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Greco-Roman

Greco-Roman Collection

History Archive - Greco-Roman Collection

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilization.

In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean.

Geography

Based on the above definition, it can be confidently asserted that the "cores" of the Greco-Roman world were Italy, Greece, Cyprus, the Iberian Peninsula, Asia Minor (roughly corresponds to modern Turkey), Gaul (modern France), Greater Syria, Egypt and Africa north of the Sahara. Occupying the periphery of this world were "Roman Germany" (the Alpine countries and the so-called Agri Decumates, the territory between the Main, the Rhine and the Danube), Illyria, Macedonia, Thrace (roughly corresponds to modern Bulgaria), Moesia (roughly corresponds to modern northern Bulgaria), and Pannonia (the former Yugoslavia, and Albania, and Hungary). Also included was Dacia (roughly corresponds to modern Romania), Nubia (roughly corresponds to modern northern Sudan), Mauretania (modern Morocco and western Algeria), Arabia Petraea (the Hejaz and Jordan, with modern Egypt's Sinai Peninsula), the Tauric Chersonesus (modern Crimea and the coast of Ukraine).

Culture

In the schools of art, philosophy and rhetoric, the foundations of education were transmitted throughout the lands of Greek and Roman rule. Within its educated class spanning all of the "Greco-Roman" eras, the testimony of literary borrowings and influences is overwhelming proof of a mantle of mutual knowledge. For example, several hundred papyrus volumes found in a Roman villa at Herculaneum are in Greek. From the lives of Cicero and Julius Caesar, it is known that Romans frequented the schools in Greece.

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The installation, both in Greek and Latin, of Augustus's monumental eulogy, the Res Gestae, is a proof of official recognition for the dual vehicles of the common culture. The familiarity of figures from Roman legend and history in the "Parallel Lives" composed by Plutarch is one example of the extent to which "universal history" was then synonymous with the accomplishments of famous Latins and Hellenes. Most educated Romans were likely bilingual in Greek and Latin.

"Greco-Roman" architecture is the architecture of the Roman world that followed the principles and style established in ancient Greece. The most representative building of that era was the temple. Other prominent structures that represented the style included government buildings, like the Roman Senate, and cultural structures, like the Colosseum. The three primary styles of column design used in temples in classical Greece were Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. Some examples of Doric architecture are the Parthenon and the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens, while the Erechtheum, which is located right next to the Parthenon is Ionic.

References:

Sir William Smith (ed). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: Spottiswoode and Co, 1873.

Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth (ed). Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2003.

Available Books

Images

Image Name
Illustrated Title Page
The Church of St. Sophia at Trebizond - Details of Sculpture
A Turkish Woman
Leaf of the Cactus opuntia
Cathedral Gate of Messina
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Capitals in the Nave [I]
View of the Temple of Balmarcos at Cavesus (now Deir el Kala'ah)
Greek Music [II]
Back Cover
Plan of Thessalonica
The Mosque of Orta Hissar, Trebizond - Section
S. Giovanni Evangelista
View of the Temple of Isis in Pompeii.
Map of Albania
S. Apollinare Nuovo
Tail-Piece, from a Marble Bas-Relief at Thessalonica
Greek Music [I]
Fresco at Urgub
A view near Naples
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Plan
Tombs Cut in the Rock
The Church of the Holy Apostles, Thessalonica - Longitudinal Section
The Church of St. Elias, Thessalonica - West Elevation - Transverse Section
The Capuchin Selva in the Latomia
Map of Sicily
The Church of St. Elias, Thessalonica - Longitudinal Section
Corinthian Columns
Front Cover
The Car of Santa Rosalia
Plan of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
Plan of the Temple of Baal at Cavesus, in Syria
The Island of Stromboli
The Church of St. George, Thessalonica - Mosaics of the Dome [II]
The Mausoleum of Theodoric
The Church of St. Demetrius at Thessalonica - Elevation of the Narthex
Temple of Concord at Girgenti
Plan of Anazarbus
Tail-Piece, from a Byzantine Bas-Relief
The Church of St. Elias, Thessalonica - Plan
Costume of Sicilian Peasantry
Don Luigi meets Donna Anna in the Museum
Topographical Plan of Etna
Title Page
The Church of the Holy Apostles, Thessalonica - Elevation
South East Angle of the Parthenon
Title Page
The Bapistry at St. Maurice at Aix
Christian Tomb Cut in One of the Pyramidal Rocks of Urgub
The Church of St. Sophia at Trebizond - Fresco in the Apse
Temple at Vernegue - Elevations
Fac Simile of a Letter from Ali Pasha of Albania
View of Modern Trebizond
Don Michele getting up the ship's side
Title Page
The Church of St. Sophia at Trebizond - South Elevation - Longitudinal Section
[Untitled Drawing of Temple]
Mosaic Pavements [II]
Sicily Reduced from a Map Published by Authority at Naples in the Year 1810
The Church of the Holy Apostles, Thessalonica - South-East View
Back Cover
View of the Valley of Ispica
Lake of Proserpine
Various Inscriptions
Elevation and Plan of the Columns of the Temple of Bacchus
View of Perge
A Dancing Girl
The Church of Dana - Plan - Transverse Section
Elevation of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
The Church of St. George, Thessalonica - Mosaics of the Side Chapel
Details from the Churches of St. Demeterius and St. Sophia, Thessalonica
View of a Grotto at Urgub
The Church of St. George, Thessalonica - Mosaics of the Dome [IV]
Plan of the Barracks, Theatres &c, of Pompeii
View of the Gate and High Street of Pompeii
Frescoes in a Monastery near Trebizond
St. John's Chapel ver the Catacombs of Syracuse
Topographical Plan of the Ancient Syracusa
The Church of St. Sophia at Trebizond - South-West View
Front Cover
View of Tophana of the Artillery Arsenal at Constantinople
Plan of Temple at Vernegue
The Remains of the Monument of Marcellus
Don Luigi's Baggage Seized by Four Lazzaroni
[Bath House Diagram]
Ruins of Hadrian's Temple, with a View of the South-East Angle of the Acropolis and Parthenon
Ancient Greek paintings from Herculaneum (IV)
Eski Djouma, Thessalonica - Longitudinal Section - Transverse Section
The West Front of the Acropolis from the Summits of the Propylaea
Illustrated Frontispiece
The Church of St. Sophia, Thessalonica - Plan of the Upper Story
Ancient Greek Paintings from Herculaneum (II)
Plan of the City of Perga - Tomb of Dana
View of the Valley of Plistus, with part of the Gulph of Salama
An Albanian
The Church of St. Sophia, Thessalonica - West Elevation - East Elevation
Plan of the Temple of Venus at Aphrodisias

Maps

Map Name
A Tour Through Sicily - Sicily Reduced from a Map Published by Authority at Naples in the Year 1810 (1819)
A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey - Map of Albania (1813)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Map of the Country, Islands, &c in the Vicinity of Naples (1815)
A Journey through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey - Map of the Western Half of the Hellespontine Phrygia (1813)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Map of the Island of Capri in the Gulf of Naples (1815)

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