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Arctic

Arctic Collection

History Archive - Arctic Collection

The Arctic is the region around the North Pole, covering the area (both ocean and lands) where the characteristic polar conditions of climate, &c., obtain. The Arctic Circle is drawn at 66° 30' N. The Arctic Ocean is part of the ocean within the Arctic Circle. The main rivers flowing into it are the Mackenzie and Black in America, the Obi, Yenesei and Lena in Asia. Its largest islands are Spitzbergen, Wongatz and Nova Zembla in Europe, those of New Siberia in Asia and the Polar archipelago in America.

An expanse of ice of nearly 4,000,000 square miles extends during an eight-months winter round the pole, and even in summer the temperature is still at the freezing point. From this region come the icebergs which in spring and summer drift into the Atlantic. In the last three hundred years many voyages have been made to make discoveries in this region or to find a passage through it, but we know almost nothing about it. Besides the great dangers of ice, the sailor, often blinded by fogs and snow, has to face without guide or sea-room, storms, tides and currents of unknown waters. The highest point ever reached was by Lieutenant Peary, who in 1906 reached a point 206 miles distant from the north pole.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Book Title Date
Novaya Zemla - A Voyage of Discovery A Voyage of Discovery 1819
Novaya Zemla - Shores of the Polar Sea Shores of the Polar Sea 1878
Novaya Zemla - Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 1835
Novaya Zemla - Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 1835
Novaya Zemla - The North Pole The North Pole 1910
Novaya Zemla - The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 1855
Novaya Zemla - The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 1855
Novaya Zemla - Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea 1823
Novaya Zemla - Travels in the Island of Iceland Travels in the Island of Iceland 1811
Novaya Zemla - Iceland: its Scenes and Sagas Iceland: its Scenes and Sagas 1863
Novaya Zemla - A Narrative of the Cruise of the Yacht Maria A Narrative of the Cruise of the Yacht Maria 1855
Novaya Zemla - In Northern Mists Vol. 1 In Northern Mists Vol. 1 1911
Novaya Zemla - In Northern Mists Vol. 2 In Northern Mists Vol. 2 1911
Novaya Zemla - Ten Coloured Views Taken During the Arctic Expedition Ten Coloured Views Taken During the Arctic Expedition 1850
Novaya Zemla - A Series of Fourteen Sketches Made During the Voyage Up Wellington Channel A Series of Fourteen Sketches Made During the Voyage Up Wellington Channel 1855
Novaya Zemla - A Series of Eight Sketches in Colour of the Voyage of H.M.S. Investigator A Series of Eight Sketches in Colour of the Voyage of H.M.S. Investigator 1854
Novaya Zemla - The North Pole and Bradley Land The North Pole and Bradley Land 1913
Novaya Zemla - Arctic Tides Arctic Tides 1911
Novaya Zemla - Journal of a Tour in Iceland in the Summer of 1809 Journal of a Tour in Iceland in the Summer of 1809 1811
Novaya Zemla - Arctic Exploration with an Account of Nicholas of Lynn Arctic Exploration with an Account of Nicholas of Lynn 1881
Novaya Zemla - Gateways to the Pole Gateways to the Pole 1869
Novaya Zemla - Gateways to the Pole Gateways to the Pole 1872
Novaya Zemla - After Icebergs with a Painter After Icebergs with a Painter 1861
Novaya Zemla - The Cruise of the Corwin The Cruise of the Corwin 1917
Novaya Zemla - Access to an Open Polar Sea Access to an Open Polar Sea 1853
Novaya Zemla - The U.S. Grinnell Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin The U.S. Grinnell Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin 1854
Novaya Zemla - Arctic Explorations : the Second Grinnell Expedition Vol. 1 Arctic Explorations : the Second Grinnell Expedition Vol. 1 1856
Novaya Zemla - Arctic Explorations : the Second Grinnell Expedition Vol. 2 Arctic Explorations : the Second Grinnell Expedition Vol. 2 1856
Novaya Zemla - The Open Polar Sea The Open Polar Sea 1867
Novaya Zemla - The Voyage of the 'Fox' in the Arctic Seas The Voyage of the 'Fox' in the Arctic Seas 1859
Novaya Zemla - Narrative of the North Polar Expedition U.S. Ship Polaris Narrative of the North Polar Expedition U.S. Ship Polaris 1876
Novaya Zemla - Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea 1828
Novaya Zemla - My Attainment of the Pole My Attainment of the Pole 1911
Novaya Zemla - Narrative of the Second Arctic Expedition Made by Charles F. Hall Narrative of the Second Arctic Expedition Made by Charles F. Hall 1879
Novaya Zemla - An Account of the Countries Adjoining to Hudson's Bay An Account of the Countries Adjoining to Hudson's Bay 1744
Novaya Zemla - Report of the International Polar Expedition Report of the International Polar Expedition 1885
Novaya Zemla - Three Years of Arctic Service Vol. 1 Three Years of Arctic Service Vol. 1 1886
Novaya Zemla - Three Years of Arctic Service Vol. 2 Three Years of Arctic Service Vol. 2 1886
Novaya Zemla - True Tales of Arctic Heroism in the New World True Tales of Arctic Heroism in the New World 1912
Novaya Zemla - The Voyage of the Jeannette Vol. 1 The Voyage of the Jeannette Vol. 1 1884
Novaya Zemla - The Voyage of the Jeannette Vol. 2 The Voyage of the Jeannette Vol. 2 1884
Novaya Zemla - Roald Amundsen's Roald Amundsen's "The North West Passage" Vol. 1 1908
Novaya Zemla - Roald Amundsen's Roald Amundsen's "The North West Passage" Vol. 2 1908
Novaya Zemla - In the Lena Delta In the Lena Delta 1884
Novaya Zemla - The History of Greenland Vol. 1 The History of Greenland Vol. 1 1820
Novaya Zemla - The History of Greenland Vol. 2 The History of Greenland Vol. 2 1820
Novaya Zemla - The Great Probability of a North West Passage The Great Probability of a North West Passage 1768
Novaya Zemla - A Voyage of Discovery Towards the North Pole A Voyage of Discovery Towards the North Pole 1843
Novaya Zemla - Journal of a Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage Journal of a Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage 1821
Novaya Zemla - A Supplement to the Appendix of Captain Parry's Voyage A Supplement to the Appendix of Captain Parry's Voyage 1824
Novaya Zemla - Journal of a Second Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage Journal of a Second Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage 1824
Novaya Zemla - Appendix to Captain Parry's Journal of a Second Voyage Appendix to Captain Parry's Journal of a Second Voyage 1825
Novaya Zemla - Journal of a Third Voyage for the Discovery of a Northwest Passage Journal of a Third Voyage for the Discovery of a Northwest Passage 1826
Novaya Zemla - A Voyage Towards the North Pole A Voyage Towards the North Pole 1774
Novaya Zemla - Andree and His Balloon Andree and His Balloon 1898
Novaya Zemla - Ten Months Among the Tents of the Tuski Ten Months Among the Tents of the Tuski 1853
Novaya Zemla - Narrative of a Voyage to Hudson's Bay in His Majesty's Ship Rosamond Narrative of a Voyage to Hudson's Bay in His Majesty's Ship Rosamond 1817
Novaya Zemla - Voyagie, Ofte Schip-Vaert, van Ian Huyghen van Linschoten Voyagie, Ofte Schip-Vaert, van Ian Huyghen van Linschoten 1601
Novaya Zemla - Voyage of the Prince Albert in Search of Sir John Franklin Voyage of the Prince Albert in Search of Sir John Franklin 1851
Novaya Zemla - A Short Narrative of the Second Voyage of the Prince Albert A Short Narrative of the Second Voyage of the Prince Albert 1853
Novaya Zemla - The Eventful Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ship The Eventful Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ship "Resolute" 1851
Novaya Zemla - The Voyages of the Venetian Brothers The Voyages of the Venetian Brothers 1874
Novaya Zemla - The Voyages of William Baffin The Voyages of William Baffin 1881
Novaya Zemla - The Phantom of the Poles The Phantom of the Poles 1906
Novaya Zemla - The Smoky God; or, A Voyage to the Inner World The Smoky God; or, A Voyage to the Inner World 1908
Novaya Zemla - The Threshold of the Unknown Region The Threshold of the Unknown Region 1873
Novaya Zemla - A True Reporte of the Laste Voyage into the West and Northwest Regions A True Reporte of the Laste Voyage into the West and Northwest Regions 1577
Novaya Zemla - La Nauigation du Capitaine Martin Forbisher La Nauigation du Capitaine Martin Forbisher 1578
Novaya Zemla - The Three Voyages of Martin Frobisher The Three Voyages of Martin Frobisher 1867
Novaya Zemla - Facsimile of the Illustrated Arctic News Facsimile of the Illustrated Arctic News 1852
Novaya Zemla - A Summer Search for Sir John Franklin A Summer Search for Sir John Franklin 1853
Novaya Zemla - Magnetical Observations in the Arctic Seas Magnetical Observations in the Arctic Seas 1859
Novaya Zemla - Meteorological Observations in the Arctic Seas Meteorological Observations in the Arctic Seas 1859
Novaya Zemla - Tidal Observations in the Arctic Seas Tidal Observations in the Arctic Seas 1860
Novaya Zemla - The Lands of Silence The Lands of Silence 1921
Novaya Zemla - Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition 1836
Novaya Zemla - Voyages of Discovery and Research Within the Arctic Regions Voyages of Discovery and Research Within the Arctic Regions 1846
Novaya Zemla - Four Years in the White North Four Years in the White North 1918
Novaya Zemla - A Chronological History of Voyages into the Arctic Regions A Chronological History of Voyages into the Arctic Regions 1818
Novaya Zemla - The Last Voyage of Capt. Sir John Ross The Last Voyage of Capt. Sir John Ross 1835
Novaya Zemla - An Account of a Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 An Account of a Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 1748
Novaya Zemla - An Account of a Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 An Account of a Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 1748
Novaya Zemla - The First Crossing of Spitsbergen The First Crossing of Spitsbergen 1897
Novaya Zemla - Arctic Expeditions from British and Foreign Shores Vol. 1 Arctic Expeditions from British and Foreign Shores Vol. 1 1875
Novaya Zemla - Arctic Expeditions from British and Foreign Shores Vol. 2 Arctic Expeditions from British and Foreign Shores Vol. 2 1875
Novaya Zemla - Arctic Expeditions from British and Foreign Shores Vol. 3 Arctic Expeditions from British and Foreign Shores Vol. 3 1875
Novaya Zemla - Journal of a Voyage to the Northern Whale-Fishery Journal of a Voyage to the Northern Whale-Fishery 1823
Novaya Zemla - Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 1873
Novaya Zemla - Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 2 Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 2 1873
Novaya Zemla - Voyage au Pole Boreal Voyage au Pole Boreal 1775
Novaya Zemla - Thyra: A Romance of the Polar Pit Thyra: A Romance of the Polar Pit 1901
Novaya Zemla - ZR Wins ZR Wins 1924
Novaya Zemla - Flora Fossilis Arctica Vol. 1 Flora Fossilis Arctica Vol. 1 1868
Novaya Zemla - Flora Fossilis Arctica Vol. 2 Flora Fossilis Arctica Vol. 2 1871
Novaya Zemla - Flora Fossilis Arctica Vol. 3 Flora Fossilis Arctica Vol. 3 1874
Novaya Zemla - Flora Fossilis Arctica Vol. 4 Flora Fossilis Arctica Vol. 4 1877
Novaya Zemla - Flora Fossilis Arctica Vol. 5 Flora Fossilis Arctica Vol. 5 1878
Novaya Zemla - Flora Fossilis Arctica Vol. 6 Flora Fossilis Arctica Vol. 6 1880
Novaya Zemla - Flora Fossilis Arctica Vol. 7 Flora Fossilis Arctica Vol. 7 1883
Novaya Zemla - Description of Summer and Winter Views of the Polar Regions Description of Summer and Winter Views of the Polar Regions 1850
Novaya Zemla - Description of a View of the Continent of Boothia Description of a View of the Continent of Boothia 1843
Novaya Zemla - Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 1 Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 1 1851
Novaya Zemla - Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 2 Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 2 1851
Novaya Zemla - Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Herald Vol. 1 Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Herald Vol. 1 1853
Novaya Zemla - Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Herald Vol. 2 Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Herald Vol. 2 1853
Novaya Zemla - Recent Expeditions to the Polar Regions Recent Expeditions to the Polar Regions 1852
Novaya Zemla - Papers and Despatches Relating to the Arctic Searching Expeditions Papers and Despatches Relating to the Arctic Searching Expeditions 1852
Novaya Zemla - An Earnest Appeal to the British Public on Behalf of the Missing Arctic Expedition An Earnest Appeal to the British Public on Behalf of the Missing Arctic Expedition 1857
Novaya Zemla - Arctic Zoology Vol. 1 Arctic Zoology Vol. 1 1784
Novaya Zemla - Arctic Zoology Vol. 2 Arctic Zoology Vol. 2 1784
Novaya Zemla - A Journey from Prince of Wales's Fort in Hudson's Bay A Journey from Prince of Wales's Fort in Hudson's Bay 1795
Novaya Zemla - Cruise of the Pandora Cruise of the Pandora 1876
Novaya Zemla - The Two Voyages of the Pandora The Two Voyages of the Pandora 1879
Novaya Zemla - A Whaling Cruise to Baffin's Bay and the Gulf of Boothia A Whaling Cruise to Baffin's Bay and the Gulf of Boothia 1874
Novaya Zemla - Arctic Travels Arctic Travels 1830
Novaya Zemla - Greenland, the Adjacent Seas, and the North-West Passage Greenland, the Adjacent Seas, and the North-West Passage 1818
Novaya Zemla - A Voyage to Spitzbergen A Voyage to Spitzbergen 1825
Novaya Zemla - An Arctic Voyage to Baffin's Bay and Lancaster Sound An Arctic Voyage to Baffin's Bay and Lancaster Sound 1850
Novaya Zemla - Narrative of an Expedition in H.M.S. Terror Narrative of an Expedition in H.M.S. Terror 1838
Novaya Zemla - Account of Arctic Discovery on the Northern Shore of America Account of Arctic Discovery on the Northern Shore of America 1838
Novaya Zemla - The Dutch in the Arctic Seas The Dutch in the Arctic Seas 1878
Novaya Zemla - The Barents Relics Recovered in the Summer of 1876 by C. L. W. Gardiner The Barents Relics Recovered in the Summer of 1876 by C. L. W. Gardiner 1877
Novaya Zemla - Narrative of an Expedition to the Polar Sea Narrative of an Expedition to the Polar Sea 1840
Novaya Zemla - Stray Leaves from an Arctic Journal Stray Leaves from an Arctic Journal 1852
Novaya Zemla - Oesterr.-Ungar. Arktische Expedition Oesterr.-Ungar. Arktische Expedition 1879
Novaya Zemla - The People of the Polar North The People of the Polar North 1908
Novaya Zemla - Under the Rays of the Aurora Borealis Vol. 1 Under the Rays of the Aurora Borealis Vol. 1 1885
Novaya Zemla - Under the Rays of the Aurora Borealis Vol. 2 Under the Rays of the Aurora Borealis Vol. 2 1885
Novaya Zemla - A Collection of Documents on Spitzbergen & Greenland A Collection of Documents on Spitzbergen & Greenland 1855
Novaya Zemla - Mercator's Letter to John Dee Mercator's Letter to John Dee 1577

Images

Image Name
[left] Marshuik. [right] Meigack. Arctic Highlanders, Natives of Lat. 77 North Long. 65 West.
Groupe of Esquimaux at Igloolik
Front Cover
Nimna Himna, called by the men
Title Page
Title Page
Umingmak Command, J.C. Ross Killing a Musk-Bull
Title Page
Andrew Ross Island
Natural History Drawings of Coral
Front Cover
Canoe Broaching to in a Gale of Wind at Sunrise. Aug. 23, 1821
Back Cover
Kutchin Hunters
Illumination of the Roosevelt in Winter Quarters on a Moonlit Night Showing the Ice Pressure Close to the Ship
Esquimaux Chart, No. I.
Map of Victoria Harbour
The <i>Victory</i>
Portrait of a Stone Indian
Title Page
The Hamilton Under Canvass
Book Display
Plan of Felix Harbour
Natural History Drawings I
Church of Saurbar
Plan of Hurd Channel
Whale Hunting in Westmannshaven Bay
An Esquimaux creeping into the Passage of a Snow-hut
Arctic Insects
View of the Geyser When Empty, Immediately After an Eruption
Tiroler Fjord
Plan of the Part of Baffins Bay which was found to be Inhabited
The River Lindsay
The Devil's Thumb
Dance of the Kutcha-Kutchin
Burnet Inlet
Expedition Crossing Lake Prosperous. May 30, 1820
Map of Iceland
Back Cover
Plan and Section of the Basin of the Great Geyser
Astonishing the Natives
Book Display
Natural History Drawings of Fish II
The Trout Fall. Sept. 1819
Title Page
Plate Illustrating the Fossiliferous Oval
Snowflake I
Snow Wreath, Northumberland Sound
Udlia, Awitigin and Palurak
Cape Bathurst to Cape Byam Martin S. 11&176; E.
Front Cover
Chart of the North-eastern Coast of America, &c. from Lat. 64 3/4° to 67° 40'.
Front Cover
The Southernmost of Prince Leopold's Islands
Canoe of the Savage Islands, Hudson's Strait
Situation of the Hecla and Griper, September 20th, 1819
Illustrated Title Page
Title Page
An Esquimaux of Igloolik, in a bird's-skin jacket, &c.
Manner of holding the line when a Walrus is struck
North Shore of Barrow's Strait, bearing North [II]
Das Teufelsschloss
Petoowack. Formation of an Iceberg
Passing the Diamonds
Great Glacier near Uppernavik, Greenland
General Polar Chart, shewing the Track, &c.
Remarkable Appearance in the Sky Always Opposite the Sun, Port Leopold
Lancaster Sound, as seen from H.M.S. Isabella
Reikiavik
Coastal Views [II]
Map of Elizabeth Harbour
Natural History Drawings of Fish I
Book Display
Natural History Drawings IV
Taking Possession
Natural History Drawings VIII
Shulanina, Tullachiu and Tirikshiu
Appearances of Lands, No. 4.
Deck Scene in the Northern Ocean
Kaiser Franz-Josephs Fjord
Esquimaux Implements, Weapons, &c.(Fig. 1 to 12.)
Natural History Plate [II]
Chart of the North-eastern Coast of America, &c. from Lat. 67° 40' to 70° 15'
Bold Headland on Baring Island
Sledge Travelling
Natural History Drawings V
Arctic Currents and Land According to A. Peterman (1865)
Arctic Fox
Christian's Monument
Sledge-Party Leaving H.M.S. Investigator in Mercy Bay, Under Command of Lieutenant Gurney Cresswell, 15 April 1853
Book Display
Title Page
Back Cover
New Geyser
Kawalua, Tiagashu and Adlurak
Nakahu and his Wife Oomna

Maps

Map Name
A Voyage of Discovery - A General Chart Shewing the Track and Discoveries of H.M. Ships Isabella and Fury (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Meteorological Register of His Majesty's Ship Isabella [June-July] (1819)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Plan of the Port of Lievely, Greenland (1855)
A Voyage of Discovery - Meteorological Register of His Majesty's Ship Isabella [May-Oct] (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Track of H.M. Ships Isabella and Alexander (1819)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Route of the Expedition from Isle a la Cross to Fort Providence (1823)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Plan of Northumberland South, Prince Albert Island (1855)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Map of the Southwest Coast of Iceland (1811)
Shores of the Polar Sea - Sketch Map of the Expedition (1878)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - A Chart of the Discoveries and Route of the Northern Land Expedition (1823)
A Series of Eight Sketches in Colour of the Voyage of H.M.S. Investigator - Chart of the Northwest Passage Showing the Route of the Investigator (1854)
Description of Summer and Winter Views of the Polar Regions - View of the Polar Regions (1850)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Originalkarte der Pendulum Inseln (1873)
Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Herald Vol. 1 - Map of the World Illustrating B. Seeman's Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S Herald (1853)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Map of Iceland (1811)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Ubersichtskarte des nordlichen Theiles von Ostgronland (1873)
The Barents Relics Recovered in the Summer of 1876 by C. L. W. Gardiner - Map of Novaya Zemlya and the Kara Sea Showing the Track of Mr. Chas L. W. Gardiner's Yacht Glowworm (1877)
Gateways to the Pole - Map of the World Showing the Principal Surface Currents of the Ocean (1869)
A Voyage of Discovery - Plan of Part of Baffin's Bay (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Coastal Views [II] (1819)
Oesterr.-Ungar. Arktische Expedition  - Uebersichts Karte des Arctischen Gebietes Gezeichnet von Karl Weyprecht (1879)
The Dutch in the Arctic Seas - Map of the North Polar Region (1878)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - An Outline to Shew the Connected Discoveries of Captains Ross, Parry and Franklin (1823)
The North Pole - North Pole Regions (1910)
Gateways to the Pole - Circumpolar Map Exhibiting the Inter-Oceanic Circulation (1872)
Gateways to the Pole - Map of the World Showing the Principal Surface Currents of the Ocean (1872)
Description of a View of the Continent of Boothia - Description of a View of the Continent of Boothia (1843)
A Whaling Cruise to Baffin's Bay and the Gulf of Boothia - Map Illustrating Capt. A. H. Markham's Voyage in the Arctic - 1873 (1874)
A Voyage of Discovery - Coastal Views [I] (1819)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Route of the Expedition from York Factory to Cumberland House (1823)
A Narrative of the Cruise of the Yacht Maria - Map of the Faroe Islands (1855)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Chart of the Discoveries in the Arctic Sea from Behring Strait to Baffins Bay 1819-1854 (1855)
Arctic Exploration with an Account of Nicholas of Lynn - Mercator's Map of the World A.D. 1569 (1881)
Arctic Tides - Cotidal Lines for the Arctic Regions (1911)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Kaiser Franz-Josephs Fjord (1873)
Papers and Despatches Relating to the Arctic Searching Expeditions - Polar Chart to Illustrate A. Petermann's Papers on the Arctic Regions (1852)
A Voyage of Discovery - Meteorological Register of His Majesty's Ship Isabella [Aug-Sept] (1819)
The Threshold of the Unknown Region - Map of the European Polar Sea (1873)

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