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Holland Collection

History Archive - Holland Collection

Dutch Republic, The, was founded by the union of the seven northern provinces of the Netherlands, during the long and heroic war against Spain for freedom of religion and government. These provinces, Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Groningen, Overyssel and Friesland, formed their union in 1579 and declared their independence in 1581. The war of liberation became a fierce crusade.

The Netherlands had been a province of the German Empire under Charles V; but under Philip II they were no more than a province of Spain, and the rooted idea of Philip was to stamp out heresy from his dominions. In 1567 he sent the Duke of Alva with a Spanish army to the Netherlands; and among the victims of the persecution that followed were Counts Egmont and Hoorn. But in 1586 the Prince of Orange entered the field with a small army; and so began the forty years’ struggle for freedom.

At times the Dutch were helped by France, at times by England; but it was the great courage and faith of the people that in the end won their liberty. In 1581 William of Orange was made ruler of Holland and Zeeland; but in 1583 he was murdered at Delft. Maurice of Nassau, the son of William of Orange, at length won a decisive battle in 1600 at Nieuport.

Meantime the Dutch fleets had seized the Portuguese and Spanish settlements in the East Indies. A 12 years’ truce in 1609 practically granted the independence of the Dutch Republic, which entered upon a period of prosperous trade and of naval and commercial rivalry with England. The Dutch East India Company was founded in 1602; and the Dutch West India Company, which controlled New Netherlands (New York) in 1621.

After the 12 years’ truce with Spain expired, war was renewed, but was ended in 1648 by the Peace of Westphalia. The greatest days of Holland were those of its naval successes against England in the wars of 1652 and 1665; but the English fleets in the end proved too strong. In 1688 the stadtholder of Holland was called to the throne of England as William III. Holland now became one of the foes of Louis XIV. Peace was only restored in 1713 by the Peace of Utrecht. Holland then began to be ousted by England from her trade.

In 1780 she had a short war with England; and in 1782 was the second power to recognize the independence of the United States. Hitherto the Dutch Republic had been rather aristocratic; but in 1795 the French compelled Holland to accept a new republican constitution as the Batavian Republic. In 1806 Napoleon changed this form of government into the Kingdom of Holland under his brother Louis. In 1810 the country was annexed to France. But in 1813 the French were expelled and the House of Orange restored; and in 1815 Holland and Belgium were united. This was the end of the Dutch Republic. Belgium was made an independent kingdom in 1830.


The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Available Books


Image Name
Azaleas, Het Loo
A Dutch Garden in Spring
Eens Keizers Waardeering
St. Gudula, Brussels
The Sick Woman. Jan Steen (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
A Girl of Goes
A Fisher Boy
Rheinstein, or Reichenstein
Great Square at Tournay
De Waag, Amsterdam
Title Page
Town Hall, Louvain
The Tulip-fields, Haarlem
The Lurley Berg
Cheese Market, Alkmaar
Town Hall, Cologne
Religious Procession I.
Title Page
Een Meifeest
A Mother and Child of Axel
A Zeeland Girl
An Old Fisherman
Paternal Advice. Gerard Terburg (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
The Little Princess. Paulus Moreelse (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
Mill de Adrian, Haarlem
The Menagerie. Jan Steen (Mauritshuis) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
Back Cover
Amsterdam Aan De Tji Liwong
An Interior, Volendam
A Marken Interior
The School of Anatomy. Rembrandt (Mauritshuis) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
Front Cover
Amsterdam Aan Zee Gebracht
Market Place, Weigh-house, Hoorn
Castle of Furstenfels
A Young Woman. Rembrandt (Mauritshuis)
Namur from the Citadel
Joden Savannah : gezigt op sijnagoge en kerkhof van de zijde van het militair cordonpad gezien
A Bulb Farm near Overveen
Nog Predikt Het Graf
Citadel of Wurzburg
Sunrise on the Maas
A Fisherwoman of Zandvoort
Een Arowakka Indianenkamp
A Boy Smoking, Volendam
Een Natuurstudie
Vrouw Jutte Land, Delft
A Fisher woman of Zandvoort
An Amsterdam Street Boy with Clappi
The Dromedaris Tower, Enkhuisen
Oude Delft
Religious Procession [II]
A Girl with a Rabbit
Suriname - Gezigt op het Fort Zelandia te Paramaribo
Helene van der Schalke. Gerard Terburg (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
A Bulb House
Title Page
Mother and Baby
Back Cover
A Fisher-Boy
The Dom Gasse, Wurzburg
Post Gelderland en Joden Savannah (Rivier Zijde)
De Oude Rijn, Leiden
A Peasant Girl of Goes
Old Woman of Drenthe
Goudzoekers Ter Zee
"They spring, they bud, they blossome fresh and faire, and decke the world with their rich pompous showes"
Curaçao - Waaigat en Stadswal
The Shepherd and His Flock. Anton Mauve
An Old Fisherman of Scheveningen
A Girl of Elspeet
Het Blinde Kind
The "Berceau," Het Loo
Returning from Market
The Syndics. Rembrandt (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
The Burgher Orphanage, Amsterdam
An Amsterdam Street - Boy with Clappers
"Whose leaves with their crimson glow Hide the heart that lies burning and black below"
De Laster Beschaamd
The Dove
A Wood-chopper of Drenthe
A Mother and Child of Axel
Baby in Chair
The Dove
The Reader. Jan Vermeer (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
The Cat’s Dancing Lesson. Jan Steen (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
The River Ysel
An Ox-cart, Gelderland


Map Name
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Schels Kaart van de Kolonie Suriname of Ned[erlan]sch Guiana (1860)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Generale Verzamelkaart der Nederlandsche Westindische Bezittingen (1860)


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