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Portugal

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Portugal Collection

History Archive - Portugal Collection

Portugal is a nation located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

Portugal is the oldest nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. The pre-Celtic people, Celts, Carthaginians and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128. The Kingdom of Portugal was later proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, and independence from León was recognized by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope (1488), Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India (1497-98) and the European discovery of Brazil (1500).

During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil (1822), and a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence.

After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, later being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974, ending the Portuguese Colonial War. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories. The handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire.

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Image Name
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Lisboa or Lisbon, the Capital of Portugal (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Fourth degree of Torture of the Inquisition (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Portuguese Regiment of Alcantara (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Fountain opposite the Inn at Ponte de Lima, Entre Douro-e-Minho (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Peasant of Torres Vedras (1809)
Views of Cintra - Entrance to the Penna (1830)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Attack of the Castle of Burgos, 1812 (1818)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - St. Francisco in the procession of St. Antonio (1826)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Aljezur from the South Algarve (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Aliejos, a town in the Plains of Leon (1809)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Back Cover (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Faro, the Capital of the Algarve (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Action of Rolica, 17th of August, 1808 (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Arroyoles; Anciently called Calentica Alemtejo (1818)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Party at Rio de Janeiro. A castrate singing (1826)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Amarante and Bridge, from the Convent of San Domingo: Entre Douro-e-Minho (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Armed Peasant of the Ciudad Rodrigo Militia (1809)
Views of Cintra - The Cork Convent (1830)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Peasant of the Corregimiento of Salamanca (II) (1809)
Views of Cintra - A Distant View of the Penna Convent (1830)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - A Saloia retailing fruit (1826)
Views of Cintra - Title Page (1830)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Sketch of the Action between the British and French Forces at Vimieiro, Portugal, 21st August, 1808 (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Valenca do Minho: Entre Douro-e-Minho (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Third degree of Torture of the Inquisition (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Shepherds of the Plains of Leon (1809)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Interior of the Dominican Church, Salamanca (1809)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Pass of Manzanal (1809)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Portuguese Marine (1809)
Views of Cintra - The Market Place, Cintra (1830)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Sea-Coast near Lagos, and the Battery called O Pinhao Algarve (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - A Spanish lady with her attendant going to mass (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Cintra from the Liboa-road Estramadura (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - The Boleras Dance (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Entrance of the Harbour of Portimao, Algarve (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - From the Castle at Abrantes, anciently called Tubuci: Estremadura (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - A Peasant Boy of Nisa (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Bay and Harbour of Lagos, from O Pinhao Algarve (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Spanish Courier (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Albofeira and Sea Coast, from the East Algrave (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Aljustrel, from the East, Alemtejo (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Peasant in a Straw Coat (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Villa Nova de Portimao Algarve (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - A French Dragoon (1809)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Pass in the mountains between Nisa and Villa Velha (1809)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Torres Vedlas from the North-West (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Plan of the Battle of Busaco, 27th September, 1810 (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Ford on the River Sever, between Montalvao in Portugal, and Herrera in Spain: Alentejo (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Title Page (1818)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Landing place at Belem (1826)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Penafiel de Lousa from the East Entre Douro e Minho (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Bridge of Boats at Porto, on the River Douro (1818)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Execution of the Conspirators - Plate 2nd (1826)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Title Page (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - An Infant Capuchin (1809)
Views of Cintra - Cintra from the East (1830)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Cintra (1809)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Franciscans (1809)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - A Student of the Irish College, Salamanca (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Plan of the Action near Coruna, Jan 16th, 1809 (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Girl of Guarda (1809)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - A Lady of Lisbon in her walking dress (1809)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - An Internment (1826)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Spanish Infantry (1809)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Portuguese Dragoons (1826)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Plan of the Attack of Cuidad Rodrigo, 19th Jan 1812 (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - City of Coimbra, anciently called Conimbra, from the South: Beira (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Monchique near Cape San Vicente Algarve (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Spanish coins shewing their value as directed to pass current in Portugal by General Junot. (1818)
Views of Cintra - Cintra (1830)
Views of Cintra - Cintra from the West (1830)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Plan of the Battle of the Arapiles near Salamanca (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Head of the Bay of Vigo between Puente San Payo and Ponte Vedra, Galicia (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Torres-Vedras from the North: Estremadura (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Battle of Talavera, 28th & 29th July, 1809 (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Convent near Cintra on the Highest pinnacle of the Rock of Lisboa Estramadura (1818)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Procession of the Sesor dos Passos de Graca (1826)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Bathing in the Tagus (1826)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Estremoz, from the Road leading to Elvas, Alemtejo (1818)
Views of Cintra - The Church of Cintra (1830)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Pass in the mountains near Ladeira: Beira (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Bridge & Ford on the River Niza, on the road from Villa Velha to Niza Alentejo (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Scene on the River Oeiras, at Mertolla, anciently called Mirtiles Julia (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Alcacer Sal, anciently called Salacia; from the North Estramadura (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Pombal and Bridge, from the South-west Estremadura (1818)
Views of Cintra - The Convent of Na. Sra. Da Penna (1830)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Creek of Maceira (1809)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - A Portuguese Gentleman (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Lagos Bridge, Algarve (1818)
Views of Cintra - Entrance to Cintra, from Lisbon (1830)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Spanish Heavy Horse (1809)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Execution of the Conspirators - Plate 1st (1826)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Street Scene in Lisbon (1826)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - View near Villa Franca (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - City of Tuy on the Mino; Galicia (1818)
Views of Cintra - Front Cover (1830)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Near San Payo, on the road to Redondela, looking towards Vigo (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - City of Coimbra, anciently called Conimbra, from near the Bridge Beira (1818)
Sketches in Portugal during the Civil War - Title Page (1835)
Views of Cintra - An Old Chapel of the Moorish Castle (1830)

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