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Holland Collection

History Archive - Holland Collection

Dutch Republic, The, was founded by the union of the seven northern provinces of the Netherlands, during the long and heroic war against Spain for freedom of religion and government. These provinces, Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Groningen, Overyssel and Friesland, formed their union in 1579 and declared their independence in 1581. The war of liberation became a fierce crusade.

The Netherlands had been a province of the German Empire under Charles V; but under Philip II they were no more than a province of Spain, and the rooted idea of Philip was to stamp out heresy from his dominions. In 1567 he sent the Duke of Alva with a Spanish army to the Netherlands; and among the victims of the persecution that followed were Counts Egmont and Hoorn. But in 1586 the Prince of Orange entered the field with a small army; and so began the forty years’ struggle for freedom.

At times the Dutch were helped by France, at times by England; but it was the great courage and faith of the people that in the end won their liberty. In 1581 William of Orange was made ruler of Holland and Zeeland; but in 1583 he was murdered at Delft. Maurice of Nassau, the son of William of Orange, at length won a decisive battle in 1600 at Nieuport.

Meantime the Dutch fleets had seized the Portuguese and Spanish settlements in the East Indies. A 12 years’ truce in 1609 practically granted the independence of the Dutch Republic, which entered upon a period of prosperous trade and of naval and commercial rivalry with England. The Dutch East India Company was founded in 1602; and the Dutch West India Company, which controlled New Netherlands (New York) in 1621.

After the 12 years’ truce with Spain expired, war was renewed, but was ended in 1648 by the Peace of Westphalia. The greatest days of Holland were those of its naval successes against England in the wars of 1652 and 1665; but the English fleets in the end proved too strong. In 1688 the stadtholder of Holland was called to the throne of England as William III. Holland now became one of the foes of Louis XIV. Peace was only restored in 1713 by the Peace of Utrecht. Holland then began to be ousted by England from her trade.

In 1780 she had a short war with England; and in 1782 was the second power to recognize the independence of the United States. Hitherto the Dutch Republic had been rather aristocratic; but in 1795 the French compelled Holland to accept a new republican constitution as the Batavian Republic. In 1806 Napoleon changed this form of government into the Kingdom of Holland under his brother Louis. In 1810 the country was annexed to France. But in 1813 the French were expelled and the House of Orange restored; and in 1815 Holland and Belgium were united. This was the end of the Dutch Republic. Belgium was made an independent kingdom in 1830.


The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Available Books


Image Name
A Girl with a Rabbit
The Market Place, Nymwegen
St. Nicolas Church, Amsterdam
Het Loo
Title Page
Een Arowakka Indianenkamp
Oberwesel and Caub
An Old Fisherman
Portrait of G. Bicker, Landrichter of Muiden. Van der Heist (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
Het Blinde Kind
Mother and Child of Scheveningen
A Little Maiden
The Bayen Thurm, Cologne
A Boy of Goes
The Steen Family. Jan Steen (Mauritshuis) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
Ruins at Andernach
Canal de Turfmarket, Hague
The Harbour Tower, Hoorn
Den Christen Ten Voorbeeld
A Dutch Garden in Spring
The Sale of a Cow
The Town-hall of Kampen
A Girl of Goes
Old Woman of Drenthe
Girl’s Head. Jan Vermeer of Delft (Mauritshuis)
The Lurley Berg
Baby Worship
The Dove
A Fisher-Boy
In Een Tuinhuis
The Great Church, Dort
The Sale of a Cow
Joden Savannah : gezigt op sijnagoge en kerkhof van de zijde van het militair cordonpad gezien
In Gode Ontslapen
A Laren Spinning-wheel
The "Berceau," Het Loo
Montalban's Tower, Amsterdam
Drachenfels and Rolands-Ech
Adeldom Verplicht
The Herring Tower, Amsterdam
A Boy Smoking, Volendam
Portrait of a Youth. Jan van Scorel (Boymans Museum, Rotterdam)
An Old Fisherman of Scheveningen
The Nieuwe Kerk, Delft
Oudezijdsch, Voorburgwal, Amsterdam
A Girl of Goes
An Old Man of Axel
Tulips in their Prime
The Spinner. Nicholas Maes (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
Vignette, Belgian Passage Boat, at the Gate of St. Catherine, Bruges
Edel Bloed Verloochent Zich Niet
Een Nachtstudie
Palace at Heidelberg
Cathedral at Mayence
Suriname - Plantaadges Jagtlust en Suzanna's Daal
Coblence, from Ehrenbreitstein
Front Cover
Suriname - Gezigt op de Waterkant en de reede van Paramaribo
The Dom Gasse, Wurzburg
Oude Delft
A Boy Cleaning a Kettle
Palace Gardens, Het Loo
Front Cover
The Mower
Engraved Title Page, Palace Royal, Brussels
The River Ysel
View from Oberwesel
Een Natuurstudie
Vrouw Jutte Land, Delft
A Zeeland Wedding
Back Cover
An Interior, Volendam
A Race on Skates
The Menagerie. Jan Steen (Mauritshuis) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
The Groote Kerk. Johannes Bosboom (Boymans Museum, Rotterdam)
Children of Elspeet
The Burgher Orphanage, Amsterdam
View of Dort. Albert Cuyp (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
The Eyer Merkt, Antwerp
The Store Cupboard. Peter de Hooch (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
The Painter and His Wife (?). Frans Hals (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
De Stad Der Palmdoomen
Religious Procession [Composite]
Ghent Gate at Bruges
The Binnenhof, the Hague
The Sick Woman. Jan Steen (Ryks) From a Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl
Azaleas, Het Loo
An Old Fisherman


Map Name
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Schels Kaart van de Kolonie Suriname of Ned[erlan]sch Guiana (1860)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Generale Verzamelkaart der Nederlandsche Westindische Bezittingen (1860)


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