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Africa Collection

History Archive - Africa Collection

Africa is the name of one of the great continents on Earth. The name is derived from the Roman soldier Scipio Africanus who conquered the Carthaginians and whose name was later used to delineate the entire region of North Africa. Later this term evolved to include the rest of the continent as Europeans explored around the coasts, along the rivers and in the interior jungles and plains.

Many important pictorial works were composed during the European exploration and colonization of Africa which scarcely any portion of Africa during the day could be described as independent of European rule. Even the little Republic of Liberia on the west coast of Africa was founded by white Americans as a refuge for American slaves who had gained their freedom a hundred years ago. Not only was the whole of Africa controlled by Europe, but by Christian Europe; Muhammadan Turkey being excluded from any further interference in African affairs, since the Italian annexation of the Tripolitaine and the establishment of a British control in Egypt.

Overall these works are a priceless view into cultures and customs long since disappeared in Africa as well as views of pristine landscapes and settlements that have been altered by civilization expansion and development. Much like the New World, many people ventured to Africa in search of glory and riches weather through exploration, commerce or other means and some of these works were composed as a result.

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Early History

While Portugal and Spain had been fighting and colonizing back and forth in Africa for centuries and the Muslims had ventured into the interior from their coastal enclaves there was not a lot of other European nations that ventured there in search of exploration or commerce. Much of their attention was turned towards other regions such as North America, South America, the West and East Indies and the Far East.

During the 18th century there is little to record in the history of Africa. The nations of Europe, engaged in the later half of the century in almost constant warfare, and struggling for supremacy in America and the East, to a large extent lost their interest in the continent. Only on the west coast was there keen rivalry, and here the motive was security of trade rather than territorial acquisitions.

In this century the slave trade reached its highest development, the trade in gold, ivory, gum and spices being small in comparison. In the interior of the continent-Portugal's energy being expended-no interest was shown, the nations with establishments on the coast "taking no further notice of the inhabitants or their land than to obtain at the easiest rate what they procure with as little trouble as possible, or to carry them off for slaves to their plantations in America" (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 3rd ed., 1797). Even the scanty knowledge acquired by the ancients and the Arabs was in the main forgotten or disbelieved.

The prevailing ignorance may be gauged by the statement in the third edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica that "the Gambia and Senegal rivers are only branches of the Niger." But the closing years of the 18th century, which witnessed the partial awakening of the public conscience of Europe to the iniquities of the slave trade, were also notable for the revival of interest in inner Africa. A society, the African Association, was formed in London in 1788 for the exploration of the interior of the continent. The era of great discoveries had begun a little earlier in the famous journey (1770-1772) of James Bruce through Abyssinia and Sennar, during which he determined the course of the Blue Nile.

Early Exploration

But it was through the agents of the African Association that knowledge was gained of the Niger regions. The Niger itself was first reached by Mungo Park, who travelled by way of the Gambia, in 1795. Park, on a second journey in 1805, passed Timbuktu and descended the Niger to Bussa, where he lost his life, having just failed to solve the question as to where the river reached the ocean. (This problem was ultimately solved by Richard Lander and his brother in 1830.) The first scientific explorer of South-East Africa, Dr Francisco de Lacerda, a Portuguese, also lost his life in that country. Lacerda travelled up the Zambezi to Tete, going thence towards Lake Mweru, near which he died in 1798. The first recorded crossing of Africa was accomplished between the years 1802 and 1811 by two half-caste Portuguese traders, Pedro Baptista and A. Jose, who passed from Angola eastward to the Zambezi.

Although the Napoleonic wars distracted the attention of Europe from exploratory work in Africa, those wars nevertheless exercised great influence on the future of the continent, both in Egypt and South Africa. The occupation of Egypt (1798-1803) first by France and then by Great Britain resulted in an effort by Turkey to regain direct control over that country, followed in 1811 by the establishment under Mehemet Ali of an almost independent state, and the extension of Egyptian rule over the eastern Sudan (from 1820 onward). In South Africa the struggle with Napoleon caused Great Britain to take possession of the Dutch settlements at the Cape, and in 1814 Cape Colony, which had been continuously occupied by British troops since 1806, was formally ceded to the British crown.

Conquest of Africa

The close of the European conflicts with the battle of Waterloo was followed by vigorous efforts on the part of the British government to become better acquainted with Africa, and to substitute colonization and legitimate trade for the slave traffic, declared illegal for British subjects in 1807 and abolished by all other European powers by 1836. To West Africa Britain devoted much attention. The slave trade abolitionists had already, in 1788, formed a settlement at Sierra Leone, on the Guinea coast, for freed slaves, and from this establishment grew the colony of Sierra Leone, long notorious, by reason of its deadly climate, as "The White Man's Grave."[11] Farther east the establishments on the Gold Coast began to take a part in the politics of the interior, and the first British mission to Kumasi, despatched in 1817, led to the assumption of a protectorate over the maritime tribes heretofore governed by the Ashanti.

An expedition sent in 1816 to explore the Congo from its mouth did not succeed in getting beyond the rapids which bar the way to the interior, but in the central Sudan much better results were obtained. In 1823 three English travellers, Walter Oudney, Dixon Denham and Hugh Clapperton, reached Lake Chad from Tripoli-the first white men to reach that lake. The partial exploration of Bornu and the Hausa states by Clapperton, which followed, revealed the existence of large and flourishing cities and a semi-civilized people in a region hitherto unknown. The discovery in 1830 of the mouth of the Niger by Clapperton's servant Lander, already mentioned, had been preceded by the journeys of Major A. G. Laing (1826) and Rene Caillie (1827) to Timbuktu, and was followed (1832-1833) by the partial ascent of the Benue affluent of the Niger by Macgregor Laird. In 1841 a disastrous attempt was made to plant a white colony on the lower Niger, an expedition (largely philanthropic and antislavery in its inception) which ended in utter failure. Nevertheless from that time British traders remained on the lower Niger, their continued presence leading ultimately to the acquisition of political rights over the delta and the Hausa states by Great Britain.[12] Another endeavour by the British government to open up commercial relations with the Niger countries resulted in the addition of a vast amount of information concerning the countries between Timbuktu and Lake Chad, owing to the labours of Heinrich Barth (1850-1855), originally a subordinate, but the only surviving member of the expedition sent out.

Meantime considerable changes had been made in other parts of the continent, the most notable being-the occupation of Algiers by France in 1830, an end being thereby put to the piratical proceedings of the Barbary states; the continued expansion southward of Egyptian authority with the consequent additions to the knowledge of the Nile; and the establishment of independent states (Orange Free State and the Transvaal) by Dutch farmers (Boers) dissatisfied with British rule in Cape Colony. Natal, so named by Vasco da Gama, had been made a British colony (1843), the attempt of the Boers to acquire it being frustrated. The city of Zanzibar, on the island of that name, founded in 1832 by Seyyid Said of Muscat, rapidly attained importance, and Arabs began to penetrate to the great lakes of East Africa,[13] concerning which little more was known (and less believed) than in the time of Ptolemy. Accounts of a vast inland sea, and the discovery in 1848-1840, by the missionaries Ludwig Krapf and J. Rebmann, of the snow-clad mountains of Kilimanjaro and Kenya, stimulated in Europe the desire for further knowledge.

Era of Great Explorers

At this period, the middle of the 19th century, Protestant missions were carrying on active propaganda on the Guinea coast, in South Africa and in the Zanzibar dominions. Their work, largely beneficent, was being conducted in regions and among peoples little known, and in many instances missionaries turned explorers and became pioneers of trade and empire. One of the first to attempt to fill up the remaining blank spaces in the map was David Livings tone, who had been engaged since 1840 in missionary work north of the Orange. In 1849 Livingstone crossed the Kalahari Desert from south to north and reached Lake Ngami, and between 1851 and 1856 he traversed the continent from west to east, making known the great waterways of the upper Zambezi. During these journeyings Livingstone discovered, November 1855, the famous Victoria Falls, so named after the queen of England. In 1858-1864 the lower Zambezi, the Shire and Lake Nyasa were explored by Livingstone, Nyasa having been first reached by the confidential slave of Antonio da Silva Porto, a Portuguese trader established at Bihe in Angola, who crossed Africa during 1853-1856 from Benguella to the mouth of the Rovuma.

While Livingstone circumnavigated Nyasa, the more northerly lake, Tanganyika, had been visited (1858) by Richard Burton and J. H. Speke, and the last named had sighted Victoria Nyanza. Returning to East Africa with J. A. Grant, Speke reached, in 1862, the river which flowed from Victoria Nyanza, and following it (in the main) down to Egypt, had the distinction of being the first man to read the riddle of the Nile. In 1864 another Nile explorer, Samuel Baker, discovered the Albert Nyanza, the chief western reservoir of the river. In 1866 Livingstone began his last great journey, in which he made known Lakes Mweru and Bangweulu and discovered the Lualaba (the upper part of the Congo), but died (1873) before he had been able to demonstrate its ultimate course, believing indeed that the Lualaba belonged to the Nile system. Livingstone's lonely death in the heart of Africa evoked a keener desire than ever to complete the work he left undone. H. M. Stanley, who had in 1871 succeeded in finding and succouring Livingstone, started again for Zanzibar in 1874, and in the most memorable of all exploring expeditions in Africa circumnavigated Victoria Nyanza and Tanganyika, and, striking farther inland to the Lualaba, followed that river down to the Atlantic Ocean-reached in August 1877-and proved it to be the Congo. Stanley had been preceded, in 1874, at Nyangwe, Livingstone's farthest point on the Lualaba, by Lovett Cameron, who was, however, unable farther to explore its course, making his way to the west coast by a route south of the Congo.

While the great mystery of Central Africa was being solved explorers were also active in other parts of the continent. Southern Morocco, the Sahara and the Sudan were traversed in many directions between 1860 and 1875 by Gerhard Rohlfs, Georg Schweinfurth and Gustav Nachtigal. These travellers not only added considerably to geographical knowledge, but obtained invaluable information concerning the people, languages and natural history of the countries in which they sojourned.[14] Among the discoveries of Schweinfurth was one that confirmed the Greek legends of the existence beyond Egypt of a pygmy race. But the first discoverer of the dwarf races of Central Africa was Paul du Chaillu, who found them in the Ogowe district of the west coast in 1865, five years before Schweinfurth's first meeting with the Pygmies; du Chaillu having previously, as the result of journeys in the Gabun country between 1855 and 1859, made popular in Europe the knowledge of the existence of the gorilla, perhaps the gigantic ape seen by Hanno the Carthaginian, and whose existence, up to the middle of the 19th century, was thought to be as legendary as that of the Pygmies of Aristotle.

In South Africa the filling up of the map also proceeded apace. The finding, in 1869, of rich diamond fields in the valley of the Vaal river, near its confluence with the Orange, caused a rush of emigrants to that district, and led to conflicts between the Dutch and British authorities and the extension of British authority northward. In 1871 the ruins of the great Zimbabwe in Mashonaland, the chief fortress and distributing centre of the race which in medieval times worked the goldfields of South-East Africa, were explored by Karl Mauch. In the following year F. C. Selous began his journeys over South Central Africa, which continued for more than twenty years and extended over every part of Mashonaland and Matabeleland.

In the last quarter of the 19th century the map of Africa was transformed. After the discovery of the Congo the story of exploration takes second place; the continent becomes the theatre of European expansion. Lines of partition, drawn often through trackless wildernesses, marked out the possessions of Germany, France, Great Britain and other powers. Railways penetrated the interior, vast areas were opened up to civilized occupation, and from ancient Egypt to the Zambezi the continent was startled into new life.

Geography

The Africa, which has been for two million years or so separated from the great island of Madagascar, extends but little either north or south into the Temperate Zones. It is perhaps the most tropical of the continents, presents the greatest amount of land area to the vertical sun, and is consequently the hottest of the continents. Its greatest length, 5,000 miles, is from north to south, from Latitude 37°;20' N. (Cap Blanc, near Bizerta, in Tunis) to 34°;51' S. (Cape Agulhas, Cape Colony); and its greatest breadth-about 4,000 miles- is from Senegal to the eastern horn of Somaliland.

Its total area is about 11,500,000 square miles. The northernmost projection of the continent, Mauretania, is noteworthy, especially in its western portion, for its high plateaus and ranges of lofty mountains, which culminate in the Atlas peaks of Morocco, attaining to more than 15,000 feet in altitude and being under perpetual snow.

The Tripolitaine, which lies to the east of Mauretania, is little else than the Mediterranean coast of the Sahara, and consists of ranges of stony hills, low mountains, and arid plateaus, with occasional wastes of shifting sand, and a few depressions known as oases, wherein an easily reached water-supply maintains a comparatively rich vegetation. Egypt is a prolongation of this desert region traversed by the course of the Nile, which in its delta completely banishes the desert and presents us with a region of fertile mud and rich vegetation of a European and Asiatic character.

The Sahara Desert region extends with nothing but the interruption of the Nile-and the few miles of cultivated region on either side of the Nile, between the Red Sea on the east and the Atlantic Ocean on the west. Arabia carries on the characteristics of the Sahara to the south of Persia and the northwest of India.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pg. 22-24

1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 1. pg 320-358

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Book Title Date
Kilimanjaro - Sketches of African Scenery Sketches of African Scenery 1878
Kilimanjaro - African Scenery and Animals African Scenery and Animals 1804
Kilimanjaro - Victoria Falls, Zambesi River Victoria Falls, Zambesi River 1865
Kilimanjaro - Stanley & Africa Stanley & Africa 1890
Kilimanjaro - Stanley's Story Stanley's Story 1890
Kilimanjaro - Travels into the Interior of Southern Africa Vol. 1 Travels into the Interior of Southern Africa Vol. 1 1806
Kilimanjaro - Travels into the Interior of Southern Africa Vol. 2 Travels into the Interior of Southern Africa Vol. 2 1806
Kilimanjaro - Dahomey and the Dahomans Dahomey and the Dahomans 1851
Kilimanjaro - Dahomey As It Is Dahomey As It Is 1874
Kilimanjaro - Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee 1819
Kilimanjaro - Journal of a Visit to South Africa Journal of a Visit to South Africa 1818
Kilimanjaro - Travels in South Africa Vol. 1 Travels in South Africa Vol. 1 1822
Kilimanjaro - Travels in South Africa Vol. 2 Travels in South Africa Vol. 2 1822
Kilimanjaro - Narrative of a Ten Years Residence at Tripoli in Africa Narrative of a Ten Years Residence at Tripoli in Africa 1816
Kilimanjaro - Travels in the Interior of Southern Africa Vol. 1 Travels in the Interior of Southern Africa Vol. 1 1822
Kilimanjaro - Travels in the Interior of Southern Africa Vol. 2 Travels in the Interior of Southern Africa Vol. 2 1824
Kilimanjaro - A Narrative of Travels in Northern Africa A Narrative of Travels in Northern Africa 1821
Kilimanjaro - Algiers: Being a Complete Picture of the Barbary States Algiers: Being a Complete Picture of the Barbary States 1817
Kilimanjaro - The Cruelties of the Algerine Pirates The Cruelties of the Algerine Pirates 1816
Kilimanjaro - Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Afrique] Vol. 1 Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Afrique] Vol. 1 1815
Kilimanjaro - Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Afrique] Vol. 2 Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Afrique] Vol. 2 1819
Kilimanjaro - Matabele Land and the Victoria Falls Matabele Land and the Victoria Falls 1881
Kilimanjaro - To the Victoria Falls of the Zambesi To the Victoria Falls of the Zambesi 1876
Kilimanjaro - Sporting Scenes Amongst the Kaffirs of South Africa Sporting Scenes Amongst the Kaffirs of South Africa 1858
Kilimanjaro - The Kafirs Illustrated in a Series of Drawings The Kafirs Illustrated in a Series of Drawings 1849
Kilimanjaro - De Kaffers aan de Zuidkust van Afrika De Kaffers aan de Zuidkust van Afrika 1810
Kilimanjaro - The Importance of the Cape of Good Hope The Importance of the Cape of Good Hope 1816
Kilimanjaro - A Voyage to Africa A Voyage to Africa 1821
Kilimanjaro - Picturesque Views on the River Niger Picturesque Views on the River Niger 1840
Kilimanjaro - Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 1 Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 1 1809
Kilimanjaro - Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 2 Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 2 1809
Kilimanjaro - Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 3 Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt Vol. 3 1809
Kilimanjaro - Twenty-Four Views Taken in St. Helena, the Cape, India, Ceylon, Abyssinia, and Egypt Twenty-Four Views Taken in St. Helena, the Cape, India, Ceylon, Abyssinia, and Egypt 1809
Kilimanjaro - A Voyage to Abyssinia A Voyage to Abyssinia 1814
Kilimanjaro - Picturesque Views in the Island of Ascension Picturesque Views in the Island of Ascension 1835
Kilimanjaro - A Narrative of the Expedition Sent By Her Majesty's Government to the River Niger Vol. 1 A Narrative of the Expedition Sent By Her Majesty's Government to the River Niger Vol. 1 1848
Kilimanjaro - A Narrative of the Expedition Sent By Her Majesty's Government to the River Niger Vol. 2 A Narrative of the Expedition Sent By Her Majesty's Government to the River Niger Vol. 2 1848
Kilimanjaro - A Literary & Historical Atlas of Africa and Australasia A Literary & Historical Atlas of Africa and Australasia 1913
Kilimanjaro - A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies 1690
Kilimanjaro - A Narrative of Four Journeys into the Country of the Hottentots A Narrative of Four Journeys into the Country of the Hottentots 1789
Kilimanjaro - A Report of the Kingdom of Congo A Report of the Kingdom of Congo 1881
Kilimanjaro - Across East African Glaciers Across East African Glaciers 1891
Kilimanjaro - Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa Vol. 1 Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa Vol. 1 1857
Kilimanjaro - Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa Vol. 2 Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa Vol. 2 1857
Kilimanjaro - Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa Vol. 3 Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa Vol. 3 1857
Kilimanjaro - Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa Vol. 4 Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa Vol. 4 1857
Kilimanjaro - Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa Vol. 5 Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa Vol. 5 1857
Kilimanjaro - An Authentic Narrative of the Loss of the American Brig Commerce An Authentic Narrative of the Loss of the American Brig Commerce 1817
Kilimanjaro - Stanley in Africa Stanley in Africa 1889
Kilimanjaro - Voyage a Meroe Vol. 1 Voyage a Meroe Vol. 1 1826
Kilimanjaro - Voyage a Meroe Vol. 2 Voyage a Meroe Vol. 2 1826
Kilimanjaro - Voyage a Meroe Vol. 3 Voyage a Meroe Vol. 3 1826
Kilimanjaro - Voyage a Meroe Vol. 4 Voyage a Meroe Vol. 4 1826
Kilimanjaro - Voyage a Meroe - Atlas Voyage a Meroe - Atlas 1823
Kilimanjaro - Voyages au Soudan Oriental et Dans l'Afrique Septentrionale Voyages au Soudan Oriental et Dans l'Afrique Septentrionale 1852
Kilimanjaro - Voyage en Ethiopie, au Soudan Oriental et dans la Nigritie Vol. 1 Voyage en Ethiopie, au Soudan Oriental et dans la Nigritie Vol. 1 1862
Kilimanjaro - Voyage en Ethiopie, au Soudan Oriental et dans la Nigritie Vol. 2 Voyage en Ethiopie, au Soudan Oriental et dans la Nigritie Vol. 2 1863
Kilimanjaro - Reconnoitring in Abyssinia Reconnoitring in Abyssinia 1870
Kilimanjaro - Hunting Big Game in the Wilds of Africa Hunting Big Game in the Wilds of Africa 1909
Kilimanjaro - St. Helena: A Description of the Island St. Helena: A Description of the Island 1875
Kilimanjaro - Excursions in Madeira and Porto Santo Excursions in Madeira and Porto Santo 1825
Kilimanjaro - Travels in Ethiopia, Above the Second Cataract of the Nile Travels in Ethiopia, Above the Second Cataract of the Nile 1835
Kilimanjaro - Visit to the Great Oasis of the Libyan Desert Visit to the Great Oasis of the Libyan Desert 1837
Kilimanjaro - Schetsen van Afrika's Westkust Schetsen van Afrika's Westkust 1861
Kilimanjaro - First Footsteps in East Africa Vol. 1 First Footsteps in East Africa Vol. 1 1894
Kilimanjaro - First Footsteps in East Africa Vol. 2 First Footsteps in East Africa Vol. 2 1894
Kilimanjaro - Costumes Civiles Vol. 3 - Afrique Costumes Civiles Vol. 3 - Afrique 1788
Kilimanjaro - Across Widest Africa Vol. 1 Across Widest Africa Vol. 1 1907
Kilimanjaro - Across Widest Africa Vol. 2 Across Widest Africa Vol. 2 1907
Kilimanjaro - Heroes of the Dark Continent Heroes of the Dark Continent 1890
Kilimanjaro - Reise nach Abessinien, den Gala-Landern Reise nach Abessinien, den Gala-Landern 1868
Kilimanjaro - Drei Jahre in Sud-Afrika Drei Jahre in Sud-Afrika 1868
Kilimanjaro - The First Ascent of the Kasai The First Ascent of the Kasai 1889
Kilimanjaro - Africa and the American Flag Africa and the American Flag 1854
Kilimanjaro - A Journey to Mount Kilima-njaro, Africa A Journey to Mount Kilima-njaro, Africa 1885
Kilimanjaro - The Kilima-Njaro Expedition The Kilima-Njaro Expedition 1886
Kilimanjaro - Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 2 Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de Tous les Peuples du Monde Vol. 2 1844
Kilimanjaro - Meroe, the City of the Ethiopians Meroe, the City of the Ethiopians 1911
Kilimanjaro - Madagascar and the Malagasy Madagascar and the Malagasy 1866
Kilimanjaro - Ten Years in Equatoria and the Return with Emin Pasha Vol. 1 Ten Years in Equatoria and the Return with Emin Pasha Vol. 1 1901
Kilimanjaro - Ten Years in Equatoria and the Return with Emin Pasha Vol. 2 Ten Years in Equatoria and the Return with Emin Pasha Vol. 2 1901
Kilimanjaro - Viaggi nell'Africa Occidentale Viaggi nell'Africa Occidentale 1845
Kilimanjaro - Africa, Being an Accurate Description Africa, Being an Accurate Description 1670
Kilimanjaro - The World in Miniature: Africa Vol. 1 The World in Miniature: Africa Vol. 1 1821
Kilimanjaro - The World in Miniature: Africa Vol. 2 The World in Miniature: Africa Vol. 2 1821
Kilimanjaro - The World in Miniature: Africa Vol. 3 The World in Miniature: Africa Vol. 3 1821
Kilimanjaro - The World in Miniature: Africa Vol. 4 The World in Miniature: Africa Vol. 4 1821
Kilimanjaro - The Heroes of African Discovery & Adventure The Heroes of African Discovery & Adventure 1883
Kilimanjaro - Der Kilimandjaro Der Kilimandjaro 1900
Kilimanjaro - Ostafrikanische Gletscherfahrten Ostafrikanische Gletscherfahrten 1890
Kilimanjaro - Zum Schneedom des Kilimandscharo Zum Schneedom des Kilimandscharo 1888
Kilimanjaro - Through Central Africa Through Central Africa 1915
Kilimanjaro - Travel in Aquatint and Lithography Vol. 1 Travel in Aquatint and Lithography Vol. 1 1956
Kilimanjaro - Narrative of a Voyage to Senegal Narrative of a Voyage to Senegal 1818
Kilimanjaro - The Highlands of Aethiopia Vol. 1 The Highlands of Aethiopia Vol. 1 1844
Kilimanjaro - The Highlands of Aethiopia Vol. 2 The Highlands of Aethiopia Vol. 2 1844
Kilimanjaro - The Highlands of Aethiopia Vol. 3 The Highlands of Aethiopia Vol. 3 1844
Kilimanjaro - Naufrage de la Fregate la Meduse Naufrage de la Fregate la Meduse 1818
Kilimanjaro - Catalan Atlas Catalan Atlas 1375
Kilimanjaro - Relatione del Reame del Congo Relatione del Reame del Congo 1591

Images

Image Name
View from the C.M.S Camp Mkundi River Usagara Looking East
Camels After a March
View of Massowah
The Lake of Blood
Back Cover
Bell Stone - A Mass of Phonolite near Shipways
Barea and the Deleb Palm
African Ethnology
1. Inscription on a Column at Damietta, 2. Copper Dovetail found at Bahbeit, 3. Ancient Column found at Mafsowah
Sketch of a Scene Half Way Down the Pass of Atrara
Table of Contents M
Leafs 7 & 8 - Map
Planche 4. Vue et détails du grand désert de Korosko.
Book Display
Zagoshi Looking Up the River, the City of Rabba
Planche 44. Nubien (esclave) et Égyptien.
Front Cover
Fisherman of the Lulua
Back Cover
Front Cover
Route from Kukawa to Yola
De guelle maniere l'ambassade Anglaise fut recue du Roi [II]
Planche 54. Vue prise à Alexandrie.
Carte no. 3. Carte de l'Afrique orientale.
View of the Church of Hannes, on the Way to Axum
Matebeles in Martial Costume
Pagoda at Conjeveram
The Reception at Kana
94) China, Siompa
View of the Government House at Mesuril
Front Cover
Encampment in Forest
Planche 53. Vue générale des tombeaux des Califes.
Malchus, Magon, Annibal, Didon etc
Water Spouts Seen in the Mozambique Channel
The King's Sleeping Room
Back Cover
Bamba
Dey of Algiers
Verandah of the Great Palace and Tombs of the Kings
Map of Mr. F. Oates's Route from Shoshong to Tati
Plate 23 - Insects
Rapids on the Wami River
Front Cover
Chasse de l'hippopotame
Cufic Tomb-Stone at Dhalac [I]
55) Pegu
Erodia Amphilensis
82) Java [I]
Pagodas at Talicut
A Woman
Habitans des iles du Cap Vert [I]
Portrait
79) Sumatra, Straghts of Sunda, Java
46) Orixa [I]
Views of Cape Town and Vicinity
Dress worn by females at the annual circumcision feast at Lattakoo / The Rainmaker's Wife at Kurreechane.
Procession to Ibu
Part 2nd, Chart of the Red Sea
88) Celebes, Ende, Tiimor
Front Cover
Armes des Magagasses
Stanley's Followers Seeking Supplies
L'interieur du temple de Tentyre
Hazorta Family
Routes between Katsena and Kukawa
Hamed Chamie
Victoria Falls, Zambesi (Western Extremity)
Cascade on Sneuwberg
Planche 9. Forêt vierge d'Afrique.
Front Cover
Assorted Figures
Landscape of the Musgu Country
Front Cover
General Map of the Eastern Half of Northern Central Africa
Elephants in the Open
View Northward Down Lemon Valley
1) Monomotapa [I]
Animaux - Gnu, Quahkak etc [II]
Aster Gummiferus
Abyssinian Locust
Front Cover
Planche 52. Débris de forêt pétrifiée.
On the Road to Kassenge
Tuaricks of Ghraat
Rapids of the Niger at E'm-n-I'sbib
Mpwapwa in the Usagara Mountains
Planche 48. Habitants de Kéry réduits en esclavage.
Triumphal Arch, Tripoli
Wynberg
Armes des Mamelouks
Afrique representee par les anciens
Officers of the Grand Seraglio Regaling
Negres qui grimpent sur les arbres
Negres du royaume d'Ardra
Waterfall at Sevasummoodra

Maps

Map Name
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Coramandel [II] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Persia, Guzarat (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Cantan, Formosa, Luconia (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - S. Lorinso [II] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Islands [I] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - The Riseing of the Land as it Appeareth to the Eye (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Persia, Arabia, Felix [I] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Borneo (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Luconia (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Borneo, Celebes (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Formosa [I] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Surrat City, Cambaya, Guzarat (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Malapi (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Malaya (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Busseen, Vingerle, Malabar, Rojapore (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Orixa [I] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Orixa [II] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Comarin (1690)
Journal of a Visit to South Africa - The Southern Divisions of the Cape of Good Hope Colony (1818)
Catalan Atlas - Leafs 7 & 8 (1375)
Dahomey As It Is - A Map of Dahomey with Part of Ashanti (1874)
Catalan Atlas - Leafs 9 & 10 (1375)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Sumatra, Sunda Straghts, Java (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - China, Siompa (1690)
A Voyage to Africa - North and South-West Africa Showing the Course of the Niger (1821)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Sumatra, Malaya (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Pegu (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Guzarat, India [II] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Borneo, Paragoa, Isle of Mindoro (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - China (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Magadoxa, Melinde, Mombaza, Quiloa (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Sumatra (1690)
The First Ascent of the Kasai - Plan of Luebo Station (1889)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Celebes Island (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Sumatra, Java (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Sumatra, Banca [I] (1690)
A Narrative of Travels in Northern Africa - Map of a Route through the Regency of Tripoli and Kingdom of Fezzan (1821)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Tonquin, Qunacy, Aynam (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Celebes, Ende, Tiimor (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Bancosey, Siam, Cambodia, Siompa (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Carwar (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Callicut (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Moha, Arabian Felix, the Red Sea (1690)
Catalan Atlas - Leafs 11 & 12 (1375)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - S. Lorinso [I] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Persia, Arabia, Felix [III] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Saltset Island, Bombay Island, Coronia (1690)
Algiers: Being a Complete Picture of the Barbary States - Map of Barbary (1817)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Arabia, Felix (1690)
Picturesque Views on the River Niger - A Part of the River Niger & Chadda, Surveyed in 1832-3 (1840)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Cong in Persia described, Bussora described (Euphrates River) (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Sunda Straghts, Java (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Islands [II] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Celebes, Java (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - India (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Bombahem Island, Island of Saltset, Coronia (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Cambodia, China, Siompa (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Paragoa, Mindoro Island, Luconia (1690)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Afrique] Vol. 1 - Carte Geographique de l'Afrique [Carta dell Africa] (1815)
Catalan Atlas - Leafs 5 & 6 (1375)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Sumatra, Straghts of Sunda, Java (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Siompa, Borneo (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Formosa [II] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Quinam, Aynam (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Sumatra, Banca, Borneo, Succadana (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Japan, Cikoko, Tanaxima (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Monomotapa [I] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Mosambuique, S. Lorinso [I] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Lagao (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Guzarat, India [I] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Bisnagar [I] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Bisnagar [II] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Ceiloan [II] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Cuchin (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Part of the Coast of Malabar, Ceiloan (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Java [II] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Coramandel [III] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Java [I] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Java, Sumatra (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Sumatra, Sunda Straghts (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Malabar (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Cape Bona Esperanca (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Magadoxa (1690)
Stanley's Story - Map of Equatorial Africa (1890)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - A Description of Asabb Bay, the Red Sea (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Malaya, Sumatra (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Bengall Bay, Aracam (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Monomotapa [II] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Chekiang, China, Formosa (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Isle Coronia, India (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Mosambuique, S. Lorinso [II] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Moha, the Red Sea (1690)
Narrative of a Ten Years Residence at Tripoli in Africa - Map of the Regencies of Tripoly and Tunis (1816)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Coramandel [I] (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Arabia Felix, Aden, Doara (1690)
A Description of the Sea Coasts in the East Indies - Bombay (1690)

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