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American Indians

American Indians Collection

History Archive - American Indians Collection

American Indians is the name given to the people found in North and South America when discovered by the Europeans. They were called Indians because the newly found land was supposed to be a part of India. These scattered tribes, while varying in civilization from the rudest savages to the cultivated Aztecs of Mexico, and Incas of Peru, are now thought to belong to the same race. They are brown or copper-colored, with straight, black hair, high cheek bones, head rather square and flattened behind.

Their origin is uncertain, though all the tribes have traditions of an early emigration from some region either north or south. The most civilized tribes when America was discovered, were those found from New Mexico to Peru. They had buildings of which remains are still found; while the northern Indians dwelt in tents or other movable buildings. All the tribes were hunters and fishers, raising a few crops, as corn, beans and tobacco. They made pottery, stone pipes, arrowheads, snow-shoes and bark canoes and baskets.

The Pueblo Indians of New Mexico built towns and temples. The Mexican and Peruvian tribes had modes of keeping records. They were governed by chiefs, who sometimes were made such by inheritance and sometimes by merit. They believed in a future life, and carefully buried their dead. In South America and Mexico the Indians have largely mingled with the conquering races, and are much less distinct from them than in the United States.

The Indian wars of the United States began in Virginia in 1622 and in New England in 1637, and continued at intervals, with many victories by the Indians and terrible massacres of the whites; but in the long run with the sure defeat of the savage by the arts and arms of civilization. The Indians have been steadily pushed westward, and have been deprived of their lands by treaties, which have again and again been broken.

The policy of the United States government was to break up the reservations, do away with the tribes and make citizens of the Indians. Schools have been established, and there are 12 government training schools for Indian youth, where from 3,000 to 4,000 can be cared for. In 1907 the appropriation made by Congress for Indian schools was over $9,000,000. In 1887 Congress confirmed the Indian title to all reservations, of which there are about 133, including 116,000,000 acres. Every Indian in the United States, with the exception of the Alaska Indians and those of the five civilized tribes, could receive 160 acres apiece, and still enough land be left to pay the entire cost of educating the Indian children.

The whole number of Indians in the United States, leaving out Alaska, in 1905 was 284,079. They are found in Maine, New York, North Carolina, Michigan, Minnesota, Iowa, Montana, Nebraska, Oregon, Washington, North and South Dakota, Colorado, Idaho, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wisconsin, Wyoming, California, Texas and Oklahoma. Some of the principal tribes, at present, are the Choctaws, Cherokees, Creeks, Chippewas, Chickasaws, Sioux, Illinois, Sacs, Foxes, Seminoles, Comanches, Apaches, Navajos, Pueblos, Cheyennes and Nez Perces.

References:

See; A Century of Dishonor by Helen Hunt Jackson; American Indians by Catlin; Native Races of the Pacific States by Bancroft; Story of the American Indian by Brooks; and Red Race of America by Schoolcraft.

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pgs. 922.

Available Books

Book Title Date
American Indians - History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 1 History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 1 1838
American Indians - History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 2 History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 2 1838
American Indians - History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 3 History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 3 1844
American Indians - Life Among the Paiutes Life Among the Paiutes 1883
American Indians - History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw and Natchez Indians History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw and Natchez Indians 1899
American Indians - Catlin's Indian Portfolio Catlin's Indian Portfolio 1844
American Indians - North American Indians Vol. 1 North American Indians Vol. 1 1926
American Indians - North American Indians Vol. 2 North American Indians Vol. 2 1926
American Indians - The Indian Races of North and South America The Indian Races of North and South America 1853
American Indians - The Great Southwest The Great Southwest 1919
American Indians - Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde 1862
American Indians - Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior 1863
American Indians - Origin of the Red Men Origin of the Red Men 1849
American Indians - Our Wild Indians Our Wild Indians 1883
American Indians - Report Upon the Colorado River of the West Report Upon the Colorado River of the West 1861
American Indians - Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America 1781
American Indians - Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 1 Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 1 1823
American Indians - Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 2 Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 2 1823
American Indians - Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 1823
American Indians - Three Years Among the Camanches Three Years Among the Camanches 1859
American Indians - Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America 1859
American Indians - Views of Florida Views of Florida 1837
American Indians - A True and Authentic Account of the Indian War in Florida A True and Authentic Account of the Indian War in Florida 1836
American Indians - Sketches of a Tour to the Lakes Sketches of a Tour to the Lakes 1827
American Indians - Memoirs, Official and Personal Memoirs, Official and Personal 1846
American Indians - American Ethnology American Ethnology 1849
American Indians - The Welch Indians The Welch Indians 1922
American Indians - The Last of the Mohicans The Last of the Mohicans 1919
American Indians - An Account of the Countries Adjoining to Hudson's Bay An Account of the Countries Adjoining to Hudson's Bay 1744
American Indians - Turquois Work of Hawikuh, New Mexico Turquois Work of Hawikuh, New Mexico 1921
American Indians - Historical Stories of American Pioneer Life Historical Stories of American Pioneer Life 1897
American Indians - New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America 1797
American Indians - White Indians of Darien White Indians of Darien 1934
American Indians - North American Indians Vol. 1 North American Indians Vol. 1 1913
American Indians - North American Indians Vol. 2 North American Indians Vol. 2 1913
American Indians - The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee 1823
American Indians - Myths of the Cherokee Myths of the Cherokee 1902
American Indians - A History of the United States Before the Revolution A History of the United States Before the Revolution 1819
American Indians - Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America Vol. 1 Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America Vol. 1 1860
American Indians - Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America Vol. 2 Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America Vol. 2 1860
American Indians - The Aboriginal Port Folio The Aboriginal Port Folio 1836
American Indians - The American Aboriginal Portfolio The American Aboriginal Portfolio 1853
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 1 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 1 1851
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 2 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 2 1851
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 3 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 3 1851
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 4 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 4 1851
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 5 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 5 1851
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 6 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 6 1851
American Indians - The Myth of Hiawatha The Myth of Hiawatha 1856
American Indians - Algic Researches Vol. 1 Algic Researches Vol. 1 1839
American Indians - Algic Researches Vol. 2 Algic Researches Vol. 2 1839
American Indians - Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes 1851
American Indians - Early Discoveries by Spaniards in New Mexico Early Discoveries by Spaniards in New Mexico 1857
American Indians - The Marvellous Country : or, Three Years in Arizona and New Mexico The Marvellous Country : or, Three Years in Arizona and New Mexico 1873
American Indians - Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben 1860
American Indians - Indian Wars of the United States Indian Wars of the United States 1850
American Indians - Drawings by Frederic Remington Drawings by Frederic Remington 1897
American Indians - Amerika: eine allgemeine Landeskund Amerika: eine allgemeine Landeskund 1894
American Indians - Border Wars of the West Border Wars of the West 1853
American Indians - Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas 1840
American Indians - Geronimo's Story of His Life Geronimo's Story of His Life 1906
American Indians - The Song of the Ancient People The Song of the Ancient People 1893
American Indians - Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 1 Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 1 1839
American Indians - Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 2 Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 2 1841
American Indians - Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 3 Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 3 1839
American Indians - Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 4 Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 4 1839
American Indians - The Snake-Dance of the Moquis of Arizona The Snake-Dance of the Moquis of Arizona 1884

Images

Image Name
Fig. 203
Soldiers in Camp Outside the Fortified Houses, Picolata, Florida
Map to Illustrate Mr. Kane's Travels in the Territory of the Hudson's Bay Company
Cave-in-rock, Ansicht vom Ohio. / Cave-in-rock, vue sur l'Ohio. / Cave-in-rock, view on the Ohio.
Fig. 182
Fig. 267
Fort Union and Missouri. / Fort Union sur le Missouri. / Fort Union on the Missouri.
Waa-kaun-see-kaa, or the Rattle-Snake, a Winnebago Chief
Fig. 238
Fig. 22
Mündung des Fox-River (Indiana). / Embouchure du Fox-River (Indiana). / Mouth of the Fox River (Indiana).
At-te-conse or the Young Rein Deer, a Chippeway Chief
A celebrated Ottawa Chief
Man and Woman of the Ottagaumies
Cow Pony Pathos
Buffalo Hunt Chase I
Fig. 6
The Deerslayer - Hetty and Hist in the Iroquois Encampment
Runi
Kaliforniai havasi jut
The Son, a Miami Chief
Fig. 263
The Tobacco Plant
An Indian Town, Residence of a Chief
Fig. 113
Title Page
Dying Buffalo Bull in a Snow Drift
Fig. 309
Kit-chee-waa-be Shas, the Great Martin
Hundeschlitten der Mandan Indianer. / Traineaux à chiens des IndienssMandans. / Dog-sledges of the Mandan Indians.
Richardville, the Head Chief of the Miami tribe of Indians
Fig. 136
Eji tanyank. Timpa es Todos Santos cost (Kaliforniai felsziget)
Tours Basaltiques
Distant View of the Rocky Mountains
Solitude
Back Cover
Fig. 172
Fig. 177
Fig. 75
Back Cover
Indian Record of a Battle between the Pawnees and the Konzas - A Facsimile of a Delineation upon a Bison Robe
Interior of Sioux lodge
Fig. 219
Book Display II
San Francisco Mountains, Arizona
Fig. 302
Fig. 209
Fig. 16
Fig. 115
Buffalo Hunt Approaching in a Ravine
A Scout - 1868
Fig. 109
Wadt-he-doo-kaana, Chief of the Winnnebagoes
Fig. 227
Fig. 164
A Sun Fisher
Brewett, a celebrated Miami Chief
Sheet Music (II)
Fig. 259
Fac simile einer indianischen malerei. / Fac simile d'une peinture indienne. / Fac simile of an Indian painting.
A Reservation Indian
Hunting on a Beaver Stream - 1840
Fig. 96
Fig. 289
Fig. 93
Title Page
Fig. 237
Fig. 266
Front Cover
Fig. 141
Merkwürdige Hügel an obern Missouri. / Collines singulières su le haut Missouri. / Remarkable hills on the upper Missouri. [I]
Fig. 94
Fig. 31
Grand Canyon, Arizona, Sunset From Hopi Point
Fig. 241
Buffaloe hunt on the River Platte
Mih-Tutta-Hangkusch, Mandan Dorf. / Mih-Tutta-Hangkusch, village Mandan. / Mih-Tutta-Hangjusch, a Mandan village.
Sacred lodge
Fig. 214
Fig. 145
Wa-em-boesh-kaa, a Chippeway Chief
Catching the Wild Horse
Title Page
Ansicht von Mauch-Chunk (Pennsylvanien). / Vue de Mauch-Chunk (Pennsylvanie). / View of Mauch-Chunk (Pennsylvania).
Fig. 86
Fig. 78
Too-sha-na-gan-ka ot the Little Otter, a Winnebago Chief
Fort Pierre am Missouri. / Fort Pierre sur le Missouri. / Fort Pierre on the Missouri.
Mi-a-qu-a, a Miami Chief
Outline Map of the Indian Localities in 1833
Encampment amongst the Islands of Lake Huron
Coyotes
Fig. 134
The Water in Arizona
Todtengerüste eines Sioux-Chefs bei Fort Pierre. / Échafaudage funeraire d'un chef Sioux près du Fort Pierre. / Funeral scaffold of a Sioux chief near Fort Pierre.

Maps

Map Name
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Map to Illustrate the Route of Prince Maximilian of Wied (1840)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Map to Illustrate Mr. Kane's Travels (1859)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Outline Map of the Indian Localities in 1833 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - A Chart Shewing the Moves of the Mandan and the Place of Their Extinction (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - United States Indian Frontier in 1840 (1926)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 - Vertical Section on the Parallel of Latitude 41 Degrees North and 35 Degrees North (1823)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 1 - Map of the Country Drained by the Mississippi (1823)
Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior - Outline Map Showing he Position of the Ancient Mine Pits of Keweenaw Point (1863)
Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America - A Plan of Captain Carver's Travels in the Interior Parts of North America (1781)
Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America - A New Map of North America from the Latest Discoveries - 1778 (1781)
Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben - Kalifornia Deli Reszet - 1858 (1860)

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