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Iceland

Iceland Collection

History Archive - Iceland Collection

Iceland, is an island in the northern Atlantic, on the borders of the Arctic Ocean. It lies 130 miles east of Greenland and 850 west of Norway. For most of its history it belonged to Denmark. Its area is 39,756 square miles. Iceland in many respects is one of the most interesting parts of the world.

Its physical features are very remarkable, and not less so its history and the character of its inhabitants. It consists in great part of lofty mountains, many of which are active volcanoes. Only certain level districts along the coasts and a few valleys are inhabitable or in any degree capable of cultivation. There is scarcely a tree to be seen, and the climate is unsuitable for grain.

The interior is almost entirely occupied with rugged tracts of naked lava and other volcanic scoriae. In many places vast ice-fields connect high mountain summits, and prodigious glaciers descend in some parts even to the coast, where they break off into icebergs. To go from one inhabited spot to another is difficult and dangerous, but civilization has long been established.

The people are poor but intelligent. Oxen, horses and sheep form the chief part of their wealth. The horses are small, but vigorous and active. Iceland ponies are often imported into Great Britain and the United States. Seals abound on the coasts, and these are taken in large numbers. Various kinds of water-fowl and fish abound, and their flesh is the chief food of the villagers.

The mineral wealth of Iceland has just begun to be developed. The population in 1910 reached 85,089. The people are of Scandinavian origin. The legislature, called the althing, consists of two houses. The capital is Rejkjavik. The chief exports are Iceland moss, wool, dried fish, seal-skins, whale-oil, sulphur, eider-down, bird-skins and ponies. There has of late been considerable emigration of Icelanders into Manitoba, Canada.

See Iceland by Forbes and Ultima Thule, by Burton.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work pg. 911 (1914)

Available Books

Images

Image Name
The Logberg and Thingvalla Vatn
The Lang Spiel
Back Cover
Reikiavik
Mount Hekla from Odde
Eyafialla Iokul from Hliderende
The Tungu River and Alternating Geyser
Title Page
Geology Diagrams
Havnefiord
Looking Up Thorsmork
Front Cover
Title Page
Olafsvik
Descent of Arnardals Skarth
Snaefell Jokul
Mount Hekla from the South
Borg
An Icelandic Lady in Her Bridal Dress
Snuff Box
The Horn at Sunrise
Eruption of the Great Geyser
Front Cover
Title Page
Kornsa
Back Cover
Icelandic Costume
Cauldron of Boiling Mud on the Sulphur Mountains
The Fall of Oxara
Cave at Stappen
View of the Geyser When Empty, Immediately After an Eruption
Krisuvik and the Sulphur Mountains
Plan of an Icelandic House
Map of the Geysers and Neighbouring Springs
Summit of Heklaas seen from Naifurholt
Summit of Snaefell Jokul
Skalholt
Budar-Os
Kongsbakki Bjarnarhsn in the Distance
Eyafialla Iokul, Mount Hekla and the River Elvas from the Westward
Boiling Springs in the River Reikiadalsaa
Church of Saurbar
Great Jet of Steam on the Sulphur Mountains
Eyjafell from Barkarstadir
Map of Iceland
Melstad and Reykir
Plan and Section of the Basin of the Great Geyser
Natural Arch on the Coast Near Stappen
New Geyser
Eruption of the Geyser
Map of the Southwest Coast of Iceland
Icelandic House Diagram
Gill at Gilsbakki
Theory of the Geysers
The Logberg and Nicolas Chasm

Maps

Map Name
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Map of Iceland (1811)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Map of the Southwest Coast of Iceland (1811)

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