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Hungary

Hungary Collection

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HUNGARY (Hungarian Magyarország), a country in the south-eastern portion of central Europe, bounded E. by Austria (Bukovina) and Rumania; S. by Rumania, Servia, Bosnia and Austria (Dalmatia); W. by Austria (Istria, Carniola, Styria and Lower Austria); and N. by Austria (Moravia, Silesia and Galicia). It has an area of 125,402 sq. m., being thus about 4000 sq. m. larger than Great Britain and Ireland.

The kingdom of Hungary (Magyarbiradolom) is one of the two states which constitute the monarchy of Austria-Hungary, and occupies 51.8% of the total area of the monarchy. Hungary, unlike Austria, presents a remarkable geographical unity. It is almost exclusively continental, having only a short extent of seaboard on the Adriatic (a little less than 100 m.). Its land-frontiers are for the most part well defined by natural boundaries: on the N.W., N., E. and S.E. the Carpathian mountains; on the S. the Danube, Save and Unna. On the W. they are not so clearly marked, being formed partly by low ranges of mountains and partly by the rivers March and Leitha. From the last-mentioned river are derived the terms Cisleithania and Transleithania, applied to Austria and Hungary respectively.

Arpad founded Hungary in A.D. 886, and for six and one half centuries each grew independently. Hungary became a Kingdom in 1,000, many of its present institutions originating then. Hungary in 1222, like England in 1216, won a constitution, and till 1490 was the strongest state in central Europe. In 1526 Hungary fell before Turkey but almost ceaseless wars succeeded in liberating Hungary from the Turkish yoke. Numerous German colonists brought German civilization to Hungarian towns. The Hungarian estates, assembling in Pressburg, staunchly resisted every effort to absorb Hungary in the Austrian Empire.

Austria was a powerful force in overthrowing Napoleon and from 1815 to 1865 opposed every attempt of the Magyars at independence. In 1848 Hungary rose under the lead of Kossuth, but was subjected to the imperial armies with the help of Russia. Austria renewed its efforts to germanize Hungary but failed and meanwhile lost Italy and Germany. So independence and self-government were restored to Hungary

General Division.—The kingdom of Hungary in its widest extent, or the “Realm of the Crown of St Stephen,” comprises Hungary proper (Magyarország), with which is included the former grand principality of Transylvania, and the province of Croatia-Slavonia. This province enjoys to a large extent autonomy, granted by the so-called compromise of 1868. The town and district of Fiume, though united with Hungary proper in respect of administration, possess a larger measure of autonomy than the other cities endowed with municipal rights. Of the total area of the kingdom Hungary proper has 108,982 sq. m. and Croatia-Slavonia 16,420 sq. m. In the present article the kingdom is treated mainly as a whole, especially as regards statistics. In some respects Hungary proper has been particularly dealt with, while special information regarding the other regions will be found under Croatia-Slavonia, Transylvania and Fiume.

References:

Oscar Briliant, Robert N. Bain, Walter A. Phillips, Charles N. E. Eliot, Edward D. Butler and Emil Reich, 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 13. 894-931.

Available Books

Images

Image Name
King Laurin's Rose-Garden, from the Schlern
Vienna : Mozart's House
The Carpathian Mountains from Luesivna-Furdo)
Waste Lands near Kalocsa
CottageatKalocsa
Prayer for the Dead
Menguszfalva
Descended from a Brigand Chief
Misko
Sketch-Map of Hungary
The Return from Church, Zsdjar
A Cottage at Zsdjar
A Woman of Desze
Styria : The Grimming, from Purgg
Child with Fowl, Tatra
An Engaged Couple
Roumanian Children bringing Water to be blessed in the Greek Church, Desze
Innsbruck
Ragusa : The Ploce Road from San Giacomo : Morning
Harvest-time in Transylvania
Rumanian Cottages in Transylvania
Front Cover
A Gipsy Home
Streams in East Hungary
Hay-time in Transylvania
The Rumanian Church at Desze
Young Girl of Zsdjar in Sunday Clothes
Harvest-time in Transylvania
Marmolata, from very high above Canazei
Group in a Rumanian Religious Procession, Desze
The Houses of Parliament and Margit Bridge, Budapest
The Schoolmaster's Wife, Zsdjar
The Drei Zinnen, from the Highest Ridge
Rumanian Children bringing Water to be Blessed in the Greek Church, Desze
Interior at Banffy-Hunyad
Krivan, seen from near Vazsecz
On the Waste Lands near Kalocsa
The Confirmation Wreat
A Rumanian Maiden
Swine at their Bath, near Kalocsa
The Belle of Zsdjar
Birches at Lucsivna-Furdo
Pines in the Tatra
A Hungarian Baby
Woman of Kalocsa in Work-day Dress
Market Girl, Kalocsa
A Pine Forest in the Tatra
Front Cover
A Magyar Cottage at Banffy-Hunyad
Woman's Work-day Costume in Kalocsa
A Rumanian Church in Transylvania
A Young Magyar Csikos
The Lake of Csorba in June
The Cathedral and Square, Szatmar
A Gipsy's Castle, Transylvania
The Garlic-Seller
Kufstein
A Paprika-Seller, Kalocsa
A Paprika-Seller, Kalocsa
Austrian National Anthem
Slovak Girl in Sunday Attire
A Road in the Carpathians
Slovak Women at Prayer, Vazsecz
At Vazsecz
A Road in the Carpathians
The Basilica of Esztergom (Gran) from the Danube
A Young Magyar Csikos on the Great Puszta of Hortobagy
Mother and Child at Menguszfalva
A Backwater of the Danube
Cattle on the Puszta of Hortobagy
Slovak Woman singing a Hymn
Prague : Carl's Bridge
Magyar Shepherds
Wild Strawberries
Back Cover
View from our Windows in Vazsecz
Sunset in the Hills of Transylvania
The Ortler Spitze
The Wachau, Aggstein
A Rumanian Invalid
Magyar Shepherds, near Banffy-Hunyad
Sunday Costume, Zsdjar
Vienna : Castle Schonbrunn
Hohensalzburg
A Little Slovak
The Queen of the Harvesters, Banffy-Hunyad
A Rumanian Homestead at Desze
Cracow : Barbarakapelle
A Shepherd-boy of Felsobanya
Prague : The Hradschin from Wallensteinstrasse
Back Cover
A Young Slovak
The River Maros, and the 'Hill of the Maiden'
Clissa : A Study in Grey Rock
The Danube at Orsova
Segesvar (Schafsburg)'

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