History Archive Icon

History Archive

Flanders

Flanders Collection

History Archive - Flanders Collection

Flanders, the country of the Flemings, lying on the North Sea, embraced the present Belgian provinces of East and West Flanders, the southern portion of Zealand in Holland and the greater part of ancient Artois in France. It was originally inhabited by Belgic tribes, on whose subjection by one of Caesar's lieutenants it was added to Roman Gaul.

It was afterwards overrun by Franks, and, by the treaty of Verdun, Flanders was added to Neustria. The first government of the country was presided over by a count, Baldwin I, appointed by the king of France in 837. The town of Valenciennes was added in 1006, as were also Ghent and the Zealand Islands. Under Baldwin V the counties of Alost, Tournai and Hainauit were added.

On his death the Netherlands portion was set aside for Baldwin's younger son, who, on the death of his elder brother, wrested Flanders from the widow, leaving to her and her son Hainault only. From this time to the end of the 12th century the Flemish territories remained thus divided. In the 10th and 11th centuries Flanders rose to be the chief center of wool-weaving in Europe.

In 1256 the Zealand Islands were given to the count of Holland, and they still remain in Holland's possession. From 1302 to 1320 the Flemings struggled successfully with France. In 1529 France resigned her claims to Flanders, and with the accession of Philip II to the throne of Spain the history of Flanders becomes identical with that of the Spanish Netherlands. The treaty of Westphalia transferred Dutch Flanders to the United Netherlands, whilst by the treaties of the Pyrenees in 1659, Nimeguen in 1678 and Utrecht in 1713 Louis XIV succeeded in adding to France Artois and a large part of French Flanders.

By this last treaty and that of Rastadt, in 1714, the remainder of Flanders was assigned to Austria, and is known as the Austrian Netherlands. On the formation of the new kingdom of Belgium, in 1831, the provinces of East and West Flanders were united with it. The area of these provinces is 2,408 square miles, with a population of 2,004,784. West Flanders abuts on the North Sea, and has a fertile soil, good for growing flax and cotton, and is also noted for its cattle and leather-trade.

The people of both provinces are chiefly Roman Catholics and of Flemish stock. Ghent (pop. 164,659) is the capital of East Flanders; while Bruges (pop. 53,995) is the chief town of West Flanders, with its seaport of Ostend (pop. 41,698). The active industries of West Flanders include fishing, lace-making and spinning and weaving linen, together with the growing of flax, hops and tobacco. In East Flanders the industries are much the same, in addition to cattle raising and the manufacture of cloth and paper. The two principal rivers are the Scheldt and the Lys.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Available Books

Images

Image Name
Bruges : Rué de l'Ane Aveugle (showing end of Town Hall and Bridge connecting it with Palais de Justice)
The Arriere Faucille (Achter Sikkel), Ghent
Beguinage de Mont St. Amand, Ghent
The Ruins of the Cloisters of the Abbey of St. Bavon, Ghent
Nieuport : Church Porch (Evensong)
Bruges : View of the Palais du Franc
Place de Brouckere, Brussels
Bruges : Quai des Marbriers
The Cathedral of Ste. Gudule, Brussels
Furnes : Grand' Place and Belfry
Ypres: Arcade under the Nieuwerk
Bruges : Vegetable Market
Ypres : Place du Musée (showing Top Part of the Belfry)
Title Page
Bell-ringer Playing a Chime
Bruges : Quai du Miroir
Furnes: Peristyle of Town Hall and Palais de Justice
Back Cover
The Place Verte, Antwerp
The Hotel de Ville : A Corner of the Grande Place (showing La Maison des Brasseurs, La Maison du Cygne, and La Maison de l'Etoile), Brussels
A Flemish Young Woman
Entrance to the Old Church of the Carmelites, Brussels
The Concierge of the Musee Plantin-Moretus, Antwerp
Adinkerque : Village and Canal
Bruges : Quai du Rosaire
The Musee Plantin-Moretus (The Arriere Boutique), Antwerp
Rue de Namur, Brussels
An Old Farmer
The Farm of La Belle Alliance, and the Mound surmounted by the Belgian Lion, Waterloo
Title Page
Bruges : A Comer of the Market on the Grand' Place
Archway under the Vieille Boucherie, Antwerp
The Banquet Hall, Chateau des Comtes, Ghent
Nieuport : The Quay, with Eel-boats and Landing-stages
Bruges : The Beguinage
Nieuport : The Town Hall
La Panne : A Flemish Inn - Playing Skittles
Old Houses in the Rue de l'Empereur, Antwerp
Nieuport : A Fair Parishioner
Front Cover
An Old Lace-Maker, Ghent
Coxyde : A Shrimper on Horseback
Bruges : Maison du Pélican (Almshouse)
The Flemish Plain
Furnes : In Ste. Walburge's Church
Nieuport : Interior of Church
Old Houses in the Grande Place, Brussels
Adinkerque : At the Kermesse
The Cathedral Chapel of St. Joseph, Antwerp
The Vieille Boucherie, Antwerp
The Roadstead from the Tete de Flandre, Antwerp
Back Cover
Nieuport : Hall and Vicarage
Coxyde: A Shrimper
A Flemish Country Girl
Front Cover
La Panne : Interior of a Flemish Inn
A Farmsteading
The Dunes : A Stormy Evening
Bruges : Porte d'Ostende
Duinhoek : Interior of a Farmhouse
Furnes: Tower of St. Nicholas
A Flemish Burgher

Regions

View All Regions
History of Humanity - History Archive Logo
History of Humanity - History Mysteries Logo
History of Humanity - Ancient Mesopotamia Logo
History of Humanity - Egypt History Logo
History of Humanity - Persian Empire Logo
History of Humanity - Greek History Logo
History of Humanity - Alexander the Great Logo
History of Humanity - Roman History Logo
History of Humanity - Punic Wars Logo
History of Humanity - Golden Age of Piracy Logo
History of Humanity - Revolutionary War Logo
History of Humanity - Mafia History Logo