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Mediterranean Collection

History Archive - Mediterranean Collection

The Mediterranean Sea was the central superhighway of transport, trade and cultural exchange between diverse peoples encompassing three continents: Western Asia, North Africa, and Southern Europe. The history of the cultures and people of the Mediterranean Basin is important for understanding the origin and development of the Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Canaanite, Phoenician, Hebrew, Carthaginian, Greek, Persian, Thracian, Etruscan, Iberian, Roman, Byzantine, Bulgarian, Arab, Ottoman, Christian and Islamic cultures.

Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilizations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states and the Phoenicians. The Greeks expanded throughout the Black Sea and south through the Red Sea. The Phoenicians spread through the western Mediterranean reaching North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. From the 6th century BC up to including the 5th century BC, many of the significant Mediterranean peoples were under Persian rule, making them dominate the Mediterranean during these years. Both the Phoenicians and some of the Greek city states in Asia Minor provided the naval forces of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Persian dominance ended after the Greco-Persian War in the 5th century BC and Persia was crippled by Macedonia in the 4th century BC.

Spread throughout the Mediterranean region are the ruins and remains of these vast empires as well as the modern day cultures who inhabit them. Many pictorial works were about various structures and scenery seen by travelers along the way that were the remnants of these great civilizations. While covering disparate areas around the Mediterranean Sea the architecture and other cultural aspects are very similar.

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Persian Empire

From the 6th century BC up to including the first half of the 4th century BC, many of the significant Mediterranean peoples came under Achaemenid Persian rule, making them dominate the Mediterranean during all these years. The empire, founded by Cyrus the Great, would include Macedonia, Thrace, modern day Bulgaria, Egypt, Anatolia, the Phoenician lands, the Levant, and many other basin regions of the Mediterranean later on. Darius the Great (Darius I) is to be credited as the first Achaemenid king to invest in a Persian fleet.

Even by then no true "imperial navy" had existed either in Greece or Egypt. Persia would become the first empire, under Darius, to inaugurate and deploy the first regular imperial navy. Both the Phoenicians and the Greeks provided the bulk of the naval forces of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, alongside the Cypriots and Egyptians. Full Persian dominance in the Mediterranean ended after the Greco-Persian War in the 5th century BC, and Persia eventually lost all her influence in the Mediterranean in the late 4th century BC following Alexander's conquests.

Hellenistic Period

In the northernmost part of ancient Greece, in the ancient kingdom of Macedonia, technological and organizational skills were forged with a long history of cavalry warfare. Under Alexander the Great, this force turned east, and in a series of decisive battles, it routed the Persian forces and took over as the dominant empire of the Mediterranean. Their Macedonia empire included present-day Greece, Bulgaria, Egypt, the Phoenician lands and many other basin regions of the Mediterranean and Asia Minor. The major centers of the Mediterranean at the time became part of Alexander's empire as a result. His empire quickly disintegrated, and the Middle East, Egypt, and Greece were soon again independent. Alexander's conquests spread Greek knowledge and ideas throughout the region.

Rome and Carthage

These eastern powers soon began to be overshadowed by those farther west. In North Africa, the former Phoenician colony of Carthage rose to dominate its surroundings with an empire that contained many of the former Phoenician holdings. However, it was a city on the Italian Peninsula, Rome, that would eventually dominate the entire Mediterranean basin. Spreading first through Italy, Rome defeated Carthage in the Punic Wars, despite Hannibal's famous efforts against Rome in the Second Punic War.

After the Third Punic War, Rome then became the leading force in the Mediterranean region. The Romans soon spread east, taking Greece, and the Greek heritage played an important role in the Roman Empire. By this point the coastal trading cultures were thoroughly dominant over the inland river valleys that had once been the heart of the great powers. Egyptian power moved from the Nile cities to the coastal ones, especially Alexandria. Mesopotamia became a fringe border region between the Roman Empire and the Persians.

When Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Mediterranean sea began to be called Mare Nostrum (Latin: "Our Sea") by the Romans. Their empire was centered on this sea and all the area was full of commerce and naval development. For the first time in history, an entire sea (the Mediterranean) was free of piracy. For several centuries, the Mediterranean was a "Roman Lake", surrounded on all sides by the empire. The empire began to crumble, however, in the fifth century and Rome collapsed after AD 476.

References:

Couper, Alastair (2015). The Geography of Sea Transport. Routledge. p. 33-37. ISBN 978-1-317-35150-4. Archived from the original on 2018-09-13. Retrieved 2018-09-20.

Kaveh Farrokh (2007). Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. Osprey Publishing. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-84603-108-3.

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Book Title Date
Mediterranean - Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic 1849
Mediterranean - The Palace of Minos Vol. 3 The Palace of Minos Vol. 3 1930
Mediterranean - Liber Insularum Arcipelagi Liber Insularum Arcipelagi 1470
Mediterranean - Travels and Researches in Crete Travels and Researches in Crete 1865
Mediterranean - La Piazza di San Marco in Venezia La Piazza di San Marco in Venezia 1831
Mediterranean - Pompeii, Painted and Described Pompeii, Painted and Described 1910
Mediterranean - A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 1 A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 1 1815
Mediterranean - A Voyage up the Mediterranean in His Majesty's Ship the Swiftsure A Voyage up the Mediterranean in His Majesty's Ship the Swiftsure 1802
Mediterranean - The Sea-Kings of Crete The Sea-Kings of Crete 1910
Mediterranean - Itinerare auf der Insel Lesbos Itinerare auf der Insel Lesbos 1895
Mediterranean - A Select Collection of Views and Ruins in Rome A Select Collection of Views and Ruins in Rome 1815
Mediterranean - Grecian Remains in Italy Grecian Remains in Italy 1812
Mediterranean - Cyprus: It's Resources and Capabilities Cyprus: It's Resources and Capabilities 1878
Mediterranean - A Picturesque Tour of Italy Vol. 2 A Picturesque Tour of Italy Vol. 2 1820
Mediterranean - Select Views of the Rock and Fortress of Gibraltar Select Views of the Rock and Fortress of Gibraltar 1846
Mediterranean - Liber Insularum Cycladum Liber Insularum Cycladum 1422
Mediterranean - Search for Winter Sunbeams in the Riviera, Corsica, Algiers, and Spain Search for Winter Sunbeams in the Riviera, Corsica, Algiers, and Spain 1870
Mediterranean - Italian Scenery Italian Scenery 1806
Mediterranean - Six Views of Gibraltar Six Views of Gibraltar 1828
Mediterranean - The Palace of Minos Vol. 4, Pt. 2 The Palace of Minos Vol. 4, Pt. 2 1935
Mediterranean - A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece Vol. 2 A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece Vol. 2 1819
Mediterranean - Picturesque Tour from Geneva to Milan Picturesque Tour from Geneva to Milan 1820
Mediterranean - Troy and its Remains Troy and its Remains 1875
Mediterranean - The Riviera Painted & Described The Riviera Painted & Described 1907
Mediterranean - Greece Painted and Described Greece Painted and Described 1906
Mediterranean - Lectures on Roman Husbandry Lectures on Roman Husbandry 1857
Mediterranean - A Pilgrimage to Italy A Pilgrimage to Italy 1899
Mediterranean - Campi Phlegraei Vol. 2 Campi Phlegraei Vol. 2 1776
Mediterranean - Rome and It's Story Rome and It's Story 1904
Mediterranean - The War in Italy The War in Italy 1859
Mediterranean - The Palace of Minos Vol. 4, Pt. 1 The Palace of Minos Vol. 4, Pt. 1 1935
Mediterranean - Sketches of Vesuvius Sketches of Vesuvius 1832
Mediterranean - The Palace of Minos Vol. 2, Pt. 2 The Palace of Minos Vol. 2, Pt. 2 1928
Mediterranean - Mycenae : A Narrative of Researches and Discoveries Mycenae : A Narrative of Researches and Discoveries 1878
Mediterranean - An Artist in Corfu An Artist in Corfu 1911
Mediterranean - Lamia's Winter-Quarters Lamia's Winter-Quarters 1907
Mediterranean - Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 2 Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 2 1806
Mediterranean - Florence & Some Tuscan Cities Painted and Described Florence & Some Tuscan Cities Painted and Described 1905
Mediterranean - The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Restored The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Restored 1862
Mediterranean - The Palace of Minos Vol. 1 The Palace of Minos Vol. 1 1921
Mediterranean - British Cyprus British Cyprus 1897
Mediterranean - Sketches of Corsica Sketches of Corsica 1825
Mediterranean - The Ruins of Paestum, otherwise Posidonia The Ruins of Paestum, otherwise Posidonia 1768
Mediterranean - A Restoration of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus A Restoration of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus 1909
Mediterranean - Cyprus: It's History, It's Present Resources and Future Prospects Cyprus: It's History, It's Present Resources and Future Prospects 1878
Mediterranean - Sicily, Painted and Described Sicily, Painted and Described 1911
Mediterranean - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 1820
Mediterranean - Along the Rivieras of France & Italy Along the Rivieras of France & Italy 1908
Mediterranean - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
Mediterranean - A Ramble in Malta and Sicily A Ramble in Malta and Sicily 1842
Mediterranean - Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains 1834
Mediterranean - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 1820
Mediterranean - A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece Vol. 1 A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece Vol. 1 1819
Mediterranean - Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum 1721
Mediterranean - Der Golf von Neapel Der Golf von Neapel 1877
Mediterranean - The Palace of Minos Vol. 2, Pt. 1 The Palace of Minos Vol. 2, Pt. 1 1928
Mediterranean - Memoir Descriptive of the Resources, Inhabitants, and Hydrography, of Sicily Memoir Descriptive of the Resources, Inhabitants, and Hydrography, of Sicily 1824
Mediterranean - Rambles on the Riviera Rambles on the Riviera 1906
Mediterranean - Gleanings from Piccadilly to Pera Gleanings from Piccadilly to Pera 1854
Mediterranean - Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 3 Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 3 1806
Mediterranean - Tiryns. The Prehistoric Palace of the Kings Tiryns. The Prehistoric Palace of the Kings 1885
Mediterranean - Venetia and Northern Italy Venetia and Northern Italy 1908
Mediterranean - Views in Greece Views in Greece 1821
Mediterranean - Rambles in the Islands of Corsica and Sardinia Rambles in the Islands of Corsica and Sardinia 1861
Mediterranean - A Wanderer in Venice A Wanderer in Venice 1914
Mediterranean - Travels through Sicily, and the Lipari Islands Travels through Sicily, and the Lipari Islands 1827
Mediterranean - Panoramic View of Corfu Panoramic View of Corfu 1836
Mediterranean - The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots 1801
Mediterranean - Ravenna, a Study Ravenna, a Study 1913
Mediterranean - Unprotected Females in Sicily, Calabria, and on the Top of Mount Aetna Unprotected Females in Sicily, Calabria, and on the Top of Mount Aetna 1859
Mediterranean - Italian Villas and Their Gardens Italian Villas and Their Gardens 1905
Mediterranean - An Artist in the Riviera An Artist in the Riviera 1915
Mediterranean - Life in Asiatic Turkey Life in Asiatic Turkey 1879
Mediterranean - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 1820
Mediterranean - Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 1 Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 1 1806
Mediterranean - Sketches on the Old Road Through France to Florence Sketches on the Old Road Through France to Florence 1904
Mediterranean - Vues et Descriptions de Constructions Cyclopeennes ou Pelasgiques Vues et Descriptions de Constructions Cyclopeennes ou Pelasgiques 1834
Mediterranean - Campi Phlegraei Vol. 1 Campi Phlegraei Vol. 1 1776
Mediterranean - Pompei Pompei 1840
Mediterranean - Saracenic and Norman Remains Saracenic and Norman Remains 1840
Mediterranean - L'Antique Rome, ou, Description Historique et Pittoresque L'Antique Rome, ou, Description Historique et Pittoresque 1796
Mediterranean - Die Riviera: Wanderziele und Winterasyle Die Riviera: Wanderziele und Winterasyle 1884
Mediterranean - Le Jupiter Olympien Le Jupiter Olympien 1815
Mediterranean - A Picturesque Tour of Italy Vol. 1 A Picturesque Tour of Italy Vol. 1 1820
Mediterranean - Rome, Painted and Described Rome, Painted and Described 1905
Mediterranean - Six Views of Gibraltar and its Neighbourhood Six Views of Gibraltar and its Neighbourhood 1825
Mediterranean - Troja : Results of the Latest Researches and Discoveries Troja : Results of the Latest Researches and Discoveries 1884
Mediterranean - Journal of the Late Campaign in Egypt Journal of the Late Campaign in Egypt 1803
Mediterranean - A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 2 A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 2 1815
Mediterranean - Campi Phlegraei Vol. 3 Campi Phlegraei Vol. 3 1779
Mediterranean - A Tour Through Sicily A Tour Through Sicily 1819
Mediterranean - Il Canal Grande di Venezia Il Canal Grande di Venezia 1831
Mediterranean - The Salonika Front The Salonika Front 1920
Mediterranean - Naples and the Campagna Felice Naples and the Campagna Felice 1815
Mediterranean - Ilios : The City and Country of the Trojans Ilios : The City and Country of the Trojans 1880
Mediterranean - The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described 1912
Mediterranean - Naples, Painted and Described Naples, Painted and Described 1904
Mediterranean - Malta, Painted and Described Malta, Painted and Described 1910

Related Images

Image Name
The Salonika Front - Seres Town and Bulgarian Positions along the Struma (1920)
The Salonika Front - Sunset Effect on a Quarry near Vergetor (1920)
The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described - (1912)
Italian Scenery - A Piedmontese Dance (1806)
Italian Scenery - The Fishmonger (1806)
Greece Painted and Described - Sacred Way from Athens to Eleusis, looking towards Salamis (1906)
Grecian Remains in Italy - Continuation of the View from the summit of Monte Cavo (1812)
The Riviera Painted & Described - The Old Castle, Levanto (1907)
Ravenna, a Study - S. Vitale, the Gallery (1913)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - Walls at Galaxidi Ancient Oianthe in Ozolaia Locris (1834)
The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described - (1912)
The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described - (1912)
Pompei - View 34 (1840)
Die Riviera: Wanderziele und Winterasyle - Vai di Sasso bei Bordighera (1884)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 - Front Cover (1820)
Le Jupiter Olympien - Pl. XXI. Trône de Déméter et de Despoina a Acacesium, restitué, etc. (1815)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - Walls at Cora [I] (1834)
Sicily, Painted and Described - Seacoast, Selinunte (1911)
A Select Collection of Views and Ruins in Rome - Illustrated Title Page (1815)
The Riviera Painted & Described - Old Bastion, Sarzana (1907)
A Wanderer in Venice - The Rialto Bridge from the Palazzo dei Dieci Savii (1914)
Naples, Painted and Described - Title Page (1904)
Greece Painted and Described - Athens. The Monument of Agrippa and the Pinacotheca (1906)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - Walls of Terracina [I] (1834)
Malta, Painted and Described - Piazza Regina, Valletta, at Sunset (1910)
Memoir Descriptive of the Resources, Inhabitants, and Hydrography, of Sicily - Temple of Concord at Girgenti (1824)
Ravenna, a Study - Title Page (1913)
Sicily, Painted and Described - Spring at Syracuse. View of Etna and Thapsos from Site of Tyche (1911)
Sicily, Painted and Described - Capella Palatina, Palermo (1911)
Saracenic and Norman Remains - (1840)
Naples, Painted and Described - (1904)
Rome, Painted and Described - (1905)
Naples, Painted and Described - (1904)
A Wanderer in Venice - The Grand Canal from the Steps of S. Maria della Salute (1914)
A Select Collection of Views and Ruins in Rome - Ponte Lucano (1815)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - Karaman, Kara Dagh in the Distance (1879)
Naples, Painted and Described - (1904)
The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described - (1912)
Florence & Some Tuscan Cities Painted and Described - Piazza Santa Croce (1905)
Naples, Painted and Described - (1904)
Florence & Some Tuscan Cities Painted and Described - Fruit and Vegetable Stalls, Pisa (1905)
Naples, Painted and Described - (1904)
Malta, Painted and Described - A Maltese Road under the Walls of Valletta (1910)
Lamia's Winter-Quarters - (1907)
The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described - (1912)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Book Display (1815)
Florence & Some Tuscan Cities Painted and Described - Piazza S. Firenze, Florence (1905)
Naples, Painted and Described - (1904)
Lamia's Winter-Quarters - (1907)
Pompeii, Painted and Described - The Temple of Fortuna Augusta (1910)
Memoir Descriptive of the Resources, Inhabitants, and Hydrography, of Sicily - The Cadavery near Palermo (1824)
Naples, Painted and Described - (1904)
A Wanderer in Venice - The Rio Torreselle and Back of the Palazzo Dario (1914)
A Select Collection of Views and Ruins in Rome - The Arch of Dolabella (1815)
Saracenic and Norman Remains - (1840)
Florence & Some Tuscan Cities Painted and Described - Study of Mule, with Decorated Harness (1905)
Greece Painted and Described - Front Cover (1906)
The Salonika Front - Mount Hortjac from the Gulf of Therma (1920)
Pompei - View 23 (1840)
Pompeii, Painted and Described - In the Triangular Forum (1910)
Picturesque Tour from Geneva to Milan - View from Stresa of the Beautiful Island (1820)
Saracenic and Norman Remains - (1840)
An Artist in the Riviera - Front Cover (1915)
Views in Greece - Title Page (1821)
A Select Collection of Views and Ruins in Rome - Temple of Antonius and Faustina (1815)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - Ruins of Methana in Argolis (1834)
Views in Greece - Temple of Apollo Epicurius (1821)
The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described - (1912)
An Artist in the Riviera - Via deglo Speddale, Noli (1915)
Six Views of Gibraltar - Gibraltar. Governor's Cottage, Europa (1828)
Naples, Painted and Described - (1904)
Grecian Remains in Italy - Lake of Giuliano (1812)
The Riviera Painted & Described - On the Shore, Sori (1907)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - The Rock of Mauga, Isaurian Mountains in the Distance (Sunrise) (1879)
An Artist in Corfu - Almond Blossom, St. Michaele (1911)
Pompei - View 22 (1840)
Greece Painted and Described - The Portico of Athena Archegetis (1906)
Greece Painted and Described - The Laconian Gate of Messene (1906)
Pompei - View 24 (1840)
Florence & Some Tuscan Cities Painted and Described - West Front of the Cathedral of Prato (1905)
An Artist in Corfu - Winter Day on the Lagoon (1911)
Greece Painted and Described - The Temple of Theseus from the North-West (1906)
Malta, Painted and Described - After Sunset at the Capuchin Convent, Floriana (1910)
A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 2 - View of Castiglione from Villa Franca (1815)
Naples, Painted and Described - (1904)
Le Jupiter Olympien - Front Cover (1815)
Naples, Painted and Described - (1904)
Sicily, Painted and Described - Temple of Segesta (1911)
A Select Collection of Views and Ruins in Rome - Temple of the God Rediculus (1815)
The Riviera Painted & Described - On the Shores near Carqueiranne (1907)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - Ruins at Gyphto Castro Eleutherai (1834)
The Riviera Painted & Described - The "Cavetto di S. Michele," near Rapallo (1907)
The Riviera Painted & Described - The Vegetable Market, Nice, looking West (1907)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - Ruins at Delphi in Phocis (1834)
Greece Painted and Described - The Acropolis from the base of the Philopappus Hill (1906)
Sicily, Painted and Described - Porta Spada, Monte San Giuliano (1911)
The Riviera Painted & Described - Monte Carlo from the East (1907)
Select Views of the Rock and Fortress of Gibraltar - Southport and Prince Edward's Gates (1846)
Pompei - View 2 (1840)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Plan of the Barracks, Theatres &c, of Pompeii (1815)

Related Maps

Map Name
Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic - Outlines of the Coast of the Adriatic from Istria to Albania (1849)
Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic - Plan of Spalato (1849)
A Tour Through Sicily - Sicily Reduced from a Map Published by Authority at Naples in the Year 1810 (1819)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Map of the Country, Islands, &c in the Vicinity of Naples (1815)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Map of the Island of Capri in the Gulf of Naples (1815)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 - Map of Greece and the Archipelago (1820)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 - Map of the Countries on the East Coast of the Mediterranean Sea (1820)
Rambles in the Islands of Corsica and Sardinia - Corsica and Sardinia (1861)
A Pilgrimage to Italy - Italy (1899)
Cyprus: It's Resources and Capabilities - Cypres by E. G. Ravenstein (1878)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - A Sketch Map to Illustrate Revd E. J. Davis' Journey's in Cilicia &c. (1879)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - Map of Asia Minor Shewing the District Visited by Revd E. J. Davis (1879)

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