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Holland

Holland Collection

History Archive - Holland Collection

Dutch Republic, The, was founded by the union of the seven northern provinces of the Netherlands, during the long and heroic war against Spain for freedom of religion and government. These provinces, Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Groningen, Overyssel and Friesland, formed their union in 1579 and declared their independence in 1581. The war of liberation became a fierce crusade.

The Netherlands had been a province of the German Empire under Charles V; but under Philip II they were no more than a province of Spain, and the rooted idea of Philip was to stamp out heresy from his dominions. In 1567 he sent the Duke of Alva with a Spanish army to the Netherlands; and among the victims of the persecution that followed were Counts Egmont and Hoorn. But in 1586 the Prince of Orange entered the field with a small army; and so began the forty years’ struggle for freedom.

At times the Dutch were helped by France, at times by England; but it was the great courage and faith of the people that in the end won their liberty. In 1581 William of Orange was made ruler of Holland and Zeeland; but in 1583 he was murdered at Delft. Maurice of Nassau, the son of William of Orange, at length won a decisive battle in 1600 at Nieuport.

Meantime the Dutch fleets had seized the Portuguese and Spanish settlements in the East Indies. A 12 years’ truce in 1609 practically granted the independence of the Dutch Republic, which entered upon a period of prosperous trade and of naval and commercial rivalry with England. The Dutch East India Company was founded in 1602; and the Dutch West India Company, which controlled New Netherlands (New York) in 1621.

After the 12 years’ truce with Spain expired, war was renewed, but was ended in 1648 by the Peace of Westphalia. The greatest days of Holland were those of its naval successes against England in the wars of 1652 and 1665; but the English fleets in the end proved too strong. In 1688 the stadtholder of Holland was called to the throne of England as William III. Holland now became one of the foes of Louis XIV. Peace was only restored in 1713 by the Peace of Utrecht. Holland then began to be ousted by England from her trade.

In 1780 she had a short war with England; and in 1782 was the second power to recognize the independence of the United States. Hitherto the Dutch Republic had been rather aristocratic; but in 1795 the French compelled Holland to accept a new republican constitution as the Batavian Republic. In 1806 Napoleon changed this form of government into the Kingdom of Holland under his brother Louis. In 1810 the country was annexed to France. But in 1813 the French were expelled and the House of Orange restored; and in 1815 Holland and Belgium were united. This was the end of the Dutch Republic. Belgium was made an independent kingdom in 1830.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Available Books

Images

Image Name
An Old Fisherman of Scheveningen
View of Dort. Albert Cuyp (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
Vrouw Jutte Land, Delft
Cathedral at Cologne
The Broken Tower, Heidelberg
The Harbour Tower, Hoorn
An Old Fisherman of Scheveningen
Mother and Child of Scheveningen
The Minne Water, Bruges
Suriname - Gezigt op het Fort Zelandia te Paramaribo
Het Lied Des Lijdens En Der Glorie
An Amsterdam Street - Boy with Clappers
Rheinfels
The Harbour, the Hague
"When Spring unlocks the flowers to paint the laughing soil"
Arnheim
Stadt-Huis, Leyden
On the Beach, Scheveningen
A Girl of Elspeet
Tired Out
Darwin Tulips
An Old Man of Axel
Wurzburg
Hyacinth Flowers going to Market
St. Martin's, Cologne
Het Penceel Des Lichts
A Groningen Canal in Early Winter
A Peasant Boy of the Land of Goes
Title Page
Great Square at Tournay
The Mower
Curaçao - Grot van Hato
St. Nicolas Church, Amsterdam
A Race on Skates
Group of Arquebusiers. Frans Hals (Haarlem) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
Title Page - Volume 1
Middelburg
Generale Verzamelkaart der Nederlandsche Westindische Bezittingen
Nog Predikt Het Graf
Back Cover
"In emerald tufts, flowers purple, blue, and white,"
Coblence, from Ehrenbreitstein
Religious Procession I.
Engraved Title Page, Palace Royal, Brussels
A Dairy
A Boy of Veere
Post Gelderland en Joden Savannah (Rivier Zijde)
Title Page
Schels Kaart van de Kolonie Suriname of Ned[erlan]sch Guiana
Joden Savannah : gezigt op sijnagoge en kerkhof van de zijde van het militair cordonpad gezien
The Painter and His Wife (?). Frans Hals (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
Religious Procession [II]
A Church Interior, Monnickendam
The Palace at The Hague
A Boatload of Fragrance
The Cat’s Dancing Lesson. Jan Steen (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
Canal de Turfmarket, Hague
A Mother and Child of Axel
Rheinstein, or Reichenstein
The Cake Boat
Een Mobiele Kolonne
Neckarsteinach
Het Inkomen der Haven van Curaçao
The Wester Kerk, Amsterdam
A Mother and Child of Axel
A Zeeland Girl
Children of Elspeet
A Marken Interior
The Arresleede
Baby Worship
Suriname - Een Plantaadge Slavenkamp
Amsterdam Aan Zee Gebracht
Drachenfels and Rolands-Ech
Suriname - Plantaadges Jagtlust en Suzanna's Daal
Baby in Chair
Utrecht
The Little Princess. Paulus Moreelse (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
Milking Time. Anton Mauve
St. Martin - Baai en Stad
The Eyer Merkt, Antwerp
A Girl of Marken
Cathedral at Mayence
A Marken Interior
Paternal Advice. Gerard Terburg (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
Suriname - Gezigt op de Waterkant en de reede van Paramaribo
Baby in Chair
A Girl with a Rabbit
Front Cover
Bonaire
The Shepherd and His Flock. Anton Mauve
A Dutch Garden in Spring
A Bulb House
Nug Wappert Neerland Vlao
Elizabeth Bas. Rembrandt (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
Namur from the Citadel
An Old Man of Axel

Maps

Map Name
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Schels Kaart van de Kolonie Suriname of Ned[erlan]sch Guiana (1860)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Generale Verzamelkaart der Nederlandsche Westindische Bezittingen (1860)

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