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Canada

Canada Collection

History Archive - Canada Collection

Canada comprises the northern half of the continent of North America and its adjacent islands, excepting Alaska, which belongs to the United States. Its boundary on the south is the parallel of latitude 49&176;, between the Pacific Ocean and Lake-of-the-Woods, then a chain of small lakes and rivers eastward to the mouth of Pigeon river on the north-west side of Lake Superior, and the Great Lakes with their connecting rivers to Cornwall, on the St Lawrence.

From this eastward to the state of Maine the boundary is an artificial line nearly corresponding to lat. 45&176;; then an irregular line partly determined by watersheds and rivers divides Canada from Maine, coming out on the Bay of Fundy. The western boundary is the Pacific on the south, an irregular line a few miles inland from the coast along the "pan handle" of Alaska to Mount St Elias, and the meridian of 141&176; to the Arctic Ocean. A somewhat similar relationship cuts off Canada from the Atlantic on the east, the north-eastern coast of Labrador belonging to Newfoundland.

The first few decades of the period of British rule were lean years indeed so far as native literature is concerned. This period of unrest gave birth to little beyond a flood of political pamphlets, of no present value save as material for the historian. We may perhaps except the able though thoroughly partisan writings of Sir John Beverley Robinson and Bishop Strachan on the one side, and Robert Fleming Gourlay and William Lyon Mackenzie on the other.

In the far West, however, a little group of adventurous fur-traders, of whom Sir Alexander Mackenzie, David Thompson, Alexander Henry and Daniel Williams Harmon may be taken as conspicuous types, were unfolding the vast expanse of the future dominion. They were men of action, not of words, and had no thought of literary fame, but their absorbingly interesting journals are none the less an essential part of the literature of the country.

Barring the work of Francis Parkman, who was not a Canadian, no history of the first rank has yet been written in or of Canada. Canadian historians have not merely lacked so far the genius for really great historical work, but they have lacked the point of view; they have stood too close to their subject to get the true perspective. At the same time they have brought together invaluable material for the great historian of the future.

Robert Christie's History of Lower Canada (1848-1854) was the first serious attempt to deal with the period of British rule. William Kingsford's (1819-1898) ambitious work, in ten volumes, comes down like Christie's to the Union of 1841, but goes back to the very beginnings of Canadian history. In the main it is impartial and accurate, but the style is heavy and sometimes slovenly. J. C. Dent's (1841-1888) Last Forty Years (1880) is practically a continuation of Kingsford.

Dent also wrote an interesting though one-sided account of the rebellion of 1837. Histories of the maritime provinces have been written by Thomas Chandler Haliburton, Beamish Murdoch and James Hannay. Haliburton's is much the best of the three. The brief but stirring history of western Canada has been told by Alexander Begg (1840-1898); and George Bryce (b. 1844) and Beckles Willson (b. 1869) have written the story of the Hudson's Bay Company.

Much scholarship and research have been devoted to local and special historical subjects, a notable example of which is Arthur Doughty's exhaustive work on the siege of Quebec. J. McMullen (b. 1820), Charles Roberts (b. 1860) and Sir John Bourinot (1837-1902) have written brief and popular histories, covering the whole field of Canadian history more or less adequately. Alpheus Todd's (1821-1884) Parliamentary Government in England (1867-1869) and Parliamentary Government in the British Colonies (1880) are standard works, as is also Bourinot's Parliamentary Procedure and Practice (1884).

References:

1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 5. 142-168

Available Books

Book Title Date
Canada - Sketches on the Nipisaguit Sketches on the Nipisaguit 1860
Canada - Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 1865
Canada - Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 1865
Canada - Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 1 Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 1 1860
Canada - Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 2 Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 2 1860
Canada - Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 1 Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 1 1863
Canada - Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 2 Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 2 1863
Canada - Hunter's Ottawa Scenery Hunter's Ottawa Scenery 1855
Canada - Lithographic Views of Military Operations in Canada Lithographic Views of Military Operations in Canada 1840
Canada - Sketches in New Brunswick Sketches in New Brunswick 1836
Canada - Upper Canada Sketches Upper Canada Sketches 1898
Canada - Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America 1859
Canada - After Icebergs with a Painter After Icebergs with a Painter 1861
Canada - Voyage of His Majesty's Ship Rosamond to Newfoundland Voyage of His Majesty's Ship Rosamond to Newfoundland 1818
Canada - Journal of a Voyage from Okkak Journal of a Voyage from Okkak 1814
Canada - Narrative of a Voyage to Hudson's Bay in His Majesty's Ship Rosamond Narrative of a Voyage to Hudson's Bay in His Majesty's Ship Rosamond 1817
Canada - A Trip to Newfoundland A Trip to Newfoundland 1855
Canada - Forest Life in Acadie Forest Life in Acadie 1869
Canada - Travels Through the Canadas Travels Through the Canadas 1807
Canada - Travels Through Canada, and the United States Vol. 1 Travels Through Canada, and the United States Vol. 1 1813
Canada - Travels Through Canada, and the United States Vol. 2 Travels Through Canada, and the United States Vol. 2 1813
Canada - Sport, Travel, and Adventure in Newfoundland and the West Indies Sport, Travel, and Adventure in Newfoundland and the West Indies 1885
Canada - Excursions in and about Newfoundland Vol. 1 Excursions in and about Newfoundland Vol. 1 1842
Canada - Excursions in and about Newfoundland Vol. 2 Excursions in and about Newfoundland Vol. 2 1842
Canada - Notes of a Sporting Expedition in the Far West of Canada Notes of a Sporting Expedition in the Far West of Canada 1898
Canada - Souvenir of the Rockies [Canadian Rockies] Souvenir of the Rockies [Canadian Rockies] 1910
Canada - Souvenir of Montreal Souvenir of Montreal 1910
Canada - Ottawa and Vicinity Ottawa and Vicinity 1900
Canada - Pioneers in Canada Pioneers in Canada 1912
Canada - Art & War; Canadian War Memorials Art & War; Canadian War Memorials 1919
Canada - Canada, Painted and Described Canada, Painted and Described 1907
Canada - Sketches of Newfoundland and Labrador Sketches of Newfoundland and Labrador 1858
Canada - The Fair Dominion The Fair Dominion 1911
Canada - L'Amerique du Nord Pittoresque L'Amerique du Nord Pittoresque 1880
Canada - The Falls of Niagara The Falls of Niagara 1895
Canada - Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales 1860
Canada - The Canadian Lake Region The Canadian Lake Region 1914
Canada - Six Perspective Views on Belle Isle Six Perspective Views on Belle Isle 1763
Canada - Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 1964
Canada - Souvenir of Quebec Souvenir of Quebec 1910
Canada - Picturesque Okanagan Picturesque Okanagan 1910
Canada - Picturesque Souvenir of Gananoque and Thousand Islands Picturesque Souvenir of Gananoque and Thousand Islands 1910
Canada - Picturesque Vancouver B.C. Picturesque Vancouver B.C. 1910
Canada - Picturesque Vancouver B.C. Picturesque Vancouver B.C. 1911
Canada - Picturesque Victoria Picturesque Victoria 1910
Canada - Souvenir of Brockville, Ont. Souvenir of Brockville, Ont. 1910
Canada - Souvenir of Calgary, Alta. Souvenir of Calgary, Alta. 1912
Canada - Souvenir of Edmonton, Alta. Souvenir of Edmonton, Alta. 1910
Canada - Souvenir of Lethbridge, Alta. Souvenir of Lethbridge, Alta. 1910
Canada - Souvenir of St. John N.B. Souvenir of St. John N.B. 1910
Canada - Souvenir of Winnipeg-Manitoba Souvenir of Winnipeg-Manitoba 1911
Canada - Views of London, Ontario Views of London, Ontario 1910
Canada - Sunset Canada, British Columbia and Beyond Sunset Canada, British Columbia and Beyond 1918

Images

Image Name
Indians Hunting Bison
Portrait of Kee-akee-ka-saa-ka-wow with Pipe-stem
Mouth of the Gananoque River
The Armouries
Chinese Bell and Totem Pole, Beacon Hill Park
General View looking West from St. James Cathedral
Raft in a Squall, on Lake St. Peter
The Owls Head (Lake Memphremagog)
Christiaan Haesler, Swiss Guide
The Beach and S.S.
General View of Parliament Buildings
An Escape at the Fourth Rapid
Mount Temple, with Wild Goats Feeding
Blackfriars Mill, London, Ont., Canada
Front Cover
Beacon Hill Park
Sous-le-Cap Street
Light-tower, near Coburg (Lake Ontario)
Toronto, from the Island
Bridge near Quebec
Chateau Frontenac and Dufferin Terrace
Dunsmuir Castle
Mount Stephen (Alt. 10,523)
Senator Lougheed's Residence
Corner First Street East and 8th Avenue, showing Dominion Bank Buildings
Rideau Canal
Montreal, from the Mountain
Long Sault Rapid, on the St. Laurence
St. John N.B. and Harbour
Winter-Time in Vancouver Island, British Columbia
Basin of Minas, Nova Scotia
A Sentinel of the Rockies
On Eagle River
Carnegie Library
Y.M.C.A. Building, London, Canada
The Valley from Rogers Pass
Drive near C.P.R. Hotel, Banff
Interior of St. James Cathedral
Almost an Accident
Government House
A Branch of Okanagan Beauties
Outlet of Lake Memphremagog
Gananoque from Clock Tower
Title Page
Military Review on the Plains of Abraham
Display
Bonsecours Church
Montmorency Falls
Misericordia Hospital
Trail to the Great Glacier
Wall Street Methodist Church
Windsor, Nova Scotia, from the residence of Judge Haliburton
A Trail in the Rockies
Auto Parade, Vernon, B.C.
Fort Garray
Front Cover
Geological Profiles of Routes Along the Expedition
Whales at Dock on Alberni Canal
Broadway
Entrance to Tatlow Walk, Stanley Park
Perpendicular Rocks on the Moisie
Illecillewaet below Sir Donald
The Kootenay or Head Stream of the Columbia River
Front Cover
Apple Orchard, Okanagan Valley, B.C.
Monmorency Cove (near Quebec)
A Gold Prospector
View from Wolfe Creek, Mount Geike in distance, Canadian Rockies, G.T.P. Route
Susan, a Swampy Half-Breed
Ottawa, from near the Experimental Farm
Springbank Park, London, Canada
Forteau Church
Along Tatlow Walk, Stanley Park, Vancouver, B.C.
North Vancouver
Jeune Lorette
Ka-Ka-Beka Falls, Kaministiquia River
Douglas Fir, on Island Highway
Moraine Lake, Valley of the Ten Peaks
Port Hope
Band Concert, Dufferin Terrace
Queenstown
Post Office
Falls of Chaudiere, near Quebec
Back Cover
Title Page
Parliament Buildings
Front Cover
B.C. Electrical Passenger Depot
St. Paul's Church
Illecillewaet Valley and Loop from Mt. Abbott
Burial-place on the Cowlitz River
Autumn in New Brunswick
Perce Rock
Armstrong's Point
In the Moose Country, near Lake Superior
Indian Pipe

Maps

Map Name
Canada, Painted and Described - Sketch Map of the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland (1907)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - Map of Canada (1865)
Hunter's Ottawa Scenery - Map of Railroad Routs to the City of Ottawa (1855)
Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales - Map of the Route of H.R.H., the Prince of Wales through British North America (1860)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Map to Illustrate Mr. Kane's Travels (1859)
Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 2 - Geological Profiles of Routes Along the Expedition (1860)
Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 2 - Map of the Country from Lake Superior to the Pacific Ocean (1860)
Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 2 - Map of the Peninsula of Labrador (1863)
Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales - General View of the North Atlantic with Part of the Coasts of Europe and North America (1860)
Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 1 - Map of the River Moisie and Adjoining Country (1863)

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