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HUNGARY (Hungarian Magyarország), a country in the south-eastern portion of central Europe, bounded E. by Austria (Bukovina) and Rumania; S. by Rumania, Servia, Bosnia and Austria (Dalmatia); W. by Austria (Istria, Carniola, Styria and Lower Austria); and N. by Austria (Moravia, Silesia and Galicia). It has an area of 125,402 sq. m., being thus about 4000 sq. m. larger than Great Britain and Ireland.

The kingdom of Hungary (Magyarbiradolom) is one of the two states which constitute the monarchy of Austria-Hungary, and occupies 51.8% of the total area of the monarchy. Hungary, unlike Austria, presents a remarkable geographical unity. It is almost exclusively continental, having only a short extent of seaboard on the Adriatic (a little less than 100 m.). Its land-frontiers are for the most part well defined by natural boundaries: on the N.W., N., E. and S.E. the Carpathian mountains; on the S. the Danube, Save and Unna. On the W. they are not so clearly marked, being formed partly by low ranges of mountains and partly by the rivers March and Leitha. From the last-mentioned river are derived the terms Cisleithania and Transleithania, applied to Austria and Hungary respectively.

Arpad founded Hungary in A.D. 886, and for six and one half centuries each grew independently. Hungary became a Kingdom in 1,000, many of its present institutions originating then. Hungary in 1222, like England in 1216, won a constitution, and till 1490 was the strongest state in central Europe. In 1526 Hungary fell before Turkey but almost ceaseless wars succeeded in liberating Hungary from the Turkish yoke. Numerous German colonists brought German civilization to Hungarian towns. The Hungarian estates, assembling in Pressburg, staunchly resisted every effort to absorb Hungary in the Austrian Empire.

Austria was a powerful force in overthrowing Napoleon and from 1815 to 1865 opposed every attempt of the Magyars at independence. In 1848 Hungary rose under the lead of Kossuth, but was subjected to the imperial armies with the help of Russia. Austria renewed its efforts to germanize Hungary but failed and meanwhile lost Italy and Germany. So independence and self-government were restored to Hungary

General Division.—The kingdom of Hungary in its widest extent, or the “Realm of the Crown of St Stephen,” comprises Hungary proper (Magyarország), with which is included the former grand principality of Transylvania, and the province of Croatia-Slavonia. This province enjoys to a large extent autonomy, granted by the so-called compromise of 1868. The town and district of Fiume, though united with Hungary proper in respect of administration, possess a larger measure of autonomy than the other cities endowed with municipal rights. Of the total area of the kingdom Hungary proper has 108,982 sq. m. and Croatia-Slavonia 16,420 sq. m. In the present article the kingdom is treated mainly as a whole, especially as regards statistics. In some respects Hungary proper has been particularly dealt with, while special information regarding the other regions will be found under Croatia-Slavonia, Transylvania and Fiume.


Oscar Briliant, Robert N. Bain, Walter A. Phillips, Charles N. E. Eliot, Edward D. Butler and Emil Reich, 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 13. 894-931.

Available Books


Image Name
A Magyar Cottage at Banffy-Hunyad
A Shepherd-boy of Felsobanya
A Paprika-Seller, Kalocsa
Clissa : A Study in Grey Rock
Styria : The Grimming, from Purgg
Interior at Banffy-Hunyad
The Confirmation Wreat
Slovak Girl in Sunday Attire
Cottages on the Outskirts of Banffy-Hunyad
Sunday Costume, Zsdjar
Sketch-Map of Hungary
The Wachau, Aggstein
Peasant Woman in her Guba, Kisbanya
Pines in the Tatra
The Belle of Zsdjar
The Danube at Orsova
Prague : The Hradschin from Wallensteinstrasse
A Gipsy Home
The Queen of the Harvesters, Banffy-Hunyad
A Paprika-Seller, Kalocsa
Inn Valley in Winter
Harvest-time in Transylvania
Woman's Work-day Costume in Kalocsa
Streams in East Hungary
Harvest-time in Transylvania
The Schoolmaster's Wife, Zsdjar
Cross embroidered on a Chasuble
Krivan, seen from near Vazsecz
A Pine Forest in the Tatra
The Ortler Spitze
A Road in the Carpathians
The Carpathian Mountains from Luesivna-Furdo)
Waste Lands near Kalocsa
Vienna : Castle Schonbrunn
Title Page
A Backwater of the Danube
The Return from Church, Zsdjar
A Woman of Desze
A Rumanian Church in Transylvania
At Vazsecz
The Houses of Parliament and Margit Bridge, Budapest
King Laurin's Rose-Garden, from the Schlern
Spalato : A Door in Diocletian's Palace
A Convent Moat
View from our Windows in Vazsecz
On the Waste Lands near Kalocsa
A Gipsy's Castle, Transylvania
The Houses of Parliament and Margit Bridge, Budapest
Title Page
The Cathedral and Square, Szatmar
Magyar Shepherds
Group in a Rumanian Religious Procession, Desze
Vienna : Mozart's House
Cracow : Barbarakapelle
Cottages in the Alfold
The River Maros, and the 'Hill of the Maiden'
A Rumanian Maiden
Young Girl of Menguszfalva going to Church
Front Cover
Wild Strawberries
Carinthia : Maria-Worth on the Worthersee
In Church at Vazsecz
Mother and Child at Menguszfalva
Prague : Carl's Bridge
The Drei Zinnen, from the Highest Ridge
Magyar Shepherds, near Banffy-Hunyad
The Bridal Veil
A Little Slovak
The Basilica of Esztergom (Gran) from the Danube
Rumanian Cottages in Transylvania
Prayer for the Dead
Swine at their Bath, near Kalocsa
A Young Slovak
Descended from a Brigand Chief
Cattle on the Puszta of Hortobagy
Market Girl, Kalocsa
A Young Magyar Csikos
The Rumanian Church at Desze
Sketch-Map of Austria
Austrian National Anthem
Slovak Women at Prayer, Vazsecz
A Hungarian Baby
A Rumanian Homestead at Desze
The Danube from Esztergom (Gran)
Roumanian Children bringing Water to be blessed in the Greek Church, Desze
Rumanian Children bringing Water to be Blessed in the Greek Church, Desze
Hay-time, Upper Hungary
An Engaged Couple
Young Girl of Zsdjar in Sunday Clothes
A Young Magyar Csikos on the Great Puszta of Hortobagy
Segesvar (Schafsburg)'


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