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Canada

Canada Collection

History Archive - Canada Collection

Canada comprises the northern half of the continent of North America and its adjacent islands, excepting Alaska, which belongs to the United States. Its boundary on the south is the parallel of latitude 49&176;, between the Pacific Ocean and Lake-of-the-Woods, then a chain of small lakes and rivers eastward to the mouth of Pigeon river on the north-west side of Lake Superior, and the Great Lakes with their connecting rivers to Cornwall, on the St Lawrence.

From this eastward to the state of Maine the boundary is an artificial line nearly corresponding to lat. 45&176;; then an irregular line partly determined by watersheds and rivers divides Canada from Maine, coming out on the Bay of Fundy. The western boundary is the Pacific on the south, an irregular line a few miles inland from the coast along the "pan handle" of Alaska to Mount St Elias, and the meridian of 141&176; to the Arctic Ocean. A somewhat similar relationship cuts off Canada from the Atlantic on the east, the north-eastern coast of Labrador belonging to Newfoundland.

The first few decades of the period of British rule were lean years indeed so far as native literature is concerned. This period of unrest gave birth to little beyond a flood of political pamphlets, of no present value save as material for the historian. We may perhaps except the able though thoroughly partisan writings of Sir John Beverley Robinson and Bishop Strachan on the one side, and Robert Fleming Gourlay and William Lyon Mackenzie on the other.

In the far West, however, a little group of adventurous fur-traders, of whom Sir Alexander Mackenzie, David Thompson, Alexander Henry and Daniel Williams Harmon may be taken as conspicuous types, were unfolding the vast expanse of the future dominion. They were men of action, not of words, and had no thought of literary fame, but their absorbingly interesting journals are none the less an essential part of the literature of the country.

Barring the work of Francis Parkman, who was not a Canadian, no history of the first rank has yet been written in or of Canada. Canadian historians have not merely lacked so far the genius for really great historical work, but they have lacked the point of view; they have stood too close to their subject to get the true perspective. At the same time they have brought together invaluable material for the great historian of the future.

Robert Christie's History of Lower Canada (1848-1854) was the first serious attempt to deal with the period of British rule. William Kingsford's (1819-1898) ambitious work, in ten volumes, comes down like Christie's to the Union of 1841, but goes back to the very beginnings of Canadian history. In the main it is impartial and accurate, but the style is heavy and sometimes slovenly. J. C. Dent's (1841-1888) Last Forty Years (1880) is practically a continuation of Kingsford.

Dent also wrote an interesting though one-sided account of the rebellion of 1837. Histories of the maritime provinces have been written by Thomas Chandler Haliburton, Beamish Murdoch and James Hannay. Haliburton's is much the best of the three. The brief but stirring history of western Canada has been told by Alexander Begg (1840-1898); and George Bryce (b. 1844) and Beckles Willson (b. 1869) have written the story of the Hudson's Bay Company.

Much scholarship and research have been devoted to local and special historical subjects, a notable example of which is Arthur Doughty's exhaustive work on the siege of Quebec. J. McMullen (b. 1820), Charles Roberts (b. 1860) and Sir John Bourinot (1837-1902) have written brief and popular histories, covering the whole field of Canadian history more or less adequately. Alpheus Todd's (1821-1884) Parliamentary Government in England (1867-1869) and Parliamentary Government in the British Colonies (1880) are standard works, as is also Bourinot's Parliamentary Procedure and Practice (1884).

References:

1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 5. 142-168

Available Books

Book Title Date
Canada - Sketches on the Nipisaguit Sketches on the Nipisaguit 1860
Canada - Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 1865
Canada - Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 1865
Canada - Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 1 Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 1 1860
Canada - Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 2 Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 2 1860
Canada - Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 1 Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 1 1863
Canada - Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 2 Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 2 1863
Canada - Hunter's Ottawa Scenery Hunter's Ottawa Scenery 1855
Canada - Lithographic Views of Military Operations in Canada Lithographic Views of Military Operations in Canada 1840
Canada - Sketches in New Brunswick Sketches in New Brunswick 1836
Canada - Upper Canada Sketches Upper Canada Sketches 1898
Canada - Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America 1859
Canada - After Icebergs with a Painter After Icebergs with a Painter 1861
Canada - Voyage of His Majesty's Ship Rosamond to Newfoundland Voyage of His Majesty's Ship Rosamond to Newfoundland 1818
Canada - Journal of a Voyage from Okkak Journal of a Voyage from Okkak 1814
Canada - Narrative of a Voyage to Hudson's Bay in His Majesty's Ship Rosamond Narrative of a Voyage to Hudson's Bay in His Majesty's Ship Rosamond 1817
Canada - A Trip to Newfoundland A Trip to Newfoundland 1855
Canada - Forest Life in Acadie Forest Life in Acadie 1869
Canada - Travels Through the Canadas Travels Through the Canadas 1807
Canada - Travels Through Canada, and the United States Vol. 1 Travels Through Canada, and the United States Vol. 1 1813
Canada - Travels Through Canada, and the United States Vol. 2 Travels Through Canada, and the United States Vol. 2 1813
Canada - Sport, Travel, and Adventure in Newfoundland and the West Indies Sport, Travel, and Adventure in Newfoundland and the West Indies 1885
Canada - Excursions in and about Newfoundland Vol. 1 Excursions in and about Newfoundland Vol. 1 1842
Canada - Excursions in and about Newfoundland Vol. 2 Excursions in and about Newfoundland Vol. 2 1842
Canada - Notes of a Sporting Expedition in the Far West of Canada Notes of a Sporting Expedition in the Far West of Canada 1898
Canada - Souvenir of the Rockies [Canadian Rockies] Souvenir of the Rockies [Canadian Rockies] 1910
Canada - Souvenir of Montreal Souvenir of Montreal 1910
Canada - Ottawa and Vicinity Ottawa and Vicinity 1900
Canada - Pioneers in Canada Pioneers in Canada 1912
Canada - Art & War; Canadian War Memorials Art & War; Canadian War Memorials 1919
Canada - Canada, Painted and Described Canada, Painted and Described 1907
Canada - Sketches of Newfoundland and Labrador Sketches of Newfoundland and Labrador 1858
Canada - The Fair Dominion The Fair Dominion 1911
Canada - L'Amerique du Nord Pittoresque L'Amerique du Nord Pittoresque 1880
Canada - The Falls of Niagara The Falls of Niagara 1895
Canada - Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales 1860
Canada - The Canadian Lake Region The Canadian Lake Region 1914
Canada - Six Perspective Views on Belle Isle Six Perspective Views on Belle Isle 1763
Canada - Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 1964
Canada - Souvenir of Quebec Souvenir of Quebec 1910
Canada - Picturesque Okanagan Picturesque Okanagan 1910
Canada - Picturesque Souvenir of Gananoque and Thousand Islands Picturesque Souvenir of Gananoque and Thousand Islands 1910
Canada - Picturesque Vancouver B.C. Picturesque Vancouver B.C. 1910
Canada - Picturesque Vancouver B.C. Picturesque Vancouver B.C. 1911
Canada - Picturesque Victoria Picturesque Victoria 1910
Canada - Souvenir of Brockville, Ont. Souvenir of Brockville, Ont. 1910
Canada - Souvenir of Calgary, Alta. Souvenir of Calgary, Alta. 1912
Canada - Souvenir of Edmonton, Alta. Souvenir of Edmonton, Alta. 1910
Canada - Souvenir of Lethbridge, Alta. Souvenir of Lethbridge, Alta. 1910
Canada - Souvenir of St. John N.B. Souvenir of St. John N.B. 1910
Canada - Souvenir of Winnipeg-Manitoba Souvenir of Winnipeg-Manitoba 1911
Canada - Views of London, Ontario Views of London, Ontario 1910
Canada - Sunset Canada, British Columbia and Beyond Sunset Canada, British Columbia and Beyond 1918

Images

Image Name
Kentville (Nova Scotia)
View from Barrack Hill looking down the Ottawa, Ottawa City, Canada
The Sherman Grand Block
View of the City of Halifax, Nova Scotia, from Dartmouth
Fort Chambly
Incline Railway
Aylmer (Upper Canada)
Olympic Mountains, from Coast near Victoria
Lake St. Charles
Early Spring, near Victoria, British Columbia
Book Display
Forteau Church
Prof. Nichol's Cottage, Thousand Islands
Nasquapees on the Moisie
Seal Hunting on the Moisie
St. Michael's Bay
Citadel of Kingston (from the St. Laurence)
Logging Scene. Roger Conant in Darlington, Co., Durham, Upper Canada, 1778
Parliament Buildings
Central School
Map of the Route of H.R.H., the Prince of Wales through British North America
A Gold Prospector
Explanatory Sketch of Col. Gores Operations at St. Denis (I)
A Glimpse of Niagara from under Luna Island
A Farmyard in Ontario
Portage Below the Little Falls
Bank of Toronto, King Street
The Winding Sheet
Shooting the Chutes, Rockwood Park
Residence of E.H. Dickson, Thousand Islands
Victoria Jubilee Bridge
The Reservoir and Driveway
Grand Trunk Railway Station
Ancienne Lorette, near Quebec Church of Annunciation
The Shadow, Thousand Islands
Strathcona Bridge
Toad's Cove
Long Sault Rapid, on the St. Laurence
Lake Louise and Victoria Glacier, near Laggan
Apple Orchard in Blossom, Okanagan Valley
General Hospital
Erecting the Mill-Dam at Stanley
The Citadel, Quebec
Montreal from the Prince's Balcony
Old-Fashioned Farm, New Brunswick
Main Street, showing Morris Theatre
Top of the Mountain
Jeune Lorette
Rideau Falls, Falling into the Ottawa River, Ottawa River, Canada
Copp's Ferry (near Georgeville)
Domenique, Chief of the Montagnais of Lake Ashwanipi
Big Trees in Stanley Park, Vancouver
Collegiate Institute, London, Ont., Canada
Chateau Frontenac and Citadel from the River
Title Page
Quebec, from the opposite shore of the St. Laurence
Cape Porcupine, Gut of Canso, Cape Breton
Title Page
Montagnais Camp on One of the Mingan Islands
Cape Blowmedon and Parrsboro
Main Street from Third Avenue
The Ottawa at Vaudreuil
Back Cover
Nasquapee Copper and Iron Fish Hooks
Okanagan Lake from C.P.R Steamer near Kelowna, B.C.
A Forest Scene
Toboganning at Rosedale, Toronto
Mount Rundle, near Banff
Montmorency Bridge
Mount Cheops and the Hermit Range
Montreal (from the St. Laurence)
White Mud Portage
Rideau Hall, Residence of the Governor General
Normal School, South London, Ont., Canada
St. John's Church and King Street, looking West
North Vancouver
Title Page
Third Avenue, looking West, from Park Square
View of Nelson, from Kootenay River
Title Page
Colonel Wetherall's Bivouack at St. Hilaire de Rouville 23rd and 24th Nov., 1837
View at Red River Settlement
Chateau Frontenac
Oriental Isle, Thousand Islands
Gananoque Inn
University of Manitoba, showing 79th Cameron Highlanders on parade
Chart of the Saint Lawrence
Mountain Sheep at Home
Queen Victoria and Cartier Monuments, Parliament Hill
Front Cover
Douglas Street
A Trail in the Rockies
St. John from the Signal
Eastern Canada and Newfoundland
C.P.R. S.S.
Front Cover

Maps

Map Name
Hunter's Ottawa Scenery - Map of Railroad Routs to the City of Ottawa (1855)
Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 2 - Map of the Country from Lake Superior to the Pacific Ocean (1860)
Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales - General View of the North Atlantic with Part of the Coasts of Europe and North America (1860)
Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 2 - Map of the Peninsula of Labrador (1863)
Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 2 - Geological Profiles of Routes Along the Expedition (1860)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Map to Illustrate Mr. Kane's Travels (1859)
Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 1 - Map of the River Moisie and Adjoining Country (1863)
Canada, Painted and Described - Sketch Map of the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland (1907)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - Map of Canada (1865)
Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales - Map of the Route of H.R.H., the Prince of Wales through British North America (1860)

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