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American Indians

American Indians Collection

History Archive - American Indians Collection

American Indians is the name given to the people found in North and South America when discovered by the Europeans. They were called Indians because the newly found land was supposed to be a part of India. These scattered tribes, while varying in civilization from the rudest savages to the cultivated Aztecs of Mexico, and Incas of Peru, are now thought to belong to the same race. They are brown or copper-colored, with straight, black hair, high cheek bones, head rather square and flattened behind.

Their origin is uncertain, though all the tribes have traditions of an early emigration from some region either north or south. The most civilized tribes when America was discovered, were those found from New Mexico to Peru. They had buildings of which remains are still found; while the northern Indians dwelt in tents or other movable buildings. All the tribes were hunters and fishers, raising a few crops, as corn, beans and tobacco. They made pottery, stone pipes, arrowheads, snow-shoes and bark canoes and baskets.

The Pueblo Indians of New Mexico built towns and temples. The Mexican and Peruvian tribes had modes of keeping records. They were governed by chiefs, who sometimes were made such by inheritance and sometimes by merit. They believed in a future life, and carefully buried their dead. In South America and Mexico the Indians have largely mingled with the conquering races, and are much less distinct from them than in the United States.

The Indian wars of the United States began in Virginia in 1622 and in New England in 1637, and continued at intervals, with many victories by the Indians and terrible massacres of the whites; but in the long run with the sure defeat of the savage by the arts and arms of civilization. The Indians have been steadily pushed westward, and have been deprived of their lands by treaties, which have again and again been broken.

The policy of the United States government was to break up the reservations, do away with the tribes and make citizens of the Indians. Schools have been established, and there are 12 government training schools for Indian youth, where from 3,000 to 4,000 can be cared for. In 1907 the appropriation made by Congress for Indian schools was over $9,000,000. In 1887 Congress confirmed the Indian title to all reservations, of which there are about 133, including 116,000,000 acres. Every Indian in the United States, with the exception of the Alaska Indians and those of the five civilized tribes, could receive 160 acres apiece, and still enough land be left to pay the entire cost of educating the Indian children.

The whole number of Indians in the United States, leaving out Alaska, in 1905 was 284,079. They are found in Maine, New York, North Carolina, Michigan, Minnesota, Iowa, Montana, Nebraska, Oregon, Washington, North and South Dakota, Colorado, Idaho, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wisconsin, Wyoming, California, Texas and Oklahoma. Some of the principal tribes, at present, are the Choctaws, Cherokees, Creeks, Chippewas, Chickasaws, Sioux, Illinois, Sacs, Foxes, Seminoles, Comanches, Apaches, Navajos, Pueblos, Cheyennes and Nez Perces.

References:

See; A Century of Dishonor by Helen Hunt Jackson; American Indians by Catlin; Native Races of the Pacific States by Bancroft; Story of the American Indian by Brooks; and Red Race of America by Schoolcraft.

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pgs. 922.

Available Books

Book Title Date
American Indians - History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 1 History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 1 1838
American Indians - History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 2 History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 2 1838
American Indians - History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 3 History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 3 1844
American Indians - Life Among the Paiutes Life Among the Paiutes 1883
American Indians - History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw and Natchez Indians History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw and Natchez Indians 1899
American Indians - Catlin's Indian Portfolio Catlin's Indian Portfolio 1844
American Indians - North American Indians Vol. 1 North American Indians Vol. 1 1926
American Indians - North American Indians Vol. 2 North American Indians Vol. 2 1926
American Indians - The Indian Races of North and South America The Indian Races of North and South America 1853
American Indians - The Great Southwest The Great Southwest 1919
American Indians - Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde 1862
American Indians - Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior 1863
American Indians - Origin of the Red Men Origin of the Red Men 1849
American Indians - Our Wild Indians Our Wild Indians 1883
American Indians - Report Upon the Colorado River of the West Report Upon the Colorado River of the West 1861
American Indians - Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America 1781
American Indians - Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 1 Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 1 1823
American Indians - Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 2 Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 2 1823
American Indians - Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 1823
American Indians - Three Years Among the Camanches Three Years Among the Camanches 1859
American Indians - Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America 1859
American Indians - Views of Florida Views of Florida 1837
American Indians - A True and Authentic Account of the Indian War in Florida A True and Authentic Account of the Indian War in Florida 1836
American Indians - Sketches of a Tour to the Lakes Sketches of a Tour to the Lakes 1827
American Indians - Memoirs, Official and Personal Memoirs, Official and Personal 1846
American Indians - American Ethnology American Ethnology 1849
American Indians - The Welch Indians The Welch Indians 1922
American Indians - The Last of the Mohicans The Last of the Mohicans 1919
American Indians - An Account of the Countries Adjoining to Hudson's Bay An Account of the Countries Adjoining to Hudson's Bay 1744
American Indians - Turquois Work of Hawikuh, New Mexico Turquois Work of Hawikuh, New Mexico 1921
American Indians - Historical Stories of American Pioneer Life Historical Stories of American Pioneer Life 1897
American Indians - New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America 1797
American Indians - White Indians of Darien White Indians of Darien 1934
American Indians - North American Indians Vol. 1 North American Indians Vol. 1 1913
American Indians - North American Indians Vol. 2 North American Indians Vol. 2 1913
American Indians - The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee 1823
American Indians - Myths of the Cherokee Myths of the Cherokee 1902
American Indians - A History of the United States Before the Revolution A History of the United States Before the Revolution 1819
American Indians - Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America Vol. 1 Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America Vol. 1 1860
American Indians - Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America Vol. 2 Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America Vol. 2 1860
American Indians - The Aboriginal Port Folio The Aboriginal Port Folio 1836
American Indians - The American Aboriginal Portfolio The American Aboriginal Portfolio 1853
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 1 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 1 1851
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 2 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 2 1851
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 3 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 3 1851
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 4 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 4 1851
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 5 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 5 1851
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 6 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 6 1851
American Indians - The Myth of Hiawatha The Myth of Hiawatha 1856
American Indians - Algic Researches Vol. 1 Algic Researches Vol. 1 1839
American Indians - Algic Researches Vol. 2 Algic Researches Vol. 2 1839
American Indians - Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes 1851
American Indians - Early Discoveries by Spaniards in New Mexico Early Discoveries by Spaniards in New Mexico 1857
American Indians - The Marvellous Country : or, Three Years in Arizona and New Mexico The Marvellous Country : or, Three Years in Arizona and New Mexico 1873
American Indians - Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben 1860
American Indians - Indian Wars of the United States Indian Wars of the United States 1850
American Indians - Drawings by Frederic Remington Drawings by Frederic Remington 1897
American Indians - Amerika: eine allgemeine Landeskund Amerika: eine allgemeine Landeskund 1894
American Indians - Border Wars of the West Border Wars of the West 1853
American Indians - Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas 1840
American Indians - Geronimo's Story of His Life Geronimo's Story of His Life 1906
American Indians - The Song of the Ancient People The Song of the Ancient People 1893
American Indians - Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 1 Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 1 1839
American Indians - Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 2 Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 2 1841
American Indians - Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 3 Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 3 1839
American Indians - Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 4 Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 4 1839
American Indians - The Snake-Dance of the Moquis of Arizona The Snake-Dance of the Moquis of Arizona 1884

Images

Image Name
Government Scouts - Moonlight
Title Page
Fig. 82
Pehriska-Ruhpa, Mönnitarri Krieger im Auzuge des Hundetanzes. / Pehriska-Ruhpa, guerrier Moennitarri costume pour la Danse du Chien. / Pehriska-Ruhpa, Moennitarri warrior in the costume of the Dog dance.
Dancer holding snake in mouth
Fig. 33
Snow Indian or the Northwest Type
Back Cover
Fig. 229
Outline Map Showing he Position of the Ancient Mine Pits of Keweenaw Point
Fig. 9
Advertisement to the Second Number
Fig. 143
Fig. 48
Horse-race
Fig. 132
Indian Wig-Wams
The Punchers
Fig. 72
Redlands, California, View from Smiley Heights
Merkwürdige Hügel an obern Missouri. / Collines singulières su le haut Missouri. / Remarkable hills on the upper Missouri. [II]
Fig. 92
Tower-Rock, Ansicht vom Missisippi. / Tower-Rock, vue sur le Missisippi. / Tower-Rock, view on the Missisippi.
Fig. 185
Chimney Rock - Colombia River
Title Page
Back Cover
Fig. 292
Fig. 152
Fig. 28
Fig. 175
Fig. 225
Fig. 98
Chef Mandan
Fig. 86
Pueblo Indien
Fig. 168
North American Indians
Fig. 196
Sacred standard, head-dresses, and drum used in the Tablet Dance
Fig. 188
Fig. 99
Waa-ba-shaw, a celebrated Sioux Chief
Nez Perce Indian
Crow Indianer. / Indiens Corbeaux. / Crow Indians.
Fac simile einer indianischen malerei. / Fac simile d'une peinture indienne. / Fac simile of an Indian painting.
Fig. 36
Mi-a-qu-a, a Miami Chief
The Cavalry Cook with Water
Raton Tunnel, Highest Point on the Santa Fe
"Old Baldy" From Smiley Heights, California
O-hya-wa-nim-ce-kee or the Yellow Thunder, a Chippeway Chief
Fig. 17
Kitch-ee-i-aa-ba or the Big Buck, a Chippewa Chief
Fig. 125
Jagd auf Grizzly Bären. / Chasse au Grizzly bear. / Hunting of the Grizzly bear.
Mystic Maze of the Mojave Indians near Needles, California
United States Indian Frontier in 1840
Fig. 97
Fig. 205
Fig. 231
Fig. 257
Map of the Country Drained by the Mississippi
Fig. 204
The Indian Soldier
Group of Six Indian Chiefs
Fig. 271
Fig. 295
A Crow Scout
Fort Mackenzie den 28-ten August 1833. / Fort Mackenzie le 28 Aout 1833. / Fort Mackenzie, August 28th 1833.
Kaa-nun-der-waaguinse-zoo or the Berry Picker, a famous Chippewa Chief
Fig. 163
Hundeschlitten der Mandan Indianer. / Traineaux à chiens des IndienssMandans. / Dog-sledges of the Mandan Indians.
Saki und Musquake Indianer. / Indiens Sâkis et Renards. / Saukie and Fox Indianians.
Fig. 16
Troops Fording Lake Ocklawaha
A Cheyenne Warrior
Fig. 206
Kaskaia / Shienne Chief / Awappaho
Fig. 307
Fig. 123
Fig. 121
Ma- che-ka-kat or the Bad Hawk, Monomonie Chief
Chippeway
Figs. 154, 155, 156
Fig. 198
Nabu-naa-ke-shick or the One Side of the Sky, a Chippewa Chief
Title Page
Los-angelesi bor- es limonade-arus
No. 8, 9, 10, 11
Back Cover
Mojave
Fig. 138
Dying Buffalo Bull in a Snow Drift
Snags (im Missouri versunkene Baumstämme). / Snags (troncs d'arbres obstruant le cours du Missouri). / Snags (sunken trees on the Missouri).

Maps

Map Name
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Map to Illustrate the Route of Prince Maximilian of Wied (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - United States Indian Frontier in 1840 (1926)
Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America - A Plan of Captain Carver's Travels in the Interior Parts of North America (1781)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Map to Illustrate Mr. Kane's Travels (1859)
Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior - Outline Map Showing he Position of the Ancient Mine Pits of Keweenaw Point (1863)
Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben - Kalifornia Deli Reszet - 1858 (1860)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 1 - Map of the Country Drained by the Mississippi (1823)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 - Vertical Section on the Parallel of Latitude 41 Degrees North and 35 Degrees North (1823)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Outline Map of the Indian Localities in 1833 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - A Chart Shewing the Moves of the Mandan and the Place of Their Extinction (1926)
Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America - A New Map of North America from the Latest Discoveries - 1778 (1781)

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