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Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean Collection

History Archive - Atlantic Ocean Collection

Atlantic Ocean, so called either from Mt. Atlas or from the fabulous island of Atlantis, which separates the old from the new world. Its greatest width is about 5,000 miles; but between Brazil and the African coast the distance is only about 1,600 miles. It is in open communication both with the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic or Southern Ocean. The average depth is between two and three miles, though in places it is twice that depth.

It has been sounded in all directions, and it has been found that as a rule the bed of the ocean is a broad, gently undulating plain, though near some of the continental shores and around some of the volcanic cones which rise from this floor there are very steep slopes. Life exists at all depths of the sea, though becoming less abundant at greater depths; while the surface waters from equator to poles swarm with all kinds of plants and animals, many of which give forth a phosphorescent light, causing what is known as the luminosity of the sea.

Though only about half as large as the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic is much more important, as the most civilized nations of the world live on its shores and it is the great highway of trade for the world. Its coasts are better surveyed and better provided with lighthouses than those of any other ocean. It is divided by the equator into the North Atlantic and South Atlantic, with respective areas of 14,000,000 and 10,000,000 square miles. It is estimated that the yearly discharge of rivers into the Atlantic is 3,400 cubic miles of water, equal to about one half of the river discharge of the world.

There are warm and cold currents in the Atlantic, which have an effect on the neighboring lands. The most important is the Gulf Stream. It starts from the Gulf of Mexico and spreads out over the ocean to the south of Newfoundland; one part of it returns to the tropics off the coasts of Spain and Africa; the other passes northward between the British Isles and Iceland and on to the coasts of Norway, which are thus rendered habitable, though the opposite coasts of Greenland are icebound.

The chief inlets of the Atlantic are, on the west, Baffin Bay, Davis and Hudson Straits, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; and on the east the North and Baltic Seas, Bay of Biscay, Strait of Gibraltar and Gulf of Guinea. The principal islands washed by the ocean are, on the west, Newfoundland, Bermuda, Bahama and West India Islands, Trinidad and the Falkland Islands; and on the east, Iceland, Faroe, Shetland, Orkney and the British Islands, the Azores, Madeira, Canary and Cape Verd Islands, together with St. Paul, Ascension and St. Helena. Some twenty cables now cross the Atlantic floor between the Old World and the New; while the Marconi wireless system, now successfully inaugurated, adds to the facilities of international communication.

The islands of the Atlantic Ocean are - except for those in one concentrated region - scattered far and wide, with little in common but their relative obscurity.

The most numerous group of islands are the so-called West Indies and their neighbors, located southeast of North America, east of Central America, and north of South America. Although part of the Atlantic, this sea forms its own region: the Caribbean.

Geologically, the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands in the Lucayan island chain are in the Atlantic Ocean but are culturally and tourism-wise considered part of the Caribbean (West Indies) and listed as such.

The near-polar islands to the far north and south are covered here among the islands of the Arctic Ocean (Arctic) and Southern Ocean (Antarctica). The remaining islands of the Atlantic run rather intermittently from the southwestern tip of Europe, past West Africa, across the equator, to the open waters of the South Atlantic:

Northern Hemisphere

Southern Hemisphere

Plutarch in his Parallel Lives (Sertorius, 75 AD) referring to the military commander Quintus Sertorius (d. 72 BC), relates that after his return to Cádiz, he met sailors who spoke of idyllic Atlantic islands: "The islands are said to be two in number separated by a very narrow strait and lie 10,000 furlongs (2,011.68 km) from Africa. They are called the Isles of the Blest." Archeological evidence suggests that the islands may have been visited by the Vikings sometime between AD 900 and 1030.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

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Available Books

Images

Image Name
Fishing Village of Cama de Lobos
Telegraph House, Trinity Bay, Newfoundland : Interior of Mess-Room 1858
Fishermen
View from Pico Arreiro
Funchal Beach : Country Market Boat
Funchal Beach : A Morning Toilette
Coiling the Cable in the Large Tanks at the Works at Green-Wich
At the Top of Pico Arriero
Views of Lower Part of James Town
Country Musicians
A Mountain Path : Ribeiro Frio
Longwood New House
The Fish Market : A Busy Corner
Map of Madeira
Surf on the Jetty
Road Leading to Casino
Descent of Arnardals Skarth
Wine Shipper's Yard : Funchal
A Wayside "Venda"
Flower Girl
The Pig Market : A Discussion on porcine Merits
A Roadside Scene
In the Matade Valley
Melstad and Reykir
A Typical Madeira Cottage
Funchal Urchins
Levada de Joao Gomes : Dangerous Spot above a Precipice
Launching Buoy on August 8, in Lat. 51° 25' 30''; Long. 30° 56' (Marking Spot Where Cable had Been Grappled)
The Great Eastern Under Weight, July 23 : Escort and Other Ships Introduced Being the Terrible, the Sphinx, the Hawk, and the Caroline
A Corner at the Casino Gardens
Rabacal Levada : Entrance to the Tunnel
Madeira from the Ocean
Funchal Jetty in a Storm
The Fish Market : Cutting up Tunny
Gill at Gilsbakki
A Madeira Garden Party
A Typical Country Flour Mill
Front view of Longwood Old House
In a Madeira Garden
Mules with Sacks of Wine : Monte Road
Cabo Girao
Manner of Drawing Pipes etc. by Means of the Sledge
Inland Scenery : Torres Mountains
Official Dress of the Members of the Camera or Senate on the Death of the King and Accession of His Successor
Little Wood Gatherers
H.M.S. Agamemnon Laying the Atlantic Telegraph Cable in 1858 : A Whale Crosses the Line
Pico Grande
A Sledge with Pipe of Madeira Wine
The Late King of Portugal playing tennis at the Palheiro
"Borachos," or Wine Skins
Searching for Fault After Recovery of the Cable from the Bed of the Atlantic, July 31
The Fall of Oxara
A Shady Corner : Flower and Fruit Market
R.M.S.P. "Avon" 1st Class Dining Saloon
Fishing Boats at Cama de Lobos Bay
A Picnic on the Hills
The Cable Passed from the Works into the Hulk Lying in the Thames at Greenwich
Funchal : The Old Town Gate
View of James Town from the road leading to the Briars
Easter Sunday at the English Church
A Corner of the Orchid House : Quinta Reid
"Pride of Madeira"
The Atlantic Telegraph [Map] (1865)
A Cottage Enclosure
Light, Shade and Blossom
Marshal Bertrand's Cottage
Tree Ferns at the Palheiro
Budar-Os
Hauling Sugar Cane
Virgin Forest in the Interior
Title Page
En route for the Goats
Girl with a Water Pote at the Side of a Levada
A Carro Stand : Funchal
The Atlantic Telegraph [Chart] (1865)
The Horn at Sunrise
Road near S. Antonio da Serra
The Desertas : Sail Rock
Interior of One of the Tanks on Board the Great Eastern : Cable Passing Out
Rural Occupations
Trinity Bay, Newfoundland : Exterior View of Telegraph House in 1857-1858
The Briars
View of Upper Part of Main Street
Usual Manner of Travelling in Hammocks
Coiling the Cable in the After-Tank on Board the Great Eastern at Sheerness : Visit of H.R.H. The Prince of Wales on May 24.
The Great Eastern (1865)
In the Sugar Cane Fields
After Goats in the Desertas
A Nun and Her Attendant
Mist on the Highlands
Peasants Grinding Maize
Approaching the Machico Valley
Procession Approaching the Cathedral
Inside of a Cottage
A Prior of the Order of St. Francis and a Lay Brother
Members of the Senate

Maps

Map Name
The Atlantic Telegraph - Chart, Showing the Track of the Steam-Ship Great Eastern on Her Voyage from Valentia to Newfoundland (1865)

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