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American Indians

American Indians Collection

History Archive - American Indians Collection

American Indians is the name given to the people found in North and South America when discovered by the Europeans. They were called Indians because the newly found land was supposed to be a part of India. These scattered tribes, while varying in civilization from the rudest savages to the cultivated Aztecs of Mexico, and Incas of Peru, are now thought to belong to the same race. They are brown or copper-colored, with straight, black hair, high cheek bones, head rather square and flattened behind.

Their origin is uncertain, though all the tribes have traditions of an early emigration from some region either north or south. The most civilized tribes when America was discovered, were those found from New Mexico to Peru. They had buildings of which remains are still found; while the northern Indians dwelt in tents or other movable buildings. All the tribes were hunters and fishers, raising a few crops, as corn, beans and tobacco. They made pottery, stone pipes, arrowheads, snow-shoes and bark canoes and baskets.

The Pueblo Indians of New Mexico built towns and temples. The Mexican and Peruvian tribes had modes of keeping records. They were governed by chiefs, who sometimes were made such by inheritance and sometimes by merit. They believed in a future life, and carefully buried their dead. In South America and Mexico the Indians have largely mingled with the conquering races, and are much less distinct from them than in the United States.

The Indian wars of the United States began in Virginia in 1622 and in New England in 1637, and continued at intervals, with many victories by the Indians and terrible massacres of the whites; but in the long run with the sure defeat of the savage by the arts and arms of civilization. The Indians have been steadily pushed westward, and have been deprived of their lands by treaties, which have again and again been broken.

The policy of the United States government was to break up the reservations, do away with the tribes and make citizens of the Indians. Schools have been established, and there are 12 government training schools for Indian youth, where from 3,000 to 4,000 can be cared for. In 1907 the appropriation made by Congress for Indian schools was over $9,000,000. In 1887 Congress confirmed the Indian title to all reservations, of which there are about 133, including 116,000,000 acres. Every Indian in the United States, with the exception of the Alaska Indians and those of the five civilized tribes, could receive 160 acres apiece, and still enough land be left to pay the entire cost of educating the Indian children.

The whole number of Indians in the United States, leaving out Alaska, in 1905 was 284,079. They are found in Maine, New York, North Carolina, Michigan, Minnesota, Iowa, Montana, Nebraska, Oregon, Washington, North and South Dakota, Colorado, Idaho, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wisconsin, Wyoming, California, Texas and Oklahoma. Some of the principal tribes, at present, are the Choctaws, Cherokees, Creeks, Chippewas, Chickasaws, Sioux, Illinois, Sacs, Foxes, Seminoles, Comanches, Apaches, Navajos, Pueblos, Cheyennes and Nez Perces.

References:

See; A Century of Dishonor by Helen Hunt Jackson; American Indians by Catlin; Native Races of the Pacific States by Bancroft; Story of the American Indian by Brooks; and Red Race of America by Schoolcraft.

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pgs. 922.

Available Books

Book Title Date
American Indians - History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 1 History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 1 1838
American Indians - History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 2 History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 2 1838
American Indians - History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 3 History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 3 1844
American Indians - Life Among the Paiutes Life Among the Paiutes 1883
American Indians - History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw and Natchez Indians History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw and Natchez Indians 1899
American Indians - Catlin's Indian Portfolio Catlin's Indian Portfolio 1844
American Indians - North American Indians Vol. 1 North American Indians Vol. 1 1926
American Indians - North American Indians Vol. 2 North American Indians Vol. 2 1926
American Indians - The Indian Races of North and South America The Indian Races of North and South America 1853
American Indians - The Great Southwest The Great Southwest 1919
American Indians - Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde 1862
American Indians - Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior 1863
American Indians - Origin of the Red Men Origin of the Red Men 1849
American Indians - Our Wild Indians Our Wild Indians 1883
American Indians - Report Upon the Colorado River of the West Report Upon the Colorado River of the West 1861
American Indians - Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America 1781
American Indians - Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 1 Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 1 1823
American Indians - Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 2 Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 2 1823
American Indians - Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 1823
American Indians - Three Years Among the Camanches Three Years Among the Camanches 1859
American Indians - Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America 1859
American Indians - Views of Florida Views of Florida 1837
American Indians - A True and Authentic Account of the Indian War in Florida A True and Authentic Account of the Indian War in Florida 1836
American Indians - Sketches of a Tour to the Lakes Sketches of a Tour to the Lakes 1827
American Indians - Memoirs, Official and Personal Memoirs, Official and Personal 1846
American Indians - American Ethnology American Ethnology 1849
American Indians - The Welch Indians The Welch Indians 1922
American Indians - The Last of the Mohicans The Last of the Mohicans 1919
American Indians - An Account of the Countries Adjoining to Hudson's Bay An Account of the Countries Adjoining to Hudson's Bay 1744
American Indians - Turquois Work of Hawikuh, New Mexico Turquois Work of Hawikuh, New Mexico 1921
American Indians - Historical Stories of American Pioneer Life Historical Stories of American Pioneer Life 1897
American Indians - New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America 1797
American Indians - White Indians of Darien White Indians of Darien 1934
American Indians - North American Indians Vol. 1 North American Indians Vol. 1 1913
American Indians - North American Indians Vol. 2 North American Indians Vol. 2 1913
American Indians - The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee 1823
American Indians - Myths of the Cherokee Myths of the Cherokee 1902
American Indians - A History of the United States Before the Revolution A History of the United States Before the Revolution 1819
American Indians - Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America Vol. 1 Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America Vol. 1 1860
American Indians - Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America Vol. 2 Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America Vol. 2 1860
American Indians - The Aboriginal Port Folio The Aboriginal Port Folio 1836
American Indians - The American Aboriginal Portfolio The American Aboriginal Portfolio 1853
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 1 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 1 1851
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 2 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 2 1851
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 3 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 3 1851
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 4 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 4 1851
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 5 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 5 1851
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 6 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 6 1851
American Indians - The Myth of Hiawatha The Myth of Hiawatha 1856
American Indians - Algic Researches Vol. 1 Algic Researches Vol. 1 1839
American Indians - Algic Researches Vol. 2 Algic Researches Vol. 2 1839
American Indians - Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes 1851
American Indians - Early Discoveries by Spaniards in New Mexico Early Discoveries by Spaniards in New Mexico 1857
American Indians - The Marvellous Country : or, Three Years in Arizona and New Mexico The Marvellous Country : or, Three Years in Arizona and New Mexico 1873
American Indians - Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben 1860
American Indians - Indian Wars of the United States Indian Wars of the United States 1850
American Indians - Drawings by Frederic Remington Drawings by Frederic Remington 1897
American Indians - Amerika: eine allgemeine Landeskund Amerika: eine allgemeine Landeskund 1894
American Indians - Border Wars of the West Border Wars of the West 1853
American Indians - Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas 1840
American Indians - Geronimo's Story of His Life Geronimo's Story of His Life 1906
American Indians - The Song of the Ancient People The Song of the Ancient People 1893
American Indians - Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 1 Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 1 1839
American Indians - Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 2 Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 2 1841
American Indians - Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 3 Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 3 1839
American Indians - Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 4 Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 4 1839
American Indians - The Snake-Dance of the Moquis of Arizona The Snake-Dance of the Moquis of Arizona 1884

Images

Image Name
Kitch-ee-i-aa-ba or the Big Buck, a Chippewa Chief
Pipes Antiques
Einfahrt des Hafens von New York von Staten Island aus. / Entrée de Port New York pris de Staten Island. / Entry to the bay of New York taken from Staten Island.
The Charge
Fig. 217
Ansicht von Bethlehem (Pennsylvanien). / Vue de Bethléhem (Pennsylvanie). / View of Bethlehem (Pennsylvania).
Waa-kaun-see-kaa, or the Rattle-Snake, a Winnebago Chief
Fig. 234
Fig. 63
New-Harmony aus Wabash. / New-Harmony sur le Wabash. / New-Harmony on the Wabash.
Fig. 143
Apache Canyon between Las Vegas and Lamy, New Mexico
Indianische geräthschaften und waffen. / Ustensiles et armes indiens. / Indian utensils and arms.
Saki und Musquake Indianer. / Indiens Sâkis et Renards. / Saukie and Fox Indianians.
Fig. 256
Shing-gaa-ba-w'osin or the Figure'd Stone, a Chippewa Chief
The Prairie - The Pawnee and the Palefaces
Fig. 265
Attacking the Grizzly Bear
Vue du Grand Bassin
Fig. 7
Indian Pipe
Fig. 288
Fig. 210a
Fig. 10
Satisfying the Demands of Justice - The Head
A Chippeway Chief
Fig. 117
Bivouac der Reisenden am Missouri. / Halte des voyageurs sur le Missouri. / Encampment of the travellers ont the Missouri.
Ancienne Poterie
Fig. 99
Indian Building, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Fig. 169
Title Page
A Crow Scout
Femme Indienne
Fig. 148
Vue du Minnesota
Abraham Quary, the last Indian of the Nantucket tribe age 64
Fig. 139
Fig. 101b
Fig. 233
She-sheba or the Little Duck, a celebrated Winnebago Chief
Buffalo Hunt Approaching in a Ravine
Fig. 187
Indian szovoszoba (San Fernando. Deli Kalifornia)
Fig. 191
Fig. 54
Chef der Blut Indianer. Chef des Indiens Sangs. Chief of the Blood-Indians; Kriegs Chef der Piekann Indianer. Chef de guerre des Indines Piékanns. War-chief of the Piekann Indians; Kutanä Indianer. Indien Koutané. Koutani Indian.
Fig. 294
Buffalo Hunt Chasing Back
Fig. 95
Fig. 36
Front Cover
O'-check-ka or Four Legs, Head Chief of the Winnebagoes on Winnebago Lake Michigan
The Pioneers - Leatherstocking to the Rescue
Fig. 83
San Francisco Mountains, Arizona
Burning of the Town Pilak-li-ka-ha by Gen. Eustis
Fig. 48
Satsikaa
Spearing by Torchlight on Fox River
Title Page
Fig. 241
Pehriska-Ruhpa, ein Mönnitarri-Indianer. / Pehriska-Ruhpa, Indien-Moennitarre ou gros Ventre. / Pehriska-Ruhpa, a minatarre or big bellied Indian
Tshu-gue-ga, a celebrated Chief, half Winnebago and half French
Back Cover
Fig. 5
Interior Indian Building, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Mih-Tutta-Hangkusch, Mandan Dorf. / Mih-Tutta-Hangkusch, village Mandan. / Mih-Tutta-Hangjusch, a Mandan village.
Ma-ga-zee, a Pottawatomie Chief
Sheet Music (I)
Fig. 222
Fig. 272
Lager der Gros Ventres des prairies am obern Missouri./  Camp des Gros Ventres des prairies sur le Missouri. / Camp of the Gros Ventres of the prairies on the upper Missouri.
Schlangen-Indianerinn. Indienne serpent. Woman of the Snake-tribe; / Crih-Indianerinn. Indienne Crih. Woman of the Cree-tribe.
Fig. 170
Fig. 53
Fig. 172
Chef Dacota
Zauber Maal bei den Assiniboin Indianern. / Monument magique des Indiens Assiniboins. / Magic pile erected by the Assiniboin Indians.
The Well in the Desert
Vue dun Pueblo
No. 1, 2, 3, 4
Fig. 291
Bisontanz der Mandan Indianer vor der Medezin hütte in Mih-Tutta-Hangkusch. / Danse du bison des Indiens Mandans devant la Loge de Medecine à Mih-Toutta-Hangkouche. / Bison-dance of the Mandan Indieans in front of their Medecine Lodge in Mih-Tutta-Hankush.
Fig. 67
Fig. 4
Fig. 296
Rocher Hieroglyphique
Tower-Rock, Ansicht vom Missisippi. / Tower-Rock, vue sur le Missisippi. / Tower-Rock, view on the Missisippi.
Protecting a Wagon Train
Fig. 30
Pach-e-po, a Pottowattomie Chief. This young Chief is the son of Me-o-ne-me, a Chief who served with Gen. Harrison during the late war and was killed at the River Thames
Fig. 74

Maps

Map Name
North American Indians Vol. 2 - A Chart Shewing the Moves of the Mandan and the Place of Their Extinction (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Outline Map of the Indian Localities in 1833 (1926)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Map to Illustrate Mr. Kane's Travels (1859)
Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben - Kalifornia Deli Reszet - 1858 (1860)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Map to Illustrate the Route of Prince Maximilian of Wied (1840)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 1 - Map of the Country Drained by the Mississippi (1823)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 - Vertical Section on the Parallel of Latitude 41 Degrees North and 35 Degrees North (1823)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - United States Indian Frontier in 1840 (1926)
Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America - A New Map of North America from the Latest Discoveries - 1778 (1781)
Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America - A Plan of Captain Carver's Travels in the Interior Parts of North America (1781)
Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior - Outline Map Showing he Position of the Ancient Mine Pits of Keweenaw Point (1863)

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