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Greco-Roman Collection

History Archive - Greco-Roman Collection

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilization.

In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean.


Based on the above definition, it can be confidently asserted that the "cores" of the Greco-Roman world were Italy, Greece, Cyprus, the Iberian Peninsula, Asia Minor (roughly corresponds to modern Turkey), Gaul (modern France), Greater Syria, Egypt and Africa north of the Sahara. Occupying the periphery of this world were "Roman Germany" (the Alpine countries and the so-called Agri Decumates, the territory between the Main, the Rhine and the Danube), Illyria, Macedonia, Thrace (roughly corresponds to modern Bulgaria), Moesia (roughly corresponds to modern northern Bulgaria), and Pannonia (the former Yugoslavia, and Albania, and Hungary). Also included was Dacia (roughly corresponds to modern Romania), Nubia (roughly corresponds to modern northern Sudan), Mauretania (modern Morocco and western Algeria), Arabia Petraea (the Hejaz and Jordan, with modern Egypt's Sinai Peninsula), the Tauric Chersonesus (modern Crimea and the coast of Ukraine).


In the schools of art, philosophy and rhetoric, the foundations of education were transmitted throughout the lands of Greek and Roman rule. Within its educated class spanning all of the "Greco-Roman" eras, the testimony of literary borrowings and influences is overwhelming proof of a mantle of mutual knowledge. For example, several hundred papyrus volumes found in a Roman villa at Herculaneum are in Greek. From the lives of Cicero and Julius Caesar, it is known that Romans frequented the schools in Greece.


The installation, both in Greek and Latin, of Augustus's monumental eulogy, the Res Gestae, is a proof of official recognition for the dual vehicles of the common culture. The familiarity of figures from Roman legend and history in the "Parallel Lives" composed by Plutarch is one example of the extent to which "universal history" was then synonymous with the accomplishments of famous Latins and Hellenes. Most educated Romans were likely bilingual in Greek and Latin.

"Greco-Roman" architecture is the architecture of the Roman world that followed the principles and style established in ancient Greece. The most representative building of that era was the temple. Other prominent structures that represented the style included government buildings, like the Roman Senate, and cultural structures, like the Colosseum. The three primary styles of column design used in temples in classical Greece were Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. Some examples of Doric architecture are the Parthenon and the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens, while the Erechtheum, which is located right next to the Parthenon is Ionic.


Sir William Smith (ed). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: Spottiswoode and Co, 1873.

Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth (ed). Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2003.

Available Books


Image Name
The New Barracks of the Bombardiers & Miners
Plan of Thessalonica
Triumphal Arch at Reims
The Church of St. Sophia, Thessalonica - Plan
A Turkish Female Lave, playing on the Dulcimer
Map of Sicily
The Temple of Segesta
Front Cover
Temple of Concord at Girgenti
Title Page
Back Cover
Map of the Country, Islands, &c in the vicinity of Naples
The Church of the Holy Apostles, Thessalonica - Longitudinal Section
Ancient Greek Paintings from Herculaneum (II)
View of a Grotto at Urgub
Caravanserai at Thessalonica
St. John's Chapel ver the Catacombs of Syracuse
Plan of Temple at Vernegue
Plan of the Temple of Rome and Augustus
Tail-Piece, from a Marble Bas-Relief at Thessalonica
Temple at Vernegue - Elevations
The Mausoleum of Theodoric
Plan of the Castle of Edessa
Plan of the Ancient Theatre at Taormina
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Various Capitals [II]
Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
View of the Ear of Dionysius
The village of Marathon with a distant view of the plain
Front Cover
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Capitals in the Nave [II]
The Bapistry at St. Maurice at Aix
Cyperus papyrus
View of the Temple of Isis in Pompeii.
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Plan
Mosaic Pavements [II]
The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
[Bath House Diagram]
Travelling in Sicily
The Church of St. Elias, Thessalonica - Plan
[Untitled Drawing of Temple]
[Islands off the Coast of Sicily]
Lake of Proserpine
Tomb of Ezekial at Kefeli, near Bagdad
Christian Tombstones at Sour Ghozlan (Auzia), Africa
Map of the Island of Capri in the Gulf of Naples
Church of St. Marcellinus and St. Peter
Tombs Cut in the Rock
Don Luigi meets Donna Anna in the Museum
Ancient Greek paintings from Herculaneum (IV)
Frescoes in a Monastery near Trebizond
The Mosque of Orta Hissar, Trebizond - Section
Back Cover
The Church of St. Sophia, Thessalonica - Plan of the Upper Story
The Church of St. George, Thessalonica - Plan and Section
Ruins of the Temple of Jupiter Olympus, the City of Syracusa in the distance
S. Giovanni Battista
Plan of the Cathedral of Bozrah, in the Haouran
Elevation of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
Don Luigi's Ball
Athens, from the foot of Mt Anchesmus
Plan of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
Ancient Greek paintings from Herculaneum (V)
Plan of the Catacombs at Syracusa
The Church of St. Sophia at Trebizond - Fresco in the Apse
The West Front of the Acropolis from the Summits of the Propylaea
Don Michele preparing for his triumphal expedition
S. Maria in Porto
Elevation and Plan of the Columns of the Temple of Bacchus
Topographical Plan of Etna
The Church of St. George, Thessalonica - Mosaics of the Side Chapel
A Dancing Girl
The Remains of the Monument of Marcellus
Front Cover
Messina and the Entrance to the Faro, with Reggio and the Coast of Calabria
Castle of Edessa
Eski Djouma, Thessalonica - Plan
Cyclopean Isles
The Church of St. Elias, Broussa, - Plan - Section
A Turkish Woman
Ancient Greek paintings from Herculaneum (III)
The Church of St. Elias, Thessalonica - Longitudinal Section
S. Vitale, the Presbytery
Sleeping Tete a Tete, at a first visit of Don Luigi's
The Church of St. George, Thessalonica - Elevation - View of the East End
Section of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
S. Apollinare Nuovo
A Colonel of the Janissaries
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Elevation of the Narthex
Costume of Sicilian Peasantry
View of Perge
A Greek Lady in her walking dress
Title Page
View in the Environs of Taormina
Cathedral Gate of Messina
First Gate of the Seraglio
View of the Temple of Augustus at Vienne


Map Name
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Map of the Island of Capri in the Gulf of Naples (1815)
A Tour Through Sicily - Sicily Reduced from a Map Published by Authority at Naples in the Year 1810 (1819)
A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey - Map of Albania (1813)
A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey - Map of the Western Half of the Hellespontine Phrygia (1813)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Map of the Country, Islands, &c in the Vicinity of Naples (1815)


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