Tibet
Kotwal from the Forest above Kangan, Sind Valley
The Territories of the Maharaja of Jummoo and Kashmir
Fort and Lines of Udelguri in the Province of Darrang Assam
Panorama Profiles [VII]
Mountain Mists
Illustrations of the Meterology of India and High Asia [IV]
Near the Kolahoi Glacier, Lidar Valley
Title Page
Central Assam and the Brahmaputra Jungles from Ogri Hill near Tezpur
Early Morning near Pahlgam, Lidar Valley
The Makka Mosque and Tombs of the Nigams at Hyderabad
The Kunda Range in the Nilgiris Southern India
The Summit of Kanchinjinga in the Himalaya of Sikkim
On the Dal Lake in Spring
A Mountain Farm-House
The Land of Roses
Lake Sinsa Nag, Lidar Valley
Shawl Merchants' Shops, Third Bridge, Srinagar
Sunset on the Jhelum, above Srinagar
Part IV Colored Wrapper
The Salt Lake Kiuk Kiol in the Karakash Valley Turkistan
The Buddhist Monastery Himis near Leh in Ladak
Alluvial Deposits in the Brahmaputra Above Rakusni Hill Assam
Panorama Profiles [IV]
Village of Mangeldai in Assam
Routes in High Asia
Sketch Map Showing the Mountain and River Systems of Sikkim
Going to the Wedding, Upper Indus Valley
Above the Camping-Ground, Sonamarg, Sind Valley
Sketch Map of Kashmir
Panorama Profiles [I] the Himalaya of Bhutan Sikkim and Nepal
The Jhils of Bengal at High Water
The Chain of the Kuenluen from Sumgal in Turkistan
Mosque of Shah Hamadan, Srinagar
Colored Wrapper Front Cover
Monastery of Hemis
Kotwal from near the Dal Darwaza
The Salt Lake Tso Gam in Eastern Ladak Tibet
Birth of Krishsna
Ancient Jain Temple
The Satlej Valley and the Environs of Rampur in the Western Himalaya
Thibetian Monuments and Wall of Inscribed Stones, Road to Egnemo
The Drift Sands in the Interior of the Sindh Sager Duab Panjab
Facsimile of a Bhutia Map
The Valley of the Yarkand River Downwards from Dera Bullu in Turkistan
At the River's Edge, Srinagar
Spring in Kashmir
In the Forest
The Jhilum or Behut in the Panjab
Interior of a Buddhist Temple at Penyangchi
Mount Haramokh, from the Erin Nullah
The Mahanadi River in the Rainy Season Central Bengal
In the Sind Valley
Illustrations of the Meterology of India and High Asia [III]
View in Sirinugger
In the Mar Canal, Srinagar
A Srinagar Bazaar
The Temple, Chenar Bagh
The Ganges near Patna Western Bengal
The Chuhair Minar Gate of Hyderabad
Panorama Profiles [III]
Rajah's Palace, Ladak
Distant View of Xanga Parbat, from the Kamri Pass
The Salt Lake Tso Mitbal in Pangkong Tibet
Guggribal Pointe on the Dal Lake
City and Environs of Srinagar in Kashmir
The Salt Lake Tsomognalari in Pangkong Western Tibet
Panorama of the Lake and the Gardens near Srinagar Kashmir Northern Aspect
he Bias Between Amritsar and Jalander Panjab
Entrance to the Mar Canal
Panorama Profiles [II]
The Frozen Lake, Gangabal
Panorama Profiles [V]
Magnetic Survey of India and High Asia [III]
Ruins of Lalla Rookh's Gardens, Lake Manasbal
The Nishat Bagh
Map of India
The Darbar at Patan
Illustrations of the Meterology of India and High Asia [II]
The Salt Lake Tsomoriri in Rupchu Western Tibet
Lotus Lilies on the Dal Lake


Map Name
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 1 - The Territories of the Maharaja of Jummoo and Kashmir (1887)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 2 - Sketch Map Showing the Mountain and River Systems of Sikkim (1887)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 1 - Map of India (1887)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 2 - Map of Kashmir to Illustrate Routes (1887)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 2 - Sketch Map to Illustrate the Diaries in Nepal and Sikkim (1887)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 1 - City and Environs of Srinagar in Kashmir (1887)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 1 - The Dominions of the Nizam of Haidarabad including Berar (1887)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Sketch Map of Kashmir (1911)


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