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Central America

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Central America Collection

History Archive - Central America Collection

Central America is geographically at the southern end of North America, lying between Mexico, Colombia, the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific. The coast of Central America was visited by Rodrigo de Bastidas in 1500, and by Columbus in 1502. It was invaded by Cortez in 1524. Guatemala and Salvador were held by Alvarado, second in command to Cortez. For three centuries the country was under Spanish rule and subject to frequent disturbances and harsh conditions.

Central America was the home of the Aztecs, and is rich in remains of this ancient civilization. The present inhabitants are Creoles or Spanish-speaking whites, Indians, Negroes and mixed races. Nation states in the region in the early 1900's include Belize (British Honduras), Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and Salvador. Belize is a British possession, the remaining states independent republics.

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Independence was achieved in 1821, and in 1823 a republic was formed by the union of the five provinces. Slavery was abolished in 1824, but after dissensions and civil war the republic was dissolved in 1838. The progress of the country has since been retarded by frequent wars and revolutions. In 1907 a meeting of delegates from all the states was held in Washington, U. S. A., and an agreement was made that all differences which may occur shall be submitted to a peace-court at Costa Rica.

At Tehuantepec, Mex., is a broad plain. In northern Guatemala the mountains begin, close to the Pacific, extending through Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua. Not of great height, they consist of detached ranges with volcanic peaks, some of which are active. Then comes the depression nearly filled by Lake Nicaragua, the largest inland body of water south of the great lakes. In Costa Rica highlands follow. Panama is a low plateau. The rivers flow mostly into the Gulf and the Caribbean. The climate is tropic and pestilential on the shores and along the streams, but moderate and healthful on the uplands. The rainfall is enormous, 200 inches at Panama, and creates heavy vegetation.

In geological formation, it differs from North and South America, and appears to belong to a different system, related to the West Indies, the mountain folds having an east and west trend, and apparently having no connection or relation to the Rocky Mountain and Andean systems of North and South America. Its length is 1,280 miles and maximum breadth 315 miles, dwindling to 28 miles at the Isthmus of Panama. The area is 207,474 square miles, and the population about 4,803,487, Panama included.

The animals of Central America are those of South America. There are heavy forests which are rich in mahogany and other valuable woods. The chief products are fruits, coffee, rubber, sugar, indigo and tobacco; corn, wheat and rice are grown to some extent. Mineral resources are great, including gold, silver, platinum, copper, lead, iron and zinc.


The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books


Image Name
Basalt tool
La Ciudad de Mexico 1869
Sea-wall of Panama at low tide
Portobelo, in 1910
Colegio de Mineria
Antiguedades Mexicanas que existen en el Museo Nacional de Mexico 1857
Atrio del Convento de San Francisco 1860 (II)
Molino de Belen Lomas de Santa Fe Tacubaya
Paseo de Bucareli
Front Cover
Casa del Emperador Iturbide - Hoy Hotel de las Diligencias Generales
Plan of Port Fitzroy
Central America - Port Realejo
La Villa de Tacubaya tomada desde Chapultepec
Gorgon Villa with a View of Grey Town, March 1860
Jardin de la Plaza de Armas
La Villa de Guadalupe Tomada en Globo el Dia 13 de Diciembre
[Railroad Drawing]
La Fuente del Salto del Agua
San Antonio Chimalistaca Entrance de Sn. Angel (II)
Ruined Church of Santo Domingo, Panama
Trajes Mexicanos (II)
Plaza de San Agustin de las Cuevas Ciudad de Tlalpam (II)
Front Cover
Ataque de Una Diligencia
Columbus encounters great storms off Veragua
The Bridge over the Chagres, Half-way across the Isthmus
Decorated vase from Indian graves
Palacio Nacional de Mexico
La Villa de Tacubaya tomada a ojo de Pajaro Sobre del Camino de Toluc
El Valle de Mexico tomado desde las alturas de Chapultepec
Piedra Pintada
Gorgon Bay
El Pueblo de Ixtacalco 1869
Group of Indians
El Paseo de la Viga
Trajes Mexicanos (III)
Ascending the Chagres River
Surveying for the Panama Railroad
Plaza de Armas de Mexico
Sir Francis Drake
Plano General de la Ciudad de Mexico 1875
Battle of Old Panama
Culebra Cut, in 1910
Triangular monument and Washington House, Colon
Isthmian jungle
Eastern Suburb of Panama Railway - Terminus on the Right
Gatun on the Chagres, in 1907
Sir Henry Morgan
Map Shewing Lines of Communication via New Transmit Route Through Central America
Ruins of the Castle of San Lorenzo
Street in village of Taboga
Interior de la Alameda de Mexico (I)
Illustrated Title Page
Bellin's map of the Isthmus, 1754
Title Page
View of Plantation just below Machuca Rapids, River San Juan
Title Page
Golden figures from the guacas of Chiriqui
San Juan del Sur 1859
Trajes Mexicanos un Fandango
Cathedral of Panama
El Sagrario de Mexico
Title Page
Indios Kikapoos presentados a Sm. Maximiliano 1865
Atrio del Convento de San Francisco 1860 (I)
San Antonio Chimalistaca Entrance de Sn. Angel (I)
Las Cadenas en Una Noche de Luna
La Alameda de Mexico tomada en Globe
Eastern End of Gorgon Bay
Delta of the River San Juan
Title Page
Greytown Harbour
Cruces, formerly called Yenta de Cruces
Trajes Mexicanos (IV)
Book Display
Plaza de Santo Domingo
Restored Toscanelli chart of 1474
Cathedral tower of Old Panama
La Fuente de la Tlaxpana
Map of Central America
Interior of ruined Church, Old Panama
Back Cover
Tree-dwelling Indians in the lowlands of Panama
Plaza de Morelos
Nombre de Dios, in 1909
Primeval Forest, Preparing for the Iron Road
Back Cover
Ancient stone bridge at Old Panama
Birds-Eye View of the Panama Canal
Trajes Mexicanos (I)
Back Cover
Map of the Republic of Panama and of the Canal
Estacion de Puebla Inauguracion del Camino de Fierro


Map Name
The Panama Canal - Birds-Eye View of the Panama Canal (1913)
The Gate of the Pacific - Map of Central America (1863)
The Gate of the Pacific - Map Shewing Lines of Communication via New Transmit Route Through Central America (1863)


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