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Ecuador Collection

History Archive - Ecuador Collection

Ecuador (ek?wä-d?r?), a republic of South America, lying on the equator and bounded on the west by the Pacific, is thrust like a wedge between Colombia and Peru. It has a seaboard of 400 miles, but its other boundaries are not definitely settled. Its area is about 116,000 square miles, much of it being rich in mineral ores, including gold and silver. The Galapagos Islands also belong to it.

Surface and Drainage. Ecuador consists of three general divisions: the lowlands west of the Andes, the mountainous plateau of the interior and the elevated forest-country to the east. Very little is definitely known about the physical features of the country. The principal mountains either are or have been volcanoes. Many large rivers water it, the most important of which are the large branches of the Amazon.

Climate. The climate is warm but not wholly tropical, altitude neutralizing latitude and the snowline averaging 15,500 feet above tidewater. Cultivation reaches high altitudes, and the plain of Quito, nearly two miles above sealevel, is clothed in luxuriant vegetation. The intermountain regions have a temperate climate resembling perpetual spring. Constant heat and excessive moisture render eastern Ecuador essentially tropical. On the coast the rainy season usually lasts from December to May, but on the Amazon branches it rains nearly all the year round.

Agriculture and Animals. Ecuador is an agricultural country. In the southern regions, adjoining Peru and the Amazon valley, sugar-cane and oranges are cultivated, while in the northern regions, adjoining Colombia, are found wheat, barley, clover and beans. Wild animals of many kinds abound, and the country is the paradise of birds and insects.

Inhabitants and Religion. The whites, who are the landholders and merchants of the country, are hospitable and generally intelligent, but are apt to be lazy. The half-breeds are true savages, while the Christianized Indians are peaceable and contented, though many have sold themselves into slavery. Uncivilized tribes inhabit the country east of the Andes. The state religion is Roman Catholicism. There are many convents, monasteries and seminaries. Education is compulsory, but has not advanced far.

Manufactures and Railroads. Manufactures are limited to timber, coarse cloth, cassava-flour, kerosene and the preparation of spirits from sugar-cane and of flour from the yuca or cassava root. Guayaquil is famous for its hammocks and panama hats. Communication is effected by packmules on bridle paths, coastal steamers, a railroad from Guayaquil to Quito (268 miles) and 125 miles of wagon-road. The chief towns are connected by telegraph, and telephones are used in Quito and in several of the provinces. The exports are mainly coffee, cocoa, vegetable ivory and hides.

Government and Cities. The republic has passed through a series of violent revolutions since its establishment as an independent state in 1831. Under the last constitution there now are a president for four years, a vice-president, a cabinet of four ministers and a cabinet of state, besides a senate and house of representatives. The state is divided into three military districts, containing 17 provinces under governors. Quito, the capital (80,000), has a university and an institute of sciences, and there are universities in Azuay and Guayas. The principal cities are Quito, Guayaquil and Cuenca. The population is 1,400,000.


See Travels in the Wilds of Ecuador, by Simson, and Four Years among Spanish-Americans, by Hassaurek.

The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Available Books


Image Name
Sommet de la montagne des Organos d'Actopan
Ruines de Miguitlan ou Mitla dans la province d'Oaxaca; plan et elevation [II]
Peintures hieroglyphiques de la Raccolta di Mendoza [II]
Peintures hieroglyphiques tirees du manuscrit mexicain conserve a bibliotheque imperiale de Vienne No. 3
Epoques de la nature, d'apres la mythologie azteque
Buste d'une pretress azteque [II]
Volcan de Jorullo
Rocher d'Inti-Guaicu
Pont de cordage pres de Penipe
Montagnes de porphyre colonnaire du Jacal
Peintures hieroglyphiques de la Raccolta di Mendoza [I]
Vue du Corazon
Monument peruvien du Canar
Migration des peuples azteques, peinture hieroglyphique deposee a la bibliotheque royale de Berlin
Vases de granit trouves sur la cote de Honduras
Histoire hieroglyphique des Azteques
Chute du Tequendama
Hieroglyphes azteques du manuscrit de Veletri
Tete gravee en pierre dure par les Indiens Muyscas; bracelet d'obsidienne
Idole azteque, en basalte, trouvee dans la ville de Mexico
Fragment d'un manuscrit hieroglyphique conserve a la bibliotheque royal de Dresde
Fragmens de peintures hieroglyphiques, deposes a la bibliotheque royale de Berlin
Cascade du Rio Vinagre, pres du volcan de Purace
Montagne d'Illinissa
Fragments de peintures azteques tires d'un manuscrit conserve a la bibliotheque du Vatican
Vue du lac de Guatavita
Peintures hieroglyphiques tirees du manuscrit mexicain conserve a bibliotheque imperiale de Vienne No. 2
Vues de la grande place de Mexico
Peintures hieroglyphiques du musee Borgia a Veletri
Calendrier des Indiens Muyscas, anciens habitans du plateau de Bogota
Pyramide de Cholula
Buste d'une pretress azteque [I]
Volcan de Cayambe
Interieur de la maison de l'Inca, au Canar
Front Cover
Genealogie des princes d'Azcapozalco
Back Cover
Ynga-Chungana, pres du Canar
Costumes dessines par des peintres mexicains du temps de Montezuma
Costumes des Indiens de Mechoacan [II]
Vue du Chimborazo et du Carguairazo
Ponts naturels d'Icononozo
Poste aux lettres de la province de Jaen de Bracamoros
Radeau de la riviere de Guayaquil
Fragmens de peintures hieroglyphiques tires du Codes Telleriano-Remensis [I]
Peinture hieroglyphique tiree du manuscrit borgien de Veletri, et signes des jours de l'almanach mexicain
Volcan de Cotopaxi
Ruines de Miguitlan ou Mitla dans la province d'Oaxaca; plan et elevation [I]
Le dragonnier de l'Orotava
Fragment d'un calendrier chretien tire des manuscrits azteques conserves a la bibliotheque royale de Berlin
Le Chimborazo, vu depuis le plateau de Tapia
Peintures hieroglyphiques tirees du manuscrit mexicain conserve a bibliotheque imperiale de Vienne No. 1
Fragmens de peintures hieroglyphiques tires du Codes Telleriano-Remensis [II]
Volcan d'air de Turbaco
Plan d'une maison fortifiee de l'Inca, situee sur le dos de la Cordillere-de l'Assuay
Title Page
Monument de Xochiacalco
Relief mexicain trouve a Oaxaca
Idole azteque de porphyre basaltique, trouveee sous le pave ge la grande place de Mexico
Manuscrit hieroglyphique azteque, conserve a la bibliotheque du Vatican
Coffre de Perote
Passage de la montagne de Quindiu, dans la Cordillere des Andes
Vue de la Silla de Caracas
Vue de l'interieur du cratere du Pic de Teneriffe
Bas-relief azteque trouve a la grande place de Mexico
Ruines d'une partie de l'ancienne ville peruvienne de Chulucanas
Volcan de Pichincha
Costumes des Indiens de Mechoacan [I]
Masse detachee de la pyramide de Cholula
Roches basaltiques et Cascade de Regla
Relief en basalte representant le calendrier mexicain
Hache azteque
Maison de l'Inca, a Callo, dans le royaume de Quito


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