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Greco-Roman

Greco-Roman Collection

History Archive - Greco-Roman Collection

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilization.

In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean.

Geography

Based on the above definition, it can be confidently asserted that the "cores" of the Greco-Roman world were Italy, Greece, Cyprus, the Iberian Peninsula, Asia Minor (roughly corresponds to modern Turkey), Gaul (modern France), Greater Syria, Egypt and Africa north of the Sahara. Occupying the periphery of this world were "Roman Germany" (the Alpine countries and the so-called Agri Decumates, the territory between the Main, the Rhine and the Danube), Illyria, Macedonia, Thrace (roughly corresponds to modern Bulgaria), Moesia (roughly corresponds to modern northern Bulgaria), and Pannonia (the former Yugoslavia, and Albania, and Hungary). Also included was Dacia (roughly corresponds to modern Romania), Nubia (roughly corresponds to modern northern Sudan), Mauretania (modern Morocco and western Algeria), Arabia Petraea (the Hejaz and Jordan, with modern Egypt's Sinai Peninsula), the Tauric Chersonesus (modern Crimea and the coast of Ukraine).

Culture

In the schools of art, philosophy and rhetoric, the foundations of education were transmitted throughout the lands of Greek and Roman rule. Within its educated class spanning all of the "Greco-Roman" eras, the testimony of literary borrowings and influences is overwhelming proof of a mantle of mutual knowledge. For example, several hundred papyrus volumes found in a Roman villa at Herculaneum are in Greek. From the lives of Cicero and Julius Caesar, it is known that Romans frequented the schools in Greece.

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The installation, both in Greek and Latin, of Augustus's monumental eulogy, the Res Gestae, is a proof of official recognition for the dual vehicles of the common culture. The familiarity of figures from Roman legend and history in the "Parallel Lives" composed by Plutarch is one example of the extent to which "universal history" was then synonymous with the accomplishments of famous Latins and Hellenes. Most educated Romans were likely bilingual in Greek and Latin.

"Greco-Roman" architecture is the architecture of the Roman world that followed the principles and style established in ancient Greece. The most representative building of that era was the temple. Other prominent structures that represented the style included government buildings, like the Roman Senate, and cultural structures, like the Colosseum. The three primary styles of column design used in temples in classical Greece were Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. Some examples of Doric architecture are the Parthenon and the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens, while the Erechtheum, which is located right next to the Parthenon is Ionic.

References:

Sir William Smith (ed). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: Spottiswoode and Co, 1873.

Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth (ed). Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2003.

Available Books

Images

Image Name
Christian Tombstones at Sour Ghozlan (Auzia), Africa
Map of Sicily
A Greek Lady in her walking dress
Church of St. Marcellinus and St. Peter
Ancient Greek paintings from Herculaneum (IV)
Ruins of Hadrian's Temple, with a View of the South-East Angle of the Acropolis and Parthenon
Tombs Cut in the Rock
Back Cover
Greek Music [II]
Fresco at Urgub
View of the Temple of Isis in Pompeii.
Topographical Plan of the Ancient Syracusa
Travelling in Sicily
The Mosque of Orta Hissar, Trebizond - Section
Various Inscriptions
Plan of the Temple of Rome and Augustus
Bapistry at Riez
Leaf of the Cactus opuntia
Don Luigi meets Donna Anna in the Museum
The Mosque of Orta Hissar, Trebizond - Plan
Plan of the Barracks, Theatres &c, of Pompeii
The Church of St. Sophia, Thessalonica - West Elevation - East Elevation
The Church of St. Sophia, Thessalonica - Mosaics of the Dome [II]
Front Cover
The Church of the Holy Apostles, Thessalonica - South-East View
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Elevation of a Bay of the Nave
Eski Djouma, Thessalonica - Longitudinal Section - Transverse Section
View of Modern Trebizond
Title Page
Greek Music [I]
Position of Dana
The Island of Stromboli
The Church of the Holy Apostles, Thessalonica - Longitudinal Section
S. Giovanni Battista
Cyclopean Isles
Plan of the Temple of Baal at Cavesus, in Syria
The New Barracks of the Bombardiers & Miners
Tail-Piece, from a Byzantine Bas-Relief
Sicily Reduced from a Map Published by Authority at Naples in the Year 1810
Illustrated Frontispiece
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Plan
The Mausoleum of Theodoric
The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
Topographical Plan of Agrigentum
Don Luigi's Baggage Seized by Four Lazzaroni
The Church of St. Sophia at Trebizond - South Elevation - Longitudinal Section
S. Vitale, the Gallery
The Bapistry at St. Maurice at Aix
Details from the Churches of St. Demeterius and St. Sophia, Thessalonica
Porta Serrata
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Elevation of the Narthex
Plan of the Port of Messina
Plan of Anazarbus
Caravanserai at Thessalonica
Don Luigi's Ball
The Church of St. Sophia at Trebizond - Details of Sculpture
An Albanian
The Church of St. George, Thessalonica - Mosaics of the Dome [III]
Plan of Thessalonica
Topographical Plan of Etna
Plans of the Temple of Portumnus at Ostia
View of the Temple of Bacchus at Laodicea (Lattakia)
The Church of St. George, Thessalonica - Mosaics of the Dome [I]
Plan of the Temple of Venus at Aphrodisias
The Church of St. Elias, Thessalonica - Longitudinal Section
The Church of St. Sophia at Trebizond - Fresco in the Apse
Back Cover
[Untitled Drawing of Temple]
The Church of St. Elias, Broussa, - Plan - Section
Plan of the Cathedral of Bozrah, in the Haouran
The Church of St. Sophia, Thessalonica - Mosaics of the Dome [I]
View of the Gate and High Street of Pompeii
The Letter Writer
Temple of Segeste
Plan of the Ancient Theatre at Taormina
S. Apollinare Nuovo
Map of the Western Half of the Hellespontine Phrygia
Back Cover
Back Cover
Plan of Temple at Vernegue
View of the Temple of Balmarcos at Cavesus (now Deir el Kala'ah)
View of Tophana of the Artillery Arsenal at Constantinople
A view near Naples
Plan of the Catacombs at Syracusa
S. Agata
Church Cut in the Rock near Surp Garabed
The Church of St. Sophia at Trebizond - West Elevation - Plan of Trebizond
Ancient Greek Paintings from Herculaneum (II)
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Various Capitals [I]
First Gate of the Seraglio
View of the Ear of Dionysius
A Sultana
A Turkish Female Lave, playing on the Dulcimer
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Various Capitals [II]
Temple of Concord at Girgenti
Castle of Edessa

Maps

Map Name
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Map of the Island of Capri in the Gulf of Naples (1815)
A Tour Through Sicily - Sicily Reduced from a Map Published by Authority at Naples in the Year 1810 (1819)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Map of the Country, Islands, &c in the Vicinity of Naples (1815)
A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey - Map of the Western Half of the Hellespontine Phrygia (1813)
A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey - Map of Albania (1813)

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