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Atlantic Ocean Collection

History Archive - Atlantic Ocean Collection

Atlantic Ocean, so called either from Mt. Atlas or from the fabulous island of Atlantis, which separates the old from the new world. Its greatest width is about 5,000 miles; but between Brazil and the African coast the distance is only about 1,600 miles. It is in open communication both with the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic or Southern Ocean. The average depth is between two and three miles, though in places it is twice that depth.

It has been sounded in all directions, and it has been found that as a rule the bed of the ocean is a broad, gently undulating plain, though near some of the continental shores and around some of the volcanic cones which rise from this floor there are very steep slopes. Life exists at all depths of the sea, though becoming less abundant at greater depths; while the surface waters from equator to poles swarm with all kinds of plants and animals, many of which give forth a phosphorescent light, causing what is known as the luminosity of the sea.

Though only about half as large as the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic is much more important, as the most civilized nations of the world live on its shores and it is the great highway of trade for the world. Its coasts are better surveyed and better provided with lighthouses than those of any other ocean. It is divided by the equator into the North Atlantic and South Atlantic, with respective areas of 14,000,000 and 10,000,000 square miles. It is estimated that the yearly discharge of rivers into the Atlantic is 3,400 cubic miles of water, equal to about one half of the river discharge of the world.

There are warm and cold currents in the Atlantic, which have an effect on the neighboring lands. The most important is the Gulf Stream. It starts from the Gulf of Mexico and spreads out over the ocean to the south of Newfoundland; one part of it returns to the tropics off the coasts of Spain and Africa; the other passes northward between the British Isles and Iceland and on to the coasts of Norway, which are thus rendered habitable, though the opposite coasts of Greenland are icebound.

The chief inlets of the Atlantic are, on the west, Baffin Bay, Davis and Hudson Straits, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; and on the east the North and Baltic Seas, Bay of Biscay, Strait of Gibraltar and Gulf of Guinea. The principal islands washed by the ocean are, on the west, Newfoundland, Bermuda, Bahama and West India Islands, Trinidad and the Falkland Islands; and on the east, Iceland, Faroe, Shetland, Orkney and the British Islands, the Azores, Madeira, Canary and Cape Verd Islands, together with St. Paul, Ascension and St. Helena. Some twenty cables now cross the Atlantic floor between the Old World and the New; while the Marconi wireless system, now successfully inaugurated, adds to the facilities of international communication.

The islands of the Atlantic Ocean are - except for those in one concentrated region - scattered far and wide, with little in common but their relative obscurity.

The most numerous group of islands are the so-called West Indies and their neighbors, located southeast of North America, east of Central America, and north of South America. Although part of the Atlantic, this sea forms its own region: the Caribbean.

Geologically, the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands in the Lucayan island chain are in the Atlantic Ocean but are culturally and tourism-wise considered part of the Caribbean (West Indies) and listed as such.

The near-polar islands to the far north and south are covered here among the islands of the Arctic Ocean (Arctic) and Southern Ocean (Antarctica). The remaining islands of the Atlantic run rather intermittently from the southwestern tip of Europe, past West Africa, across the equator, to the open waters of the South Atlantic:

Northern Hemisphere

Southern Hemisphere

Plutarch in his Parallel Lives (Sertorius, 75 AD) referring to the military commander Quintus Sertorius (d. 72 BC), relates that after his return to Cádiz, he met sailors who spoke of idyllic Atlantic islands: "The islands are said to be two in number separated by a very narrow strait and lie 10,000 furlongs (2,011.68 km) from Africa. They are called the Isles of the Blest." Archeological evidence suggests that the islands may have been visited by the Vikings sometime between AD 900 and 1030.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

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Available Books

Images

Image Name
Casino Ballroom
Mist on the Highlands
Road Leading to Casino
After Goats in the Desertas
The New Palace Hotel
Rabacal Levada : Entrance to the Tunnel
A Carro Stand : Funchal
Oak Bank
Beater and One of the Bag
The Forge on Deck : Night of August 9 : Preparing the Iron Plating for Capstan
Pico Grande
Manner of Drawing Pipes etc. by Means of the Sledge
The Pig Market
An Officer and Private of the Garrison of Funchal
Approaching the Machico Valley
Back Cover
Priests in Different Attire
A Charming Corner
Basket Chairs coming into Town
The Atlantic Telegraph [Chart] (1865)
The Late King of Portugal playing tennis at the Palheiro
Views of Lower Part of James Town
An Ox Carro : Funchal
A Wayside "Venda"
Belladonna Amaryllis and Hydrangea
Cabo Girao
R.M.S.P. "Avon" Saloon, showing portion of Dome
Front Cover
On the Northern Coast
A Terrace of Idylls : Quinta da Levada
The Desertas : Sail Rock
Funchal Bay from the West
Wood Cutters : The Dinner Hour
Belladonna Amaryllis Growing Wild
Title Page - Weighing Anchor off the Maplin Sands, Nore, July 15, 1865
The Casino Gardens
West Country Passenger Boat Sailing into Harbour
A Scene on the Road to Machico
The Horn at Sunrise
General View of Port Magee, &c., from the Heights Below Cora Beg : The Caroline Laying the Shore End of the Cable, July 22
Front view of Longwood Old House
Hauling up a Dinghy
Inside of a Cottage
West View of Loo Fort
Peasants Going to Market
Napoleon's Tomb
A Roadside Scene
H.M.S. Agamemnon Laying the Atlantic Telegraph Cable in 1858 : A Whale Crosses the Line
Fishing Boats at Cama de Lobos Bay
Chart, Showing the Track of the Steam-Ship Great Eastern on Her Voyage from Valentia to Newfoundland
A Mountain Path : Ribeiro Frio
Title Page
Casino Terrace
Peasants Resting by the Wayside
Pine Trees at S. Antonio da Serra
View of James Town from the road leading to the Briars
Country Musicians
The Desertas : The Pine Copse
Paying-Out Machinery
Manner of Bringing Wine to Town when Clear
A Corner of the Orchid House : Quinta Reid
Funchal Beach : A Morning Toilette
The Levada de Joao Gomes
A Cottage Enclosure
Official Dress of the Members of the Camera or Senate on the Death of the King and Accession of His Successor
Coiling the Cable in the After-Tank on Board the Great Eastern at Sheerness : Visit of H.R.H. The Prince of Wales on May 24.
Procession Leaving S. Peter's Church, Funchal
Telegraph House, Trinity Bay, Newfoundland : Interior of Mess-Room 1858
Launching a Wine-laden Lighter
Drilling
Interior of One of the Tanks on Board the Great Eastern : Cable Passing Out
Members of the Senate
The Logberg and Thingvalla Vatn
Funchal Jetty in a Storm
In the Matade Valley
Madeira from the Ocean
Back Cover
At the Top of Pico Arriero
Melstad and Reykir
Virgin Forest in the Interior
A Madeira Garden Party
Funchal : The Old Town Gate
Early Morning : Funchal Bay
The Reels of Gutta-Percha-Covered Conducting-Wire Conveyed into Tanks at the Works at Greenwich
A Funchal Boatman
Rural Toil
Title Page
Rural Occupations
A Bright Garden Corner
The Camp
Easter Sunday at the English Church
The Hansom Cab of Madeira
Yoke of Draught Oxen
Palm Tree and Wistaria : Quina da Levada
Cutting Sugar Cane
The Old Frigate with Her Freight of Cable Alongside the Great Eastern at Sheerness

Maps

Map Name
The Atlantic Telegraph - Chart, Showing the Track of the Steam-Ship Great Eastern on Her Voyage from Valentia to Newfoundland (1865)

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