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Greco-Roman

Greco-Roman Collection

History Archive - Greco-Roman Collection

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilization.

In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean.

Geography

Based on the above definition, it can be confidently asserted that the "cores" of the Greco-Roman world were Italy, Greece, Cyprus, the Iberian Peninsula, Asia Minor (roughly corresponds to modern Turkey), Gaul (modern France), Greater Syria, Egypt and Africa north of the Sahara. Occupying the periphery of this world were "Roman Germany" (the Alpine countries and the so-called Agri Decumates, the territory between the Main, the Rhine and the Danube), Illyria, Macedonia, Thrace (roughly corresponds to modern Bulgaria), Moesia (roughly corresponds to modern northern Bulgaria), and Pannonia (the former Yugoslavia, and Albania, and Hungary). Also included was Dacia (roughly corresponds to modern Romania), Nubia (roughly corresponds to modern northern Sudan), Mauretania (modern Morocco and western Algeria), Arabia Petraea (the Hejaz and Jordan, with modern Egypt's Sinai Peninsula), the Tauric Chersonesus (modern Crimea and the coast of Ukraine).

Culture

In the schools of art, philosophy and rhetoric, the foundations of education were transmitted throughout the lands of Greek and Roman rule. Within its educated class spanning all of the "Greco-Roman" eras, the testimony of literary borrowings and influences is overwhelming proof of a mantle of mutual knowledge. For example, several hundred papyrus volumes found in a Roman villa at Herculaneum are in Greek. From the lives of Cicero and Julius Caesar, it is known that Romans frequented the schools in Greece.

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The installation, both in Greek and Latin, of Augustus's monumental eulogy, the Res Gestae, is a proof of official recognition for the dual vehicles of the common culture. The familiarity of figures from Roman legend and history in the "Parallel Lives" composed by Plutarch is one example of the extent to which "universal history" was then synonymous with the accomplishments of famous Latins and Hellenes. Most educated Romans were likely bilingual in Greek and Latin.

"Greco-Roman" architecture is the architecture of the Roman world that followed the principles and style established in ancient Greece. The most representative building of that era was the temple. Other prominent structures that represented the style included government buildings, like the Roman Senate, and cultural structures, like the Colosseum. The three primary styles of column design used in temples in classical Greece were Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. Some examples of Doric architecture are the Parthenon and the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens, while the Erechtheum, which is located right next to the Parthenon is Ionic.

References:

Sir William Smith (ed). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: Spottiswoode and Co, 1873.

Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth (ed). Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2003.

Available Books

Images

Image Name
The Church of the Holy Apostles, Thessalonica - South-East View
Back Cover
Ancient Greek Paintings from Herculaneum (II)
The Mausoleum of Theodoric
Cyperus papyrus
The Church of St. George, Thessalonica - Mosaics of the Dome [II]
Plans of the Temple of Portumnus at Ostia
Eski Djouma, Thessalonica - Plan
Tomb of Ezekial at Kefeli, near Bagdad
Porta Serrata
Plan of the Port of Messina
Church Cut in the Rock near Surp Garabed
Athens, from the foot of Mt Anchesmus
Details from the Churches of St. Demeterius and St. Sophia, Thessalonica
Don Luigi's Baggage Seized by Four Lazzaroni
The Island of Stromboli
Sicily Reduced from a Map Published by Authority at Naples in the Year 1810
Title Page
The Church of St. Sophia, Thessalonica - West Elevation - East Elevation
The Church of the Holy Apostles, Thessalonica - Ground Plan
A Turkish Woman
Book Display
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Capitals in the Nave [II]
Lake of Proserpine
Mosaic Pavements [I]
Elevation and Plan of the Columns of the Temple of Bacchus
A view near Naples
Religious Costume of Sicily
Map of Albania
The Church of St. George, Thessalonica - Elevation - View of the East End
View of a Grotto at Urgub
Plan of the Castle of Edessa
Plan of the Cathedral of Bozrah, in the Haouran
[Greek Bas-Relief]
The Church of St. George, Thessalonica - Mosaics of the Dome [III]
The Capuchin Selva in the Latomia
Triumphal Arch at Reims
The Church of St. Elias, Broussa, - Plan - Section
Cathedral Gate of Messina
The New Barracks of the Bombardiers & Miners
Plan of the Temple of Rome and Augustus
Temple of Concord at Girgenti
Fortifications of Dara
Ambo, or Pulpit, of the Church of St. George, Thessalonica
View of Modern Trebizond
[Bath House Diagram]
Position of Dana
View of the Valley of Ispica
Don Luigi's Ball
Mosaic Pavements [II]
The Church of St. Sophia, Thessalonica - Plan
Ancient Greek Paintings from Herculaneum (I)
View of the Gate and High Street of Pompeii
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Elevation of the Narthex
Greek Music [I]
The Church of St. George, Thessalonica - Mosaics of the Dome [IV]
Temple at Vernegue - Elevations
The village of Marathon with a distant view of the plain
The Church of St. George, Thessalonica - Plan and Section
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Longitudinal and Transverse Sections
The Church of St. Sophia, Thessalonica - Plan of the Upper Story
The Silver Ciborium in the Church of St. Demetrius
Back Cover
Back Cover
Temple of Portumnus at Ostia - Elevation and Section
Title Page
Tail-Piece, from a Byzantine Bas-Relief
The Bapistry at St. Maurice at Aix
S. Giovanni Evangelista
Tail-Piece, from a Marble Bas-Relief at Thessalonica
Plan of the Ancient Theatre at Taormina
Topographical Plan of the Ancient Syracusa
The Church of St. Sophia, Thessalonica - Longitudinal Section - Transverse Section
The Church of St. Sophia at Trebizond - Fresco in the Apse
The West Front of the Acropolis from the Summits of the Propylaea
Fresco at Urgub
Title Page
Title Page
The Church of St. George, Thessalonica - Mosaics of the Side Chapel
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Various Capitals [II]
Back Cover
The Mosque of Orta Hissar, Trebizond - Plan
S. Apollinare Nuovo
S. Vitale, the Gallery
View in the Environs of Taormina
The Church of St. Sophia at Trebizond - West Elevation - Plan of Trebizond
The Church of Dana - Plan - Transverse Section
Front Cover
A Turkish Female Lave, playing on the Dulcimer
Ruins of Hadrian's Temple, with a View of the South-East Angle of the Acropolis and Parthenon
The Church of the Holy Apostles, Thessalonica - Elevation
View of the Temple of Augustus at Vienne
[Islands off the Coast of Sicily]
The Remains of the Monument of Marcellus
Ruins of the Temple of Jupiter Olympus, the City of Syracusa in the distance
The Church of the Holy Apostles, Thessalonica - Longitudinal Section

Maps

Map Name
A Tour Through Sicily - Sicily Reduced from a Map Published by Authority at Naples in the Year 1810 (1819)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Map of the Island of Capri in the Gulf of Naples (1815)
A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey - Map of the Western Half of the Hellespontine Phrygia (1813)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Map of the Country, Islands, &c in the Vicinity of Naples (1815)
A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey - Map of Albania (1813)

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