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Arizona Collection

History Archive - Arizona Collection

Arizona, a southwestern state of the United States, is as large as Italy or New York and New England combined; area, 112,920 square miles. It is made up of great plains, mountains and cañons. The highest peak is Mt. San Francisco, 12,561 feet. The Colorado River, 1,100 miles long, runs through the mightiest series of chasms in the world, with walls of marble and granite 1,000 to 6,500 feet high. Where it is highest it is called the Grand Cañon. The Gila River is 650 miles long, and with its tributaries entirely crosses the southern portion of the territory.

The capital is Phoenix (population 11,134). Tucson, Jerome and Prescott are other large towns. An Italian friar and a freed African slave were the modern discoverers of Arizona, going there from Mexico in 1539 as missionaries. They found traces of a great and populous race, that had once lived there, either of the Pueblo or Aztec stock. The Jesuits followed these discoverers, but all their work was swept away by the Apache forays in 1828.

That part of the state north of the Gila River was ceded to the United States by Mexico in 1848 and the remainder in 1853 by the Gadsden purchase. Arizona was organized as a territory in 1863, having previously been part of New Mexico. With its admission as a state, Feb. 14, 1912, the last territory passed, and continental America became wholly a union of states. Population, 204,354.

Climate. There is a difference of both temperature and rainfall between the northern and southern sections, owing to their altitudes. Although the sandy region around Yuma is the hottest district north of the Isthmus of Panama, the dry atmosphere keeps the summer's heat from being very oppressive and makes the winter climate delightful.

Minerals. Arizona is rich in minerals, and mining is the chief business. Jerome is a very active mining town in the copper region; there has also been considerable development of gold mines. Coal, mica, nickel ores, wolframite, from which tungsten is made, limestone, marble, granite, sandstone, vanadium, turquoise and garnet occur. In Navajo County is a wonderful chalcedony forest. The cracked trunks of this petrified wood are sometimes four feet thick, and show the most exquisite colors. The total value of mineral output in 1910 was 43,483,912 dollars.

Forests. The mountain areas of Arizona are covered with forests of pine, cedar and other timber, while the cottonwood follows every stream. In the vicinity of the San Francisco Mountains the lumber industry is quite important, but in this and other sections the government has set aside vast timber tracts.

Agriculture. Because of lack of water, agricultural development has been greatly retarded. The valleys are remarkably fertile, and much is expected from the arid sections with the construction of the government reservoirs and extension of irrigated areas. The products at present embrace wheat, barley, alfalfa, apricots, oranges, olives, etc. Experiments are being conducted in the cultivation of Egyptian cotton and dates, thus utilizing the arid lands of the south.

Manufactures. Little as yet is being done in this line, but the chief manufacturing interests are mining, smelting, lumber and the car shop works.

Education. The public school system is good, and education is compulsory. In 1911 the public schools had 876 teachers and 32,029 enrolled pupils There are private and sectarian schools, a state university at Tucson, normal schools at Tempe and Flagstaff, high schools at Phoenix, Prescott and Mesa, and the government maintains several Indian schools. The state maintains an asylum for the insane near Phoenix, and an industrial school at Benson.


The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Available Books

Book Title Date
Arizona - Arizona, The Wonderland Arizona, The Wonderland 1917


Image Name
Lake Mary, near Flagstaff, Arizona
The Sun-Kissed Mountains of Arizona
Camping Under the Pines at Coleman Lake, near Williams, Arizona
A Portion of Cochise's Stronghold, near Tombstone, Arizona
The Petrified Bridge in the Petrified Forest of Arizona
A Home in Tucson, Arizona
At the Foot of the Fish Creek Grade, on the Apache Trail
Mooney Falls, in Havasu (Cataract) Canyon
The Roosevelt Dam and Reservoir, Arizona
The Dividing Line Between Mexico and the United States at Nogales
A Group of Homes, Douglas, Arizona
A Pueblo Indian Potter
Ruins of "Wolfville," Arizona
Back Cover
Santa Cruz River Bridge, near Nogales, Arizona
An Apache Maiden Water-Carrier at Palomas, Arizona
Woman's Club House, Tucson, Arizona
On the San Marcos Golf Links, Chandler, Arizona
Bubbling Spring Branch of Sagie Canyon, on the Navaho Reservation, Arizona
A Tree and Canal Lined Street at Chandler, Arizona
One of the New Tree-Lined Roads in the Salt River Valley
Map of Arizona
Scene of the "Fight of the Apache Cave"
A Lake on a Forest Reserve in Arizona
"Bucky" O'Neil Monument, in the Plaza, Prescott, Arizona
Electric Pumping Station, near Tucson, Arizona
In the Coconino National Forest, Arizona
Over the Apache Trail in the Olden Days
Cholla, Yucca, and Prickly Pear, found Growing on the Arid Lands of Arizona
Indians Carrying Deadly Living Rattlesnakes Between Their Teeth During the Hopi Snake Dance, Arizona
Camel Back Mountain
The Patio and Pergola, San Marcos Hotel, Chandler, Arizona
Part of the Collection of Apache Baskets Owned by Mrs. Charles A. Shrader, Tucson, Arizona
Title Page
A Pueblo Indian Medicine Man Singing the "Chants of the Old" to the Beat of the Sacred Tombe
Navaho Blanket and Belt Weavers, Arizona
Pine Forest and Mountain Road, near Prescott, Arizona
General View of Nogales, Arizona
San Francisco Peaks at Sunset, from near Flagstaff, Arizona
Front Cover
A Portion of the Campus, University of Arizona, Tuscan
San Xavier del Bac Mission, near Tucson, Arizona
The Storming, by the Apaches, of the Mission of Tumacacori, between Nogales and Tucson, Arizona
The Tucson Sanitarium, Santa Catalina Mountains in the Distance
Bird's-Eye View of Natural Bridge, Verde Valley, Arizona
An Aged Havasupai Indian
On the Borderland Highway, between Nogales and Tucson, Arizona
Coleman Lake, near Williams, Arizona
Ingleside Club House, near Phoenix, Arizona
Woman's Club House, Phoenix, Arizona
Looking Up Salt River Canyon towards the Roosevelt Dam
The Three Treaty Rocks at West Entrance to Cochise's Stronghold, Arizona
Montezuma Castle, a Prehistoric Cliff Ruin in the Verde Valley, Arizona
High School, Douglas, Arizona
The Prayer at Dawn on the Morning of the Hopi Snake Dance, Arizona
Cliff-Dwellings near Roosevelt Dam, Arizona
The Orndorff, the Oldest Hotel in Tucson, Arizona
Flowers of the Prickly Pear, One of the Desert Cacti of Arizona
The Ruins of Casa Grande in the Gila River Valley, Arizona, Prior to their Preservation by the U.S. Government
The Photo-Chemical House at the Desert Laboratory, near Tucson, Arizona
Nogales, Showing the Street that Divides the American from the Mexican Portion of the City
Various Inscriptions and Picture Writings Made by the Prehistoric Indians of Arizona
Hopi Indian with Load of Corn Fodder
A Typical Mining Scene, Yavapai County, Arizona
The Interior of Mission San Xavier del Bac, near Tuscan, Arizona
The Grand Canyon of Arizona
Bridge over the Salt River, Tempe, Arizona
A Field of Milo Maize, on the Tucson Farms, Arizona
Pasturing Sheep in the Salt River Valley, near Phoenix, Arizona


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