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Hungary

Hungary Collection

History Archive - Hungary Collection

HUNGARY (Hungarian Magyarország), a country in the south-eastern portion of central Europe, bounded E. by Austria (Bukovina) and Rumania; S. by Rumania, Servia, Bosnia and Austria (Dalmatia); W. by Austria (Istria, Carniola, Styria and Lower Austria); and N. by Austria (Moravia, Silesia and Galicia). It has an area of 125,402 sq. m., being thus about 4000 sq. m. larger than Great Britain and Ireland.

The kingdom of Hungary (Magyarbiradolom) is one of the two states which constitute the monarchy of Austria-Hungary, and occupies 51.8% of the total area of the monarchy. Hungary, unlike Austria, presents a remarkable geographical unity. It is almost exclusively continental, having only a short extent of seaboard on the Adriatic (a little less than 100 m.). Its land-frontiers are for the most part well defined by natural boundaries: on the N.W., N., E. and S.E. the Carpathian mountains; on the S. the Danube, Save and Unna. On the W. they are not so clearly marked, being formed partly by low ranges of mountains and partly by the rivers March and Leitha. From the last-mentioned river are derived the terms Cisleithania and Transleithania, applied to Austria and Hungary respectively.

Arpad founded Hungary in A.D. 886, and for six and one half centuries each grew independently. Hungary became a Kingdom in 1,000, many of its present institutions originating then. Hungary in 1222, like England in 1216, won a constitution, and till 1490 was the strongest state in central Europe. In 1526 Hungary fell before Turkey but almost ceaseless wars succeeded in liberating Hungary from the Turkish yoke. Numerous German colonists brought German civilization to Hungarian towns. The Hungarian estates, assembling in Pressburg, staunchly resisted every effort to absorb Hungary in the Austrian Empire.

Austria was a powerful force in overthrowing Napoleon and from 1815 to 1865 opposed every attempt of the Magyars at independence. In 1848 Hungary rose under the lead of Kossuth, but was subjected to the imperial armies with the help of Russia. Austria renewed its efforts to germanize Hungary but failed and meanwhile lost Italy and Germany. So independence and self-government were restored to Hungary

General Division.—The kingdom of Hungary in its widest extent, or the “Realm of the Crown of St Stephen,” comprises Hungary proper (Magyarország), with which is included the former grand principality of Transylvania, and the province of Croatia-Slavonia. This province enjoys to a large extent autonomy, granted by the so-called compromise of 1868. The town and district of Fiume, though united with Hungary proper in respect of administration, possess a larger measure of autonomy than the other cities endowed with municipal rights. Of the total area of the kingdom Hungary proper has 108,982 sq. m. and Croatia-Slavonia 16,420 sq. m. In the present article the kingdom is treated mainly as a whole, especially as regards statistics. In some respects Hungary proper has been particularly dealt with, while special information regarding the other regions will be found under Croatia-Slavonia, Transylvania and Fiume.

References:

Oscar Briliant, Robert N. Bain, Walter A. Phillips, Charles N. E. Eliot, Edward D. Butler and Emil Reich, 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 13. 894-931.

Available Books

Images

Image Name
The Schoolmaster's Wife, Zsdjar
Descended from a Brigand Chief
Cortina and Mte. Cristallo
Wild Strawberries
On the Waste Lands near Kalocsa
Hohensalzburg
In Church at Vazsecz
The Basilica of Esztergom (Gran) from the Danube
An Engaged Couple
A Young Slovak
Clissa : A Study in Grey Rock
A Rumanian Invalid
A Paprika-Seller, Kalocsa
The Ortler Spitze
Rumanian Children bringing Water to be Blessed in the Greek Church, Desze
Magyar Shepherds, near Banffy-Hunyad
A Gipsy Home
The Queen of the Harvesters, Banffy-Hunyad
The Rumanian Church at Desze
The Houses of Parliament and Margit Bridge, Budapest
At Vazsecz
Cottages on the Outskirts of Banffy-Hunyad
The Carpathian Mountains from Luesivna-Furdo)
Vienna : Castle Schonbrunn
The Danube at Orsova
A Pine Forest in the Tatra
Rumanian Cottages in Transylvania
Woman's Work-day Costume in Kalocsa
Sketch-Map of Austria
Segesvar (Schafsburg)'
Slovak Girl in Sunday Attire
The Wachau, Aggstein
Group in a Rumanian Religious Procession, Desze
Woman of Kalocsa in Work-day Dress
Young Girl of Zsdjar in Sunday Clothes
Roumanian Children bringing Water to be blessed in the Greek Church, Desze
A Backwater of the Danube
A Gipsy's Castle, Transylvania
Hay-time in Transylvania
The Drei Zinnen, from the Highest Ridge
The Houses of Parliament and Margit Bridge, Budapest
A Road in the Carpathians
The Garlic-Seller
Inn Valley in Winter
Prague : The Hradschin from Wallensteinstrasse
Krivan, seen from near Vazsecz
A Paprika-Seller, Kalocsa
Hay-time, Upper Hungary
Young Girl of Menguszfalva going to Church
Sunset in the Hills of Transylvania
Prague : Carl's Bridge
Back Cover
A Convent Moat
Ragusa : The Ploce Road from San Giacomo : Morning
Waste Lands near Kalocsa
Interior at Banffy-Hunyad
Cattle on the Puszta of Hortobagy
A Young Magyar Csikos
Austrian National Anthem
A Woman of Desze
A Magyar Cottage at Banffy-Hunyad
Magyar Shepherds
Market Girl, Kalocsa
Prayer for the Dead
Harvest-time in Transylvania
Innsbruck
The Danube from Esztergom (Gran)
Spalato : A Door in Diocletian's Palace
A Rumanian Church in Transylvania
The Bridal Veil
Peasant Woman in her Guba, Kisbanya
A Cottage at Zsdjar
Kufstein
Streams in East Hungary
Child with Fowl, Tatra
A Young Magyar Csikos on the Great Puszta of Hortobagy
A Road in the Carpathians
A Little Slovak
Harvest-time in Transylvania
The Confirmation Wreat
Sketch-Map of Hungary
Back Cover
Styria : The Grimming, from Purgg
Slovak Woman singing a Hymn
Cross embroidered on a Chasuble
Swine at their Bath, near Kalocsa
Birches at Lucsivna-Furdo
Pines in the Tatra
Title Page
A Shepherd-boy of Felsobanya
Front Cover
Title Page
Sunday Costume, Zsdjar
A Rumanian Maiden
Mother and Child at Menguszfalva
The Belle of Zsdjar

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