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Hungary

Hungary Collection

History Archive - Hungary Collection

HUNGARY (Hungarian Magyarország), a country in the south-eastern portion of central Europe, bounded E. by Austria (Bukovina) and Rumania; S. by Rumania, Servia, Bosnia and Austria (Dalmatia); W. by Austria (Istria, Carniola, Styria and Lower Austria); and N. by Austria (Moravia, Silesia and Galicia). It has an area of 125,402 sq. m., being thus about 4000 sq. m. larger than Great Britain and Ireland.

The kingdom of Hungary (Magyarbiradolom) is one of the two states which constitute the monarchy of Austria-Hungary, and occupies 51.8% of the total area of the monarchy. Hungary, unlike Austria, presents a remarkable geographical unity. It is almost exclusively continental, having only a short extent of seaboard on the Adriatic (a little less than 100 m.). Its land-frontiers are for the most part well defined by natural boundaries: on the N.W., N., E. and S.E. the Carpathian mountains; on the S. the Danube, Save and Unna. On the W. they are not so clearly marked, being formed partly by low ranges of mountains and partly by the rivers March and Leitha. From the last-mentioned river are derived the terms Cisleithania and Transleithania, applied to Austria and Hungary respectively.

Arpad founded Hungary in A.D. 886, and for six and one half centuries each grew independently. Hungary became a Kingdom in 1,000, many of its present institutions originating then. Hungary in 1222, like England in 1216, won a constitution, and till 1490 was the strongest state in central Europe. In 1526 Hungary fell before Turkey but almost ceaseless wars succeeded in liberating Hungary from the Turkish yoke. Numerous German colonists brought German civilization to Hungarian towns. The Hungarian estates, assembling in Pressburg, staunchly resisted every effort to absorb Hungary in the Austrian Empire.

Austria was a powerful force in overthrowing Napoleon and from 1815 to 1865 opposed every attempt of the Magyars at independence. In 1848 Hungary rose under the lead of Kossuth, but was subjected to the imperial armies with the help of Russia. Austria renewed its efforts to germanize Hungary but failed and meanwhile lost Italy and Germany. So independence and self-government were restored to Hungary

General Division.—The kingdom of Hungary in its widest extent, or the “Realm of the Crown of St Stephen,” comprises Hungary proper (Magyarország), with which is included the former grand principality of Transylvania, and the province of Croatia-Slavonia. This province enjoys to a large extent autonomy, granted by the so-called compromise of 1868. The town and district of Fiume, though united with Hungary proper in respect of administration, possess a larger measure of autonomy than the other cities endowed with municipal rights. Of the total area of the kingdom Hungary proper has 108,982 sq. m. and Croatia-Slavonia 16,420 sq. m. In the present article the kingdom is treated mainly as a whole, especially as regards statistics. In some respects Hungary proper has been particularly dealt with, while special information regarding the other regions will be found under Croatia-Slavonia, Transylvania and Fiume.

References:

Oscar Briliant, Robert N. Bain, Walter A. Phillips, Charles N. E. Eliot, Edward D. Butler and Emil Reich, 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 13. 894-931.

Available Books

Images

Image Name
Wild Strawberries
A Gipsy's Castle, Transylvania
On the Waste Lands near Kalocsa
A Mill near Vazsecz
Sunset in the Hills of Transylvania
Young Girl of Menguszfalva going to Church
Market Girl, Kalocsa
Cross embroidered on a Chasuble
Young Girl of Zsdjar in Sunday Clothes
A Road in the Carpathians
Pines in the Tatra
A Rumanian Maiden
At Vazsecz
Rumanian Children bringing Water to be Blessed in the Greek Church, Desze
The Garlic-Seller
The Carpathian Mountains from Luesivna-Furdo)
Prague : Carl's Bridge
A Rumanian Church in Transylvania
Segesvar (Schafsburg)'
The Basilica of Esztergom (Gran) from the Danube
The Danube from Esztergom (Gran)
Styria : The Grimming, from Purgg
Swine at their Bath, near Kalocsa
A Hungarian Baby
The Lake of Csorba in June
Clissa : A Study in Grey Rock
A Rumanian Invalid
Child with Fowl, Tatra
A Cottage at Zsdjar
Prayer for the Dead
A Paprika-Seller, Kalocsa
Sunday Costume, Zsdjar
Hohensalzburg
CottageatKalocsa
Front Cover
Woman of Kalocsa in Work-day Dress
Hay-time, Upper Hungary
Front Cover
Austrian National Anthem
Harvest-time in Transylvania
Marmolata, from very high above Canazei
View from our Windows in Vazsecz
The Return from Church, Zsdjar
Menguszfalva
A Backwater of the Danube
The Rumanian Church at Desze
Harvest-time in Transylvania
A Young Slovak
A Little Slovak
The Cathedral and Square, Szatmar
A Road in the Carpathians
Peasant Woman in her Guba, Kisbanya
Slovak Woman singing a Hymn
Roumanian Children bringing Water to be blessed in the Greek Church, Desze
A Gipsy Home
Back Cover
Title Page
Magyar Shepherds
Spalato : A Door in Diocletian's Palace
The Bridal Veil
Interior at Banffy-Hunyad
Magyar Shepherds, near Banffy-Hunyad
Cottages on the Outskirts of Banffy-Hunyad
Misko
The Belle of Zsdjar
The River Maros, and the 'Hill of the Maiden'
A Young Magyar Csikos on the Great Puszta of Hortobagy
A Magyar Cottage at Banffy-Hunyad
Cortina and Mte. Cristallo
A Rumanian Homestead at Desze
King Laurin's Rose-Garden, from the Schlern
Woman's Work-day Costume in Kalocsa
Innsbruck
Vienna : Castle Schonbrunn
The Wachau, Aggstein
The Ortler Spitze
Krivan, seen from near Vazsecz
Back Cover
Title Page
Carinthia : Maria-Worth on the Worthersee
Mother and Child at Menguszfalva
The Confirmation Wreat
In Church at Vazsecz
Sketch-Map of Austria
Group in a Rumanian Religious Procession, Desze
A Shepherd-boy of Felsobanya
Kufstein
Descended from a Brigand Chief
Vienna : Mozart's House
A Woman of Desze
Inn Valley in Winter
A Convent Moat
A Pine Forest in the Tatra
The Houses of Parliament and Margit Bridge, Budapest
Slovak Women at Prayer, Vazsecz
Slovak Girl in Sunday Attire

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